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					                                                          Central Vancouver Island
                                                          Orchid Society Newsletter
                                                                 April 2005
                                                       President: Gary Forbes 729-0093
                                                       Secretary: Pam Wiens 468-1646
                                                       Editor: Mike Miller 248-3478
                                                       Mailing address: P.O. Box 1061,
                                                                         Nanaimo, B.C.
                                                                         V9R 5Z2
                                                       email: mike.stellamiller@shaw.ca

                                                       Meetings are held September through June on the
                                                       Saturday before the 4th Wednesday of each month at
                                                       the Community Services Building, 285 Prideaux
                                                       Street, Nanaimo, in the Maffeo Auditorium, doors
                                                       open at 11:30, with the business meeting starting at
            Cattleya eldorado, Photo A.A. Chadwick     12:00 noon.

     Coming Meeting Dates:
                                          April 23 rd, May 21 st, June 18 th,
                                          th            nd                 th     th
                            September 24 , October 22 , November 19 , December 10


     Program for April 23rd

                                  Cattleyas and Laelias
                                                     With Ken Girard



     Coming Events:
            CVIOS AOS Show & Sale, Country Club Centre, April 15 th - 17th 2005
            Vancouver Orchid Society Show and Sale, Richmond Winter Club, May 5th – 8th , 2005
            CVIOS Picnic July or August TBA

     Editorial:
             Spring is in the air with the hummingbirds and swallows back on the island in ever increasing
     numbers. Lots of none orchids are popping up all around. The native orchids are starting to show their
     green tips and will soon be sending up their wonderful flowers. The email edition of this newsletter
     will be coming out the week of our show so I hope to see most of you down in the Mall having a great
     time. Remember your sign up times and come early and enjoy the flowers.
             I have include an article on Cinnamon because there was some discussion about it during the
     panel discussion and thought some of you may not have understood its use. The article on the shade
     house is from Australia and I would put the fiberglass roof on it to keep those heavy summer rains off
     when they come. I think a little slant to the roof would also be a needed change as the snows in the
     winter might be too heavy to be supported by the 2 x 4 studs. I used to have a nice lathe house that




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     summered some of my cooler growing plants in but I never had the insect proofing of this model. I just
     might have to build another one.
            We will be looking for a volunteer to host the summer picnic very soon so please give it a
     thought. They are always a lot of fun.
            Next month we will start looking for officers and directors to lead the society in the next year.
     Please give it a thought. It is always nice to have a new face and some new input to our deliberations.
                                                                                                 Cheers Mike

                                        MINUTES
                         CENTRAL VANCOUVER ISLAND ORCHID SOCIETY
                              GENERAL MEETING MARCH 19, 2005

     Meeting called to order at 12:00 with 47 in attendance, including 2 new members and 3 visitors from
     Saskatchewan and Ontario.

     Minutes of the previous meeting adopted, moved by Dora, seconded by Conrad.

     Treasurer’s Report - accepted, moved by Harry, seconded by Sue.

     President Gary Forbes mentioned the note of appreciation sent by Ingrid Ostrander regarding the club’s
     participation in the recent Victoria orchid show. He also mentioned the “Seedy Sunday” and the
     possibility of the club participating in the future. He then called upon Sue Christison to bring the
     membership up to date on plans for our up-coming show April 15 to 17. Set up for the show is
     happening Thursday evening 6:00 to approximately 9:30, but plants for display or sale will also be
     accepted for the first hour on Friday morning, ribbon judging will commence at 10:00. Plant sales will
     be open Friday evening, Saturday and Sunday and Sue passed around the sign-up sheet for members to
     volunteer for the various help required, including assistance with ribbon judging, which Conrad will be
     organizing, as well as security and public relations.

     Secretary’ report – Pam was absent from the meeting.

     Membership report – Ralph reminded members to pick up membership cards if they have not yet done
     so.
     Library report – Michael has a cold.

     Programs – Kees announced next month’s program will feature an AOS judge who will speak on
     cattleyas and laelias. May’s speaker will be from Miranda nursery in Florida (members wishing to
     order plants can do so on his web-site and he will bring them to the meeting).

     Shows - Harry Johnson spoke briefly about the Victoria show and then discussed the set-up for our
     show, requesting that plants for display be brought to the mall by 6:00 Thursday evening and explained
     the paper work required.
     Gary mentioned the Vancouver show which will be May 5 and the fact that Harry will be unable to
     take the club display, asking for anyone who can help to contact him.

