hidrologia by xiangpeng

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									     A HIDROSFERA

Dr. Francisco Sergio
Bernardes Ladeira
O CICLO HIDROLÓGICO
    Dendritic Drainage Pattern




e.g. flat-laying or homogeneous rocks   Figure 14.20
Rectangular Drainage Pattern




e.g. jointed or faulted rocks   Figure 14.20
        Trellis Drainage Pattern




e.g. folded layered rocks          Figure 14.20
        Radial Drainage Pattern




e.g. volcano or dome              Figure 14.20
 Waterfall formed
       by
headward erosion




         Figure 14.6
Meandering River in Alaska




 Point Bar   Meandering channel Figure 14.9
Braided River in Alaska




          Braided channels   Figure 14.9b
Meandering Streams




                     Figure 14.9
…eventually results in meander cutoffs
 and the formation of oxbow lakes.



    Point Bars

                        Meander Cutoff




     Oxbow Lake
                                 Figure 14.9
Meanders in the Mississippi River delta




                                 Figure 14.9
           Porosity
The percent void space in a
    rock or sediment.

It is a measure of the potential
  volume of water that can be
        stored in a rock.
         Permeability
 The ability of a material to
      transmit a fluid.

 It is a measure of how fast the
fluid can travel through the rock
           or sediment
 Porosity
 varies with

% Cement


Sorting


Fracturing

          Figure 13.7
Porosity Varies with % Cement




                           Figure 13.7
Porosity Varies with Sorting




                           Figure 13.7
    Porosity Varies with Fracturing
MORE POROUS                 LESS POROUS
  Fractured Shale       Unfractured Shale




                                  Figure 13.7
  Unconfined Aquifer



   Unsaturated Zone:
Pores include both air and water

  Groundwater Table

    Saturated Zone:
    Pores filled with water



                     Figure 13.8
Formation of a Cone of Depression




                              Figure 13.12
Fissures and depressions
        caused by
   ground subsidence
   due to overpumping
     of groundwater




                Figure 13.13
Some Major Features of a Karst Landscape




                                  Figure 13.19
The Winter Park Sinkhole, Florida




                               Figure 13.18
       Dynamics of the
Saltwater - Fresh Water Interface




                               Figure 13.14
Some Human Activities that Can
  Contaminate Groundwater




                             Figure 13.20
Building a Floodplain, One Flood at a Time

                         Low Natural Levee




                                    Figure 14.10
Building a Floodplain, One Flood at a Time

                  Overbank flow results in the
                   flooding of the floodplain




                      Decreased flow velocity
                      results in deposition of
                       suspended sediment
                                     Figure 14.10
Building a Floodplain, One Flood at a Time




                                  Figure 14.10
Life on the Floodplain!




                          Box 14.1

								
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