THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST 1450 1750 by niusheng11

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OF THE WEST, 1450 - 1750
     An Era of Revolutions
               TWO RENAISSANCES
       Italian Renaissance
          Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning, 1350-1600
          Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons and vied to outdo one another
          City-states sponsored innovations in art and architecture
              Macaccio, Leonard) used linear perspective to show depth
              Sculptors (Donatello and Michelangelo) created natural poses
       Renaissance architecture
          Simple, elegant style, inherited from classical Greek and Roman
          Magnificent domed cathedrals
              Brunelleschi's cathedral of Florence
              St. Peter’s in Rome
       Humanists or Man is the Measure of All Things
          Drew inspiration from classical models especially Greece, Rome
          Leading scholars included Dante, Petrarch
          Scholars interested in humane letters
              Literature, history, and moral philosophy
              Called humanists
              Recovered and translated many classical works
          Attention to political and social issues and graces, too
              Boccaccio’s Decameron
              Castiglione’s The Courtier
              Machiavelli’s The Prince
       Northern Renaissance
          Especially strong in France, England, Netherlands
          Focus was more on science, math, and Christianity (language favored was Hebrew)
          Strongly supported by the middle classes and minor nobles
          Leading figures include Shakespeare, Durer, Erasmus, Protestant reformers
 Precursors to Luther
       Great Schism
           2/3 popes at same time undermined authority of the church
           Church councils rule/attempt to overrule popes
       Jan Hus in Holy Roman Empire and Wycliffe in England
             Both attacked aspects of church corruption, wealth, practices
             Both condemned by Church
             Hus executed, but Wycliffe protected by King of England
             Wycliffe had Bible translated into English
 Martin Luther (1483-1546)
       Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517
       Attacked corruption in Catholic Church; called for reform
       Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read
       Enthusiastic response from lay Christians, princes, many cities
       By mid-16th century, half Germans adopted Lutheranism
 Reform spread outside Germany
       Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Netherlands
       Scandinavian kings like movement as it removes Church as a rival
       English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce
 John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism
       Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s
       Calvinist missionaries were successful in France
 Zwingli leads Calvinist like reformation in Switzerland
 John Know leads Presbyterian movement in Scotland
 Martin Bucer writes pamphlets, lead to rise of Puritan movement in England
 Early Attempts to Reform
     Catholic cardinals, bishops call council in early 15 th century
        Council of Constance deposes rival popes
        Attempts to assert authority over pope, initial reforms
     Catholic intellectuals attack Church corruption
     Emperor Sigismund attempts to reform church in Germany
 Church reaction to Luther, Protestants
       Charles V, Church condemn, excommunicate Luther
       King Henry VIII condemns Luther
       Inquisition unleashed against Protestants
       Spanish use wealth to fund anti-Protestants
 The Council of Trent, 1545-1563
     Directed reform of Roman Catholic Church
     Attacked corruption
     Reaffirmed tradition, Bible as co-equal
 The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
       Founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola
       High standards in education
       Combat Protestants with logic, faith, hard work
       Saved S. Germany, E. Europe from Protestants
       Became confessors, advisories to kings
       Worldwide missionaries
 Religious wars
    Between Protestants, Catholics during 16 TH century
        Wars as much social, political as religious
        Neither side is innocent of conflict
    Civil war in France
        Between Huguenots (French Calvinists), Catholic League
        Monarchy often a pawn of both sides and nobles
        Lasted thirty-six years (1562-1598)
        Ended with new dynasty
    Spanish Armada
        War between Catholic Spain, Protestant England, 1588
        Spill over from conflict in the Netherlands
        Question of heir to English throne: Catholic Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth
    Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic Spain
        Originally began as a revolt of all Netherlands against Spain
        Eventually split country into Catholic south (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland)
    The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
        The most destructive European war up to WWI
        Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe
        Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one-third population
        Saw rise of Sweden as Great Power and eclipse of Spain, Hapsburgs as European
          great power
         Saw independence of Holland, Switzerland from Holy Roman Empire
         Ended with Germany neither holy, nor Roman nor an Empire
    Scottish Presbyterians revolt
       Expel Catholic Queen with England’s secret assistance
       Raise her kidnapped son as Presbyterian
 Italian city-states
       Flourished with industries and trade
       Each with independent administration and army
       Levied direct taxes on citizens
       More powerful absorbed smallest
 France and England
       Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)
          Fought for control of French lands
          Imposed direct taxes to pay the costs of war
          Central government over feudal nobility
       English War of the Roses leads to Tudor Dynasty
       Louis XI reduces powers of feudal aristocracy
 Spain united