     Newsletter - Mike discussed some delivery difficulties with the newsletter, and the order forms for
     Fransisco Miranda, as well as the Floralia order which is due today. He has received a letter from the
     broker regarding the Philippine plant order claim, suggesting the most that can be recovered will be
     approximately $600.00. He also showed the three Bletilla Orchids, which are now available in local
     garden centres.




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     Kees commended Mike on the excellent newsletter presentation that is now being e-mailed to
     members.
     New Business - Gary pointed out a photo by Jerry Suffolk in the February edition of the AOS
     magazine.

     The show table discussion by Kees, assisted by Vicki followed the business portion of the meeting.

     Following the coffee/social break, the program for the meeting consisted of a panel of Conrad, Mike
     and Sue discussing member’s questions and problems.

     Meeting concluded at 2:30.


     VOLUNTEERS NEEDED FOR TRANSPORT AND SET-UP OF SHOW TABLE
                        IN VANCOUVER

     We are looking for one or more volunteers to transport and set-up as well as dismantle and bring back
     plants and material for a show table at the Vancouver Orchid Society show in Richmond scheduled for
     May 5 th through the 8th. Conceivably the task could be divided between as many as four, two to take
     the display over and set it up with another two to take it down and bring it back. Access to a van would
     be ideal but the club will entertain the rental of a van if need be. There should be at least one person
     involved in the set-up who is familiar with the registration process. Persons interested in volunteering
     please contact Gary Forbes at 729-0093 or via e-mail foggy123@shaw.ca at you earliest convenience.
     If you are interested but would like to know more about what is involved, please contact Harry Johnson
     at 751-2381.




     Member supplying goodies to the April meeting:

     Bob Iddon, Rosalie McAllister, Laurie Forbes, Maureen Hawthorn


          *****************************************************************************



                                         Orchid Plant Sale
                           th
     Saturday May 28 and Sunday May 29th 10 am to 4pm each day
     To be held at Conrad Thomas’s Home (3880 Telegraph Road, Cobble Hill)
     Three vendors, Kees Groot, Jeannette and Hilding Franson, Conrad Thomas
                                       Species and Hybrids.
                                    Help us reduce our collections




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                                     Laelia perrinii Batem
                                       By Peter Taylor of Baulkham Hills

             This beautiful species was introduced to orchid enthusiasts from the extensive collection of Mr.
     Harrison of Liverpool and was described by Lindley in the Botanical Register for 1838. It was named
     after Mr. Harrison's gardener, a Mr. Perrin, who tended the collection of South American species of his
     employer.
             Laelia perrinii belongs to the Cattleyodes section of the genus. Laelia species in the section are
     robust plants resembling Cattleya - however, they have that distinguishing feature that clearly marks
     the genus Laelia, 8 pollina rather than the 4 of Cattleya. Some other desirable species in the section of
     Laelia are Laelia purpurata, Laelia lobata and Laelia tenebrosa, all spectacular and of relatively easy
     culture. They should have a proud place in all species collections.
             The flowers of Laelia perrinii have distinct features, which easily identify the species in its
     section. The petals are very flat and are a little wider towards the tips. This feature can be easily seen
     in the accompanying illustration. The lip is wonderful - while narrow in proportion to the other floral
     segments it is of beautiful colour. The front portion is an intense crimson-purple and this confronts
     strikingly with the white throat. The column of this species is also distinctive.




                                     Laelia perrinii Photo by Peter Taylor

             Laelia perrinii is a Brazilian species, rather widespread in the states of Rio de Janerio and
     Espirito Santo. It favours for its habitat the trees on rocky slopes of the tropical rainforest and also on
     rock ledges. It requires good light, particularly in winter and excellent air circulation to grow and
     flower well (this is required all by Laelia species in general and particularly those of the Cattleyodes
     section).
             There are a number of named varieties of Laelia perrinii. One of the first collected by the firm
     of Sanders in England was Laelia perinnii var. alba, a pure white variety, much desired and rarely




