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					Consent Form #1
                                             UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI
                                   CONSENT TO ACT AS A HUMAN SUBJECT


Subject’s name:                                                                               Date:

Project title:
“The effect of concentric and eccentric contractions of the quadriceps femoris on electromyography,
          mechanomyography and muscle strength”

Description and explanation of procedures:
           You are invited to participate in a research study investigating the effects of muscle shortening (concentric)
and muscle lengthening (eccentric) contractions on the electrical activity of a muscle (electromyography), muscular
vibrations (mechanomyography) and muscle strength. Procedures will be conducted in the Laboratory of Applied
Physiology at USM and also in the Physical Therapy Department at Wesley Medical Center. The requirements for
participation as a subject are as follows:
     1.      Between 18 and 35 years of age
     2.      Have not used illicit intravenous drugs at any time
     3.      Have not consumed on average more than a total of three alcoholic drinks per week in the previous 6
             months
     4.      Have not used androgenic anabolic steroids at any time
     5.      Are not pregnant, or planning to conceive, during the study
     6.      Are not taking ergogenic supplements
     7.      Do not have medically diagnosed stage 1 hypertension.

           Approximately 12 subjects are being recruited for participation in this study and representation from all racial
and/or ethnic groups, of both genders will be encouraged.
           After reading this informed consent it will also be read to you by either the principle investigator or a
research assistant. At that time any of your questions or concerns will be addressed by either or both of these
individuals. Once written informed consent is provided, you will complete a medical history questionnaire, be
measured for height, weight, and blood pressure. If your systolic blood pressure is greater than 135 or your diastolic
blood pressure is greater than 85 you will be excluded from the study. After these measures are obtained you will
perform an isokinetic (constant speed of contraction) exercise test of the quadriceps femoris muscle (thigh) of the
dominant leg (the leg you would feel most comfortable with when kicking a ball). This test will be performed on a
Cybex isokinetic dynamometer, which is frequently used in testing and rehabilitation facilities. The strength of the
quadriceps femoris (thigh) will be measured on 4 occasions (2 occasions in the Laboratory of Applied Physiology at
USM and two occasions in the Physical Therapy Department at Wesley Medical Center.) You will be required to
provide you own transportation to the testing sessions. Each testing sessions will be separated by at least 24 hours but
not more than 72 hours. Thus, the number of days needed to complete all four testing sessions could range from 7-10
days. Your skin will be abraded lightly at three locations on your thigh and on the front of your hip bone. The skin will
be abraded at these sites at each (4) testing session. Abrasion of the skin will feel much like being scraped with fine
sandpaper. There may be a slight stinging sensation. Electrodes will then be taped to the abraded areas. Wires from
electrodes are hooked to a device which measures the electrical activity of your thigh muscles while you are being
tested on the Cybex II. In addition, a small microphone will be placed on the thigh in between the electrodes to
measure the vibrations produced by the contracting muscles. You will be asked to provide a series of stretching and
submaximal contractions to warm-up your muscles. After you have warmed up, strength testing will require you to
perform three maximal repetitions of flexion and extension movements at the knee (much like kicking a ball) at each
velocity of 30, 90, 150, 210, 270, and 330. s-1 for both concentric (muscle shortening) and eccentric (muscle
lengthening) contraction. Resistance that you are working against is held constant and as a result the harder you work
the greater the force output. You will need to work as hard as possible on each repetition as this is a maximal test.

          The following is an outline of the protocol:

          Day 1               Strength testing in the laboratory of applied physiology.

          Day 2               Strength testing in the laboratory of applied physiology.

          Day 3               Strength testing in the physical therapy department at Wesley Medical Center

          Day 4               Strength testing in the physical therapy department at Wesley Medical Center
                    Time commitment is approximately 1hour/day. Approximate total time required is 4 hours.


                                                                        Subject Initials


Risks and discomforts:
         With any exercise there are potential health risks, however, measures will be taken to minimize these risks.
Some of the possible risks from participation in this study include:
                   1.         Abnormal heart responses to the exercise.
                   2.         Muscle soreness or muscle pulls resulting from the exercise.
                   3.         Dizziness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, heart attack, stroke or death due to performing
                              physical exercise.
                   4.         Temporary elevation of blood pressure
                   5.         Infection or soreness from skin abrasions.


          Some of the measures taken to prevent or minimize the occurrence of health risks include:
                   1.       All researchers and assistants are trained in CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation).
                   2.       The skin will be swabbed with alcohol at the sites where skin is to be abraded.
                   3.       Subjects will be informed on proper breathing techniques in order to minimize the
                            elevation of blood pressure.
                   4.       A proper warm-up and cool-down protocol will be administered in order to prevent
                            muscle soreness or muscle pulls.

If you are a woman of child bearing potential:
          You are asked to take care to prevent pregnancy if you are a sexually active female of childbearing age. You
may not enter the study if you are pregnant, or planning to conceive during the study. You must sign the following
statement indicating voluntary intent not to become pregnant during the study. If you become pregnant, or suspect that
you may be pregnant, you agree to inform the investigator as soon as possible.

                   VOLUNTARY STATEMENT TO AVOID PREGNANCY (WOMEN ONLY)

I,                                                                     (print name), understand the above statements
regarding pregnancy. I agree to attempt to avoid pregnancy while I am taking part in the study. Should I engage in
sexual relations during the study, I will employ a contraceptive method approved by my physician (e.g., condom,
diaphragm…). I will immediately contact Dr. Evetovich if I suspect that I am pregnant.


Participant’s Signature                            Date                 Witness’ signature            Date

          As an additional safety measure, it is also recommended that before this or any exercise or health program,
participants should consult a physician.