       By marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile
       Sales tax supported a powerful standing army
       Conquered Granada from Muslims
       Seized southern Italy in 1494
       Sponsored Columbus's quest for western route to China
 Competition among European states
       Frequent small-scale wars
       Encouraged new military and naval technology
       Technological innovations strengthened armies
 Dynastic Politics
       Constant search for an heir
       Must marry for political advantage
       Gave women influence as regents, brides, mother of heir
                     NEW MONARCHS
       New Monarchs
          Taxes, armies as instruments of national monarchies by late fifteenth century
          Used feudal powers but added new powers to become dominant in society
          Developing towards divine right monarchs answerable only to God, not people
          Henry VII of England and Louis XI of France are two best examples
       France, England and Spain
          All three united after long wars
          Kings have new, broad powers
          Nobles often weakened; new nobles created out of middle classes
       Enhanced royal, centralized powers
          Wealthy treasuries by direct taxes, fines, and fees
          State power enlarged and more centralized
              Standing armies in France and Spain
              Professional bureaucrats loyal only to monarch, not church
              Nobility status often sold to wealthy merchants to raise funds
          Reformation increased royal power
              Kings confiscate wealth, land of the Church
              Kings sell off lands to middle class, making them loyal to state
              Even Catholic monarchs tended to follow this trend
       New law courts enhance royal power
          Kings tend to function above the law
          English Star Chambers – do not require warrants, trials
          The Spanish Inquisition, Catholic court of inquiry, founded 1478
              Intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews
              Used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents
          French Parlements reduced to law courts not legislative assemblies
 Charles V
    Reigned 1519-1556
       Holy Roman Emperor
                Austria
                Czech lands, Silesia
                Hungary, Slovakia,
                Slovenia, Croatia
                Netherlands
                Eastern France
                Milan, Northern Italy
         King of Spain
                Castile
                Navarre
                Catalonia
                Two Sicilies
                Spanish American Empire, Philippines
    Inherited a vast empire of far-flung holdings through marriage
    Unable to establish a unified state
 Disputes with German nobles, France, and Ottoman Empire
    German nobles resented his power and obstructed his every move
        Many nobles became Protestant as it was a tool against emperor
        Even Catholic nobles supported Reformation as it limited his religious influence
    France opposed Charles and supported Protestants, Charles’ enemies
    Charles main enemy was Ottoman Empire
        France, Protestants and Turks allied against Charles
        Charles forces defeat Turks, block moves; unable to take advantage of strength
 Constitutional states of England and the Netherlands
       Divine Right Monarchs limited by war, nobles, wealthy
           Characterized by
                    Powers limited by constitutions, bills of right, convention
                    No one is above the law, property is protected by law
                    Representative institutions: rights of oversight, taxation, review, veto
           Prominent merchant classes enjoyed unusual prosperity
           Commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference
       Dutch constitutional monarchy evolved out of religious wars
       England’s road to rights
           Constitutional monarchy in England evolved out of a civil war
           English Glorious Revolution 1688
           English Bill of Rights 1689
 Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia
       Based on the theory of the divine right of kings
             Relied often on bureaucrats, professional armies
             Great trappings of power especially palaces, images
             Restricted power of aristocracy, legislatures and church
             Relied on mercantilism to generate taxable wealth
       Spain, Austria united by Hapsburg marriage, inheritance
       Cardinal Richelieu
           French chief minister 1624-1642
           Crushed power of nobles
           Supported Protestants, Sweden against Hapsburgs, Spain, Austria
       Prussia began to rise in late 17 th century
           Based on absolutism and army
           Eventually will unite Germany
 King of France
     Called the Sun King
        Planets revolve around the sun
        Sun gives light, warmth of the solar system
     Reigned 1643-1715
 Bureaucracy
     Used middle class for professional bureaucrats
     Established intendants tp carry out wishes
 Model of royal absolutism: the court at Versailles
     Nobles reduced to serving king, state
     Became generals, diplomats, ministers
     Lived at Versailles where king spied on them
 Large professional standing army
     Well trained, well paid, well equipped
     Kept, enforced order
 Mercantilism and Colonies
       Minister Colbert was mastermind behind wealth
       Promoted economic development: roads, canals
       Promoted industry, and exports especially luxuries
       Built large French navy and colonies in North America, India
 Rulers in Spain, Austria, Prussia, Russia saw France as model
       The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
          Ended the Thirty Years' War
          Began system of independent sovereign states
          Abandoned notion of religion unity
          Did not end war between European states
       The balance of power
          No state allowed to dominate others
          Diplomacy based on shifting alliances
          No permanent alliances
          Only permanent interests
          Religion unimportant to determining alliances
          Destroy no nation
          Make no permanent enemies
       Military development costly and competitive