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     available today. Delicate pale grey-blue with a darker band on the lip is seen on Laelia perinnii var.
     coerulea and Laelia perinnii var. concolor has a lovely pale pink colour.
              I grow this species, Laelia perinnii, in my glasshouse with a winter minimum of l2°C. I have
     tried mounting plants on cork slabs and on tree fern with poor results. Best growth is obtained when
     plants are potted in an open, free-draining mix. Watering in winter needs to be watched carefully as
     plants do not respond to over watering in cool weather. Bright light, especially winter light induces, in
     my experience, better pigmentation in the flowers.
              Unfortunately, the excellent clone pictured is not mine. It is a plant belonging to George Bazil
     of the SPECIES Society in Sydney. George also grows Laelia purpurata to perfection.
              I wonder why Lindley chose the name 'Laelia' for this genus of Orchids? Perhaps because the
     name was often used by the Roman patrician family Laelius for girls born to the wealthy and influential
     members of that family. Certainly Laelia perinnii is a distinguished member of the Orchid family and
     has all the grace and beauty of an upper-class Roman noble woman.
                                          From Orchids Australia, April 2004

                     Cinnamon Bark as an Antimicrobial
                                      by Eduardo J. Firpo, Ph. D. Biology

            Special thanks to Willis Dair for creating and maintaining the OLD[*] and to all the OLDers
     who contributed to this article with their personal observations. By no means is the compiled material
     intended to be used as a judgment on other people’s practices. It has the only objective of pointing out
     the challenges every orchid grower has to face and the different solutions they are able to develop to
     grow and blooms their orchids.

     Introduction
             An OLD thread on the bactericidal/fungicidal properties of cinnamon bark was the result of a
     chemical residue remaining after it was processed, started with this entry made by Kevin N.
     Ledgewood on July 15, 1997: "I have used cinnamon as a treatment for fungus/bacterial infections on
     the leaves of my orchids. Is the anti-infectious nature of cinnamon naturally occurring or is this due to
     chemical residues remaining after spraying of the plant?1"
             A total of three responses were received in OLD in relation to this question, the last one on
     August 20, 1997. After contacting all the OLDers involved in this subject by private email and kindly
     providing me with more interesting data, I decided to put all that information together in the format of
     an article. This compilation shows some basic knowledge on why cinnamon, essentially the same stuff
     employed as a topping for baked goods and to give a touch of special flavour in coffee, can also be
     employed in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in plants.

     Cinnamon bark: How He Does It?
             Aaron J. Hicks, Director of the Orchid Seedbank Project, in Socorro, New Mexico (USA),
     responded to Ledgewood's question as follows:
             "As best I know, cactiphiles were the ones that 'invented' cinnamon rehabilitation therapy.
     Many cacti do not do well outside of dry, hot, arid environments, and will rot with little provocation.
     So, when rotted, someone figured they would dust the wounds with powdered cinnamon.
             Many organic compounds have some bacteriostatic effects when used as crude products. If we
     look at a 'bland' orchid medium like sphagnum, we find it has antimicrobial properties. So, when
     someone says that "xyz" medium has antimicrobial properties, we have to understand that almost any
     commonly used orchid mix will tend to inhibit growth of many types of organisms.
             It's unclear as to whether cinnamon serves to inhibit growth of undesirable organisms through
     chemical means (but it is bark extract, after all, and bark tends to be full of tannins and all kinds of
     hostile chemical compounds), or through dessication action or, at least, as a clotting factor, much like a
     styptic pencil.2"