           The University of Southern Mississippi has no mechanism to provide you compensation if you incur injuries
as a result of participation in this research project. However, efforts will be made to make available the facilities and
professional skills of the research staff. Dr. Tammy Evetovich, the primary investigator, will be on call at all times
should a research-related injury or illness occur. Should you experience such a problem, please call Dr. Evetovich at
601-266-6223 (office) 601-271-8408 (home). In the event that it is determined that you need the attention of a
physician, you will be referred to either your personal physician, the physicians at the U.S.M. clinic or one of the local
emergency rooms. Any of these physicians will be available to you but there will be a fee involved in use of their
services.

Potential benefits:
          It is hoped that this research project might provide insight into the potential for electromyography and
mechanomyography to be viewed as reliable assessment tools for clinicians and physiologists in diagnosing muscle
diseases, determining muscle fiber types, and examining muscle fiber recruitment patterns. In addition, this research
will provide the researchers with reliability data in order to ensure the accuracy of their instrumentation. Finally, the
testing will result in the determination of your muscle strength. The implications of your scores with respect to optimal
sports performance and training will be discussed with you individually.
                                                                      Subjects Initials




Consent:
          Information about the procedures described above and the possible risks and benefits of the project have been
explained. Whereas no assurance can be made concerning results that may be obtained, the researcher will take every
precaution consistent with the best scientific practice. Questions concerning the research should be directed to Dr.
Tammy Evetovich (601)266-6223 (office) or 601-271-8408 (home). This project and this consent form have been
reviewed by the Human Subjects Protection Review Committee, which ensures that research projects involving human
subjects follow federal regulations. Any questions or concerns about rights as a research subject should be directed to
the Director of Research and Sponsored Programs, University of Southern Mississippi, Box 5157, Hattiesburg, MS
39406, 601-266-4119.
          Participation in this project is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw at any time without penalty
or prejudice, or loss of benefits. In addition, all personal information is strictly confidential and no names will be
disclosed. During the course of the study, your information will be identified by a letter-number combination. Any
new information that might develop during the course of the project will be provided to you if that information might
affect your willingness to participate in the project.

         Consent to participate in this project is hereby given by the undersigned. A copy of this form has been
given to me.



Date                          Signature of Subject



Date                          Signature of Researcher explaining the study



Date                          Signature of Witness
Consent Form #2
                         Submaximal Informed Consent
I will perform a submaximal exercise test on a stationary cycle ergometer, a motor
driven treadmill, or a step box. The exercise intensity will begin at a level I can
easily accomplish and will be advanced depending on my exercise capability. I
understand that the exercise I will be asked to perform will be considered
moderate in difficulty. The testing personnel may stop the test at any time
because of signs of fatigue or symptoms that may not be considered normal.
However, I understand that I may stop exercise whenever I wish because of
feelings of fatigue or discomfort.

I understand that there exists the possibility of certain physical changes occurring
during the test, some of which may be potentially harmful. They include
abnormal blood pressure, fainting, disorders of heart beat, and in rare instances
heart attack. Every effort will be made to minimize the occurrence of these
problems. Emergency equipment and trained personnel are available to deal with
unusual situations which may arise

The results obtained from the exercise test will mainly be used to provide me with
information about my physical fitness, cardiorespiratory endurance, the amount of
physical activity that is safe for me and that will help improve my fitness.

I have had the opportunity to ask questions about the procedures used in the
submaximal exercise test. Questions that I have asked (if any) have been
answered to my satisfaction. If I have any doubts or questions, I will ask for
further explanations.

The information which is obtained will be treated as privileged and confidential
and will not be released or revealed to any person without an expressed written
consent. The information obtained, however, may be used for statistical analysis
or scientific purposes with my right of privacy retained.

My permission to perform this submaximal exercise test is given voluntarily. I
understand that I am free to deny consent if I so desire.

I have read this form and I understand the test procedures that I will perform. By
my signature, I give my consent to participate in this test.


                                              Signature of Participant


                                              Signature of Witness


                                              Date
Consent Form #3
                           Maximal Informed Consent
I understand that I will perform a graded exercise test on a motor driven treadmill.
The exercise intensity will begin at a level I can easily accomplish and will be
advanced depending upon my ability to continue. The testing personnel may stop
the test at any time because of signs of fatigue or symptoms that may not be
considered normal, or I may stop when I wish because of feelings of fatigue or
discomfort. I need not exercise at a level which is extremely uncomfortable for
me; however, I recognize that for maximum benefit from this test, I need to
exercise as long as possible.

I understand that there exists the possibility of certain abnormal and potentially
harmful physical changes occurring during the test. They include abnormal blood
pressure, fainting, disorders of heart beat, and in rare instances heart attack.
Every effort will be made to protect me from having harmful problems through
preliminary examinations and through close observation by trained personnel.
Emergency equipment and trained personnel are available to deal with unusual
situations which may arise

The results obtained from the exercise test will mainly be used to provide me with
information about my physical fitness, cardiorespiratory endurance, the amount of
physical activity that is safe for me and may assist in the diagnosis of an illness.

I have been encouraged to ask questions about the procedures used in the graded
exercise test. Questions that I have asked (if any) have been answered to my
satisfaction. If I have any doubts or questions, I will ask for further explanations.

The information which is obtained will be treated as privileged and confidential
and will not be released or revealed to any person without an expressed written
consent. The information obtained, however, may be used for statistical analysis
or scientific purposes with my right of privacy retained.

My permission to perform this graded exercise test is given voluntarily. I
understand that I am free to deny consent if I so desire.

I have read this form and I understand the test procedures that I will perform. By
my signature, I give my consent to participate in this test.


                                              Signature of Participant


                                              Signature of Witness


                                              Date