          New armaments (cannons and small arms)
          New military tactics
          Extremely intricate fortifications
          Professional navies with modern warships, weapons
          China, India, and the Islamic states did not keep apace
          Small, well-trained armies become critical
 Nation-State
     Ethnic group with common language, culture
     Shared history, traditions
     Shared institutions (faith, politics)
     Occupying a common territory
     Ruled by a common government
     Government’s job
         Insure domestic tranquility and happiness
         Assumed many of the Church’s old social roles
     Multiple ethnic groups destroy nation-state
 Belief in Nation-state became new popular ideology
       Love of your nation above others is nationalism
       Originated as an elite idea of the aristocracy, educated elite
       Loyalty to state, king more important than loyalty to church, pope
       Martin Luther addresses the “German People”
       King James, Wycliffe translate Bible into English
       French have Joan of Arc fighting for France against English
       Scotsmen, English resent Catholic “Romish” influence
       Dutch, Portuguese, Catalans revolt against foreign Spanish rule
                POPULATION GROWTH
       Population growth
          American foods improved European nutrition, diets
          Increased resistance to epidemics after 1650s
              Life spans increased
              Infant deaths decrease
          Population growth
              American food crops improved Europeans' nutrition and diets
              Increased resistance to epidemic diseases after the mid-seventeenth century
              European population increased from 81 million in 1500 to 180 million in 1800
          Urbanization
              Rapid growth of major cities: Paris from 130,000 in 1550 to 500,000 in 1650
              Cities increasingly important as administrative and commercial centers
          Most dramatic in Ireland, England, Poland, France, Netherlands
       Urbanization
          Rapid growth of major cities
              For example, Paris from 130,000 (1550) to 500,000 (1650)
              London, Amsterdam, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Lyons
          Cities increasingly important: administrative, commercial, intellectual centers
                    EARLY CAPITALISM
 Profits and ethics
       Medieval theologians considered profit making to be selfish and sinful
       Renaissance merchants supported changes, arts becoming influential in society
       Protestant Reformation saw profit, success as signs of God’s Favor
 Early capitalism
       Led to increased influence for urban middle classes
       Altered rural society
           Improved material standards
           Increased independence of rural workers
       Capitalism generated deep social strains
             Bandits, muggers, witch-hunting
             Began to impoverish urban workers
             Pricing Revolutions were common
             Impoverished aristocrats, peasants
             Too much money chasing too few goods
 The Price Revolution
       Use of money replaced barter
       Imports of gold, silver led to trade imbalances
             Mercantilism demanded payments in gold, silver
             Spain, Portugal did not support manufacturing
             Both countries had to import goods
             Northern Europeans demanded payment in gold, silver
       Too much money chasing too few goods
           Inflation resulted
           Peasants, aristocrats
                   On fixed incomes
                   Payment in kind economies suffered
           Inflation drove real wages down
       The nature of capitalism
          Private parties sought to take advantage of free market conditions
          Economic decisions by private parties, not by governments or nobility
          Forces of supply and demand determined price
          New managerial skills and banking arrangements arose
       Supply and demand
          Merchants built efficient transportation and communication networks
          New institutions and services: banks, insurance, stock exchanges
       Joint-stock companies
          Dutch East Indies, English East/West Indies Companies
          Organized commerce on a new scale
          Authorized to explore, conquer, colonize distant lands
       Rise of Manufacturing
          Colonial markets, population stimulated manufacturing
          Putting-out system of 17 th and 18th centuries
              Entrepreneurs bypassed guilds
              Moved production to countryside
              Rural labor cheap, cloth production highly profitable
       Capitalism actively supported by governments
          Especially in England and Netherlands
          Chartered joint-stock companies
          Protected property, upheld contracts, settled disputes
       Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations
          Considered the founding father of capitalism
          Society would prosper as individuals pursued their own interests
          States were to support private interests, free trade
 Mass Culture Arises
      Nationalism, national faiths arise embracing all
      Use of some luxuries becomes common
      Rise of leisure time even for poorer peoples
      Rise of professional entertainment
      Immigration by commoners to colonies
 Agriculture changes
      New technologies applied to farming
      Draining swamps, animal breeding
      New tools to increase productivity
      Introduction of new world crops, i.e. potato
 Manufacturing
    Mass produced items common: textiles, metal products
    Capitalism stimulates production as profitable
    New jobs caused people to move into manufacturing from agriculture
 New Social Classes
    Rise of entrepreneurial class with great wealth
    Rise of a technological managerial class
       Rise of urban, rural working class
          Referred to as proletariat
          Paid low wages in horrible conditions
          At mercy of price revolutions
          Many peasants reduced to paid wages
       Population growth
          Urbanization increased tensions
          Growth increased poverty
       Social Tensions
          Peasant revolts especially during Reformation