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             Aaron suggested an experiment to evaluate if the presence of tannins is implicated in the
     antiinfectious properties of the cinnamon bark. "It would be interesting to see if powdered bark from
     trees with large tannin concentrations -oaks, in particular- have similar effects, and contrast this with
     powder dessicating agents -like talc, neutral enough as a geochemical- and titanium dioxide -absolutely
     chemically inert, for our purposes here. I suspect there is a little of each going on, but I am unable to
     provide literature or similar citations to back up this theory.2"
             The next response came from Prof. Robin L. Garrell, Department of Chemistry and
     Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles (USA). She contributed to OLD with a list of
     scientific publications citing several studies performed during the last five years on cinnamon bark and
     on compounds extracted from it which inhibited bacterial and fungal growth 3. Although the listing did
     not mention any direct work evaluating the use of cinnamon for the treatment of orchid infestations, it
     does includes several works describing the isolation of different fungal and bacterial growth inhibitors
     isolated from cinnamon bark, the presence of antiulcerogenic compounds and evaluation on the effect
     of cinnamon bark oil abuse by adolescents.
             To find out how cinnamon bark works in controlling certain plant diseases let's take a close
     look at what Brian Hench, member of the Northwest Orchid Society from Seattle, Washington (USA),
     has to say about it:
             "Plants produce a huge variety of chemicals that they use to defend themselves from attack by
     microbes, fungi and animals. In the case of cinnamon, the active component is trans-cinnamaldehyde.
     This volatile compound also happens to be the one responsible for the odor of cinnamon. Being an
     aldehyde, it is chemically reactive. In fact, tests show that it does inhibit the growth of bacteria. That
     is not to say that the tannins don't contribute as well. Tannins are polyphenolic compounds that have
     been shown to cause bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans -an oral bacterium-, to aggregate (or clot)
     in vitro. Aggregation may serve to immobilize the bacteria and make them less effective.
             One of the disadvantages of the tannins is their insolubility. Their role in tree bark is a passive
     one, since they cannot migrate to the site of infection. Smaller molecules, such as tran-
     cinnamaldehyde, can. Many crude extracts have high enough concentrations to be quite active. Salicin
     extracted from willow bark has been used in folk medicine for treating fevers. It is a close relative of
     aspirin. In neem oil, as another example, one of the most active antibacterial compounds is
     azadirachtin, which falls into the class of aziranes, cyclic amines whose ring strain gives them a high
     degree of reactivity (mustard gas is an azirane). Neem is an extremely complex source of chemicals.
             Some of these chemicals mimic sex hormones of insects and serve to repel insects from the tree,
     or to prevent them from maturing so that they cannot reproduce. It is interesting to note that different
     useful chemicals are found in various parts of the tree, such as leaves, wood, flowers, bark, etc.4"
             Brian's expertise in the area of antimicrobial compounds from plants involves "... developing
     methods for chemical analysis, mostly using the technique called High Pressure Liquid
     Chromatography (or HPLC). The discussion of cinnamon seemed particularly relevant to my current
     work on naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds. Also, I did some undergraduate research on
     trans-cinnamaldehyde derivatives.6"

     Discussion
              Kevin N. Ledgewood's original entry reflected his concerns regarding the possibility that the
     fungal/bactericidal properties of cinnamon were the result of a chemical residue remaining after it was
     processed. Following a conversation with the director of the University of Alabama Arboretum, May
     Jo Modica, who also expressed her concerns in this matter, he decided to post the question in OLD.
     None of the responses he received claimed any knowledge about the presence of a chemical residue on
     cinnamon bark or a by-product of its degradation as the factor responsible for its antimicrobial action.5
     In this regard, Brian Hench indicated that "The chemical responsible for the antimicrobial action and
     the aroma or flavor of cinnamon are one and the same. Degradation of cinnamaldehyde occurs by
     oxidation to cinnamic acid which is inactive and has a different and less noticeable odor. The acid
     would stay in the pot.6




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              Traditional Chinese medicines have incorporated cinnamon bark as a folk remedy for the
     treatment of many human illnesses for centuries. The scientific literature cited by Prof. Garrell on the
     antimicrobial properties of several substances present in cinnamon bark supports the idea of its curative
     properties. Interestingly, the list also includes a work describing the isolation from cinnamon bark of
     the first inhibitor of endotoxin (the toxic portion of certain bacteria) from plants.

     Conclusion
     Brian Hench condensed in one sentence why cinnamon bark can be employed as an antimicrobial: "I
     think the cinnamon idea is a great one, it is cheap, safe, effective, and it smells nice too!"

     References
     OLD:
     1. Kevin N. Ledgewood, vl081, #15383;
     2. Aaron J. Hicks, v1084, #15438;
     3. Robin Garrell, v1088, #15537;
     4. Brian Hench and Family, v1093, #15643. Private email:
     5. Kevin N. Ledgewoods, 15/07/97;
     6. Brian Hench and Family, 06/1 0/97.

     Comments? efirpo@fred.fhcrc.org Eduardo J. Firpo, Bothwell, WA. USA

     [*] For a description of this and other orchid chat sites in the Internet, see: "Orchids Online" by Greg
     Allikas, in the AOS magazine Orchids, January 1997, p. 32-38.

     OSP is a new program in the effort to conserve, disseminate and propagate orchid species. For those
     interested in getting the latest update of OSP Orchid Species Checklist, please contact Aaron Hicks by
     email at<ahicks@rt66.com> or by mail at asp, P.O. Box 1873, Socorro, NM 87801, USA.

