Vertebrates - PowerPoint

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					Kingdom Animalia
    Vertebrates
There are 5 Vertebrate Groups

 • 1. Fish
 • 2. Amphibians
 • 3. Reptiles
 • 4. Birds
 • 5. Mammals
      Vertebrates
• Phylum Chordata: includes
  vertebrates and
  invertebrates

• Subphylum Vertebrata
       Vertebrates
• Animals with a backbone

• Includes: fish, amphibians,
  reptiles, birds, and mammals
  (listed in order of complexity)
Characteristics of All
• Sometimes only in Embryonic
 development stages
• Dorsal, hollow nerve cord -
  develops into brain and spinal
  cord
• Notocord - stiff, flexible rod:
  develops into backbone or
  vertebral column
 Characteristic Cont.
• Pharyngeal slits - became
  openings used for other
  functions such as gas
  exchange
• Post anal tail - tail extending
  beyond anus; consisting of
  skeletal elements and muscles
        Vertebrates Vs.
         Invertebrates
• Endoskeleton - internal skeleton
  that can support a larger body.

• Closed circulatory system with
  multi-chambered heart - all blood
  contained in vessels
 Differences in Vertebrates
• Each group represents the
 appearance of evolutionary milestone
• Ability to regulate body temp.
  – Ectotherms - their body temp is
    regulated mainly by external
    enviroment.
  – Endotherms - animals that control
    their body temp by internal
    processes
   Differences Cont.
• Amniotic egg:
 – shelled, water-retaining egg
 – shell and fluid cushion provides
   protection for embryo
 – Yolk provides nourishment for
   embryo
 – Allows vertebrate with this
   feature to complete life-cycle
   on land
Fishes
        Swim bladder
• Air sac that helps fish move
  up and down in water
  (buoyancy)
• Inflates and deflates as
  gases from blood pass
  through it
• 2 chambered heart
  Lateral Line System
• Row of microscopic organs
  that detect changes in water
 pressure and vibrations
• Looks like a groove, running
  from head to tail
• Alerts fish of other
  organisms around them -
  Sensory
            Fins
  • For movement, thrust,
    steering and direction
Posterior
Side                 Dorsal Fin
(back)               (back/top)

Ventral
Fin                    Anterior
(belly)                  Side
                        (front)
         Scales
• Cover skin in
  overlapping
  pattern
• Mucus coating
  to reduce
  friction
              Gills
• Used of oxygen
  exchange
• Operculum - Flap
  of tissue that
  covers the gills
• Two chambered
  heart
Three Classes:
       Class Agnatha
• Jawless -
  affects
  feeding style
• Ex: Lampreys,
 hagfish
  Class Chondrichthyes
• Flexible
  skeletons made
  of cartilage -
  elastic and light
  for deep water
  swimming
• Ex: Sharks, rays,
 skates
  Class Osteichthyes
•Bony skeletons -
  hardened by calcium
  phosphate
• External fertilization
Fish in the Biosphere
• Play important role in
  saltwater and freshwater
  aquatic food chains
• Important source of protein
  in human diets
• Other products made from
  fish:
 – medicine, glue, livestock feed,
   pet food
Class Amphibia
     Characteristics
• Start their lives as aquatic
  larvae but live adult lives on
  land
• Metamorphosis - internal and
  external changes through
  maturity
• Skin breathes by allowing gas
  exchange with environment
• Three-chambered heart
Amphibians near Water
• Because:
• Jelly-like eggs must be moist
  to keep form drying out
• skin must be moist in order to
  breathe and keep from drying
  out
• Larvae are aquatic
 Amphibians in Biosphere
• Environmental indicators
• Control insect pests
• other human uses:
 – food source
 – medicine
 – amphibian poisoned arrows
Frogs & Toads




   Toads
     Poison
    dart frogs




Bullfrogs
  Salamanders & Newts
                 Cave
              Salamander




Long tailed
Salamander
Class Reptilia
   Reptiles
     Characteristics
• Smooth, dry, scaly, water
  proof skin which helps them
  conserve water
• Heart with three chambers
• Ectothermic
• Some must molt to grow
     Characteristics
• Amniotic egg internally
  fertilized, provides
  nourishment and protection
  for embryos while developing
  on land or internally
   Able to Live on
        Land
• Because:
 –efficient respiratory
  system
 –amniotic eggs
 –water-proof skin
          4 Orders
1. Order Squamata - snakes, lizards &
   iguanas

2. Order Cheloria - tortoises & turtles

3. Order Crocodilia - crocodiles &
   alligators

4. Order Rhynchocephalia - Tuataras
  – Only species, found in New Zealand
Tuatara
       Lizards and Snakes
                   Frilled lizard




 Galapagos
marine iguana
               Chameleon


Thorny Devil
Coral snake


              Green tree
                           King
               python      cobra
                 with
               babies
Reticulated
  python
Crocodilians


     Alligators
           Turtles & Tortoises




                       Hawaiian Green Sea
                                 Turtle
Galapagos Tortoise
    Red-eared Slider
Birds
            BIRDS
• The Archaeopteryx is an
  ancient bird with the earliest
  known fossil with identifiable
  feathers.
• Moderns birds:
  – Lack teeth
  – Lay amniotic eggs
  – Have scales on their feet
  – Covered in Feathers
 Characteristics of Birds
• Feathers – important feature
  that separates birds from
  reptiles
• Birds have two types of
  feathers
Contour Feathers
–Have a
 smooth
 surface to
 decrease
 wind
 resistance.
  Down Feathers
–Trap air to
 help maintain
 the birds
 temperature.
      Characteristics
        continued…
• Endothermic – control body
  temperature from within
• The bones of birds are Hollow
  and Thin.
• Birds have a 4 Chambered
  heart.
       Summary of Birds
• Endothermic
• Oviparous (lay amniotic eggs)
• Evolutionary Adaptation
 –Feathers
 –Wings
 –Honeycomb (hollow) bones – for
  Flight
Honeycomb (hollow) bones – for Flight
Andean Condor


         Bald Eagle
Snowy owl

            Barn owl
             Muted swan

Roadrunner
                   Hummingbird




Bird of Paradise
Class Mammalia
    MAMMALS
• Most advanced
  vertebrates
• Classified together
  because they nurse their
  young using Mammary
  glands.
     Diaphragm
• Muscle located beneath the
  lungs
 – Exclusive to mammals
• Allows them to breathe in
  large amounts of air.
   Characteristics of
       Mammals
• The Notochord, was replaced
  a backbone or a vertebral
  column.
• Endothermic
• Hair, used for warmth and
  waterproofing.
   Classification
• grouped into three
  groups based on their
  reproductions
    1.Monotremes
    2.Placentals
    3.Marsupials
     Monotremes
• Monotremes
  - Lay Eggs,
  ex: Duck
  billed
  Platypus
       Monotremes
       (Egg Layers)


                  Echidna




Platypus
     Placentals
• Placentals -
  Nourished
  in Mother,
  ex: Humans
  and Cows
Placentals
(Young are nourished inside mother by a
placenta until fully developed
                              Smallest Mammals




                                Pigmy Shrew



    Largest mammal –
         Blue Whale            Bumblebee Bat
            Chapman’s
              Zebra




Gray Wolf
          Texas Longhorn




Panther
     Marsupials
• Marsupial -
  Developed
  inside a
  Pouch, ex:
  Kangaroo
           Marsupials
(Young finish developing in a pouch)




 Koalas

                              Kangaroo


                 Opossum
                  Wombat



Tasmanian Devil

				
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