                                             Orchids Australia, April 1998

          *****************************************************************************
                        Building That New Orchid House
                                       By Ron Boyd of New South Wales

             There are many types of kits, shade or glasshouse, on the market, but I never seemed to be able
     to find the size and shape that suited me, so I built my own. This gave me the flexibility to do it my
     own way.
             Building that new orchid house may not be as difficult as it may at first seem. I am only a self
     taught handyman, but I have built five orchid houses or five shade houses over the years, three at my
     previous home.
             When I moved to my present home I decided to build another two orchid houses and start
     growing orchids again. Remember the old saying, "Build it three times bigger than what you think you
     might need. " I never do!
             Unfortunately I am limited to this size since I have now moved my wife's clothes line for the
     last time; funny how you seem to always put it in the sunniest spot. Next time I move it my goose is
     cooked and I move with it. (She, who must be obeyed, must be kept happy!)




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            I have always kept to a basic building design of an elongated box shape, mainly to suit the local
     council regulations of having a maximum height of 2.4m. Check the regulations with your local
     council before you start building.




     Framework of the shadehouse is completed. Close up of the corner joins of the shadehouse.
             A peak or "A" frame type houses may be better, but they are harder to build and to keep below
     the 2.4m height limit.
             This one is for my small cymbidium collection; it is 3m by 5m by 2Am high. Due to the strong
     winds which we get here on the coast, I bolted the main frame with galvanized bolts for extra strength.
     All joins are just butt joins, thus saving a lot of extra cutting and they also make for a much stronger
     join when using pine. (See photo No.1) Treated pine is used to stop wood rot and is claimed to last
     forever.
             The door is a second hand fly screen door, which I picked up at the local recycle depot for $5;
     the flywire has been replaced with shade cloth. This is also fitted very tightly to prevent snails and
     bugs from entering. Always remember, prevention is better than trying to get rid of them later.
             The main frame is built out of 3m long by 100mm round treated pine logs; their ends being
     buried 60cm deep in the ground. The rest of the frame is 8 x 5cm treated pine. The shelves are
     galvanized weldmesh 1.2m wide on 8 x 5cm treated pine, supported with the bench's legs being
     cemented into the ground for extra strength. (See photo No.2, for frame set-up.)
             The walkway is only 60cm wide, but enough for me to move around and work quite easily. On
     the floor I placed decomposed granite gravel, which contained bits of clay. This packs down nice and
     hard and soaks up the water; helping to keep up a bit of humidity in the hot summer weather.
             Above the benches, underneath the roofing
     timber I have nailed long strips of chicken wire. This
     will come in handy when the flower spikes emerge; I
     will be able to hang the Yo Yos (spike supports) from
     this and so be able to support and straighten the
     emerging cymbidium flower spikes.
             The shade cloth I have used is 50% green. I
     have secured it to the main frame by using galvanized
     nails and timber slats. It has been made as secure as
     possible to avoid snails, grasshoppers and other pests
     from entering and having a free lunch on my orchids,
     especially the new, emerging flower spikes.
             Around the bottom edge I nailed pieces of 15cm
     by 2.5cm treated pine to the bottom of the posts. These
     were buried half way into the gravel. When the shade




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     cloth was fixed to it, it gave complete protection against snails, etc. from entering.
             I find that this little bit of extra work soon pays off as you will rarely find these types of pests
     getting into your shadehouse. (See photo No.3, the finished
     product.)                                                           Inside of the finished shadehouse
             The open weave of the shade cloth will allow
     fresh air to enter and circulate around the orchids on the open weldmesh benches, thus avoiding fungus
     problems.
             As I live in a frost free, coastal area, at the moment I do not need to build in the sides with
     fibreglass sheeting. I will, at a later date, place fibreglass on the roof to help protect the orchid flowers
     from rain water dripping on them. If you live in a cooler area you could easily put sheets of fibreglass
     on all walls to keep the plants warmer in winter.
             Later on I will also put in a gutter and rainwater tank to collect the run off. I find that if you can
     save and use rain water it is a great boost to the plants. This will also cut down on the need for town
     water, which may be OK in your area, but check its pH level with your local council.
             I am sure that if you could not build this type of shadehouse for your orchids alone, then
     someone in your orchid club may be able to help. I reckon that two people could easily put it up in a
     weekend and still have time for a late Sunday evening barbeque. Maybe a club get together could help
     you celebrate your new orchid house.

                                            Orchids Australia, December 2004
           *****************************************************************************

                         A GRIPP ON GROWING
              Tips for Selecting a Beginning Orchid Collection
                                                     Paul Gripp

               As people begin to fancy orchids, one of the most enjoyable phases of their new hobby is the
     acquisition of plants and the building of a satisfying orchid collection. The wide selection of types and
     genera provides many fields of interest and specialization. Some folks will want a few of many types;
     others will concentrate on a particular group and cover it more completely. Locality and facilities will
     often dictate the general types a person may be able to handle.
               The following are a few tips that I consider important. These are designed to help provide a
     guide when rating plants to acquire. While few plants will rate high in all categories, a really
     satisfactory plant should rate quite good in at least two or three factors.
     Season: - Certainly one of the most important considerations in building a collection is to have at least
     some blooms throughout much of the year. With the number of varieties that we have, it is simple to
     select plants that will provide blooms at different seasons. If you are specializing in a kind of orchid
     that has a definite blooming season, such as Cymbidiums or Cypripediums, be sure to investigate a few
     early and late varieties to prolong your display of flowers. Rate an individual plant for season to see if
     it fills a gap in your collection. It will add enjoyment by giving you blooms when you would otherwise
     be without them.
     Color variation: - One of the biggest keys to success in selecting a good amateur collection is to have
     a wide, well-balanced color selection. Unlike the commercial grower who is geared to the florist
     demand, the amateur may choose what is most appealing to the eye. To many, a random mixture of all
     colors in fairly even proportions, in the greenhouse, brings maximum enjoyment. Interest in exciting
     colors is not only for visitors and guests but for the grower himself. A single predominant color tone
     soon loses its appeal and interest.
      Vigor and flowering: - Perhaps the most important single factor in building a beginner's collection is
        to acquire plants that are vigorous growers and free bloomers. Among all the orchid plants that we




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                             Vigor and floriferousness in a Brassocattleya hybrid

     grow, there are those few that stand out for constant reliable performance. Nothing will spur your
     enthusiasm more than good success with a plant. The source of good results often lies in the inherent
     characteristics of those distinguished as such free-flowering plants.
     Uniqueness: - Uniqueness is that added dimension that makes a flower stand out among other blooms.
     It is a difficult-to-describe dimension beyond the more common definitions of form and color, and for
     the hobbyist who wants to maintain that thrill year after year, this quality is essential. This may occur
     in a variety of ways, such as the beaded radiance of Cattleya Porcia 'Cannizaro', A.M./RHS, the serene
     beauty of Cypripedium Clair de Lune, A.M./RHS, the fantastic lip of Cymbidium Kinglet 'Emerald',
     A.M/AOS-ODC or the sparkling appeal of Cattleya guttata alba. Even among thousands of their own
     particular kind, these examples stand out by popular consensus.
     Interest: - Two important qualities in plants, from a collector's standpoint, are the history and heredity
     of particular plants, and to possess plants with unusual histories adds to the hobby. Such famous plants
     as Cym. Alexanderi 'Westonbirt', F.C.C.jRHS, Cypripedium fairieanum, Cattleya loddigesii 'Stanley's',
     F.C.C.jRHS, and Cypripedium F. C. Puddle, F.C.C.jRHS, are all examples of plants with interesting
     heritages and histories.
     Surprises: - In this day of many selected varieties and meristem culture, there is one thrill that simpl:.
     cannot be duplicated: the thrill of anticipation with a
     first-blooming seedling. Even though it is controversial as to whether this is the best way to add quality
     to your collection, one is missing a basic excitement of the
     orchid game if he doesn't try at least a few seedlings. Needless to say, it is worthwhile having a
     knowledge of the crosses to understand the potential of seedlings. This, combined with "Lady Luck's"
     throw of the genes, makes speculation and expectations run high.
     Freedom from disease: - As we learn more about virus, we recognize the fact that we do not wish to
     obtain more problem plants and that we wish to establish programs that can lead us away from the
     dangers of virus disease. The first step, of course, in one of these programs, is not to acquire diseased
     plants.
     Try rating various plants to see how it works. Remember that it is desirable for each plant to present its
     own particular thrills. Classify plants that you now have to see if some should be replaced. Build a
     lasting thrill into your collection so that you will not only have a good group of plants, but one that will
     hold your interest for years to come. -1250 Orchid Drive, Santa Barbara, California.
                                      American Orchid Society Bulletin, January 1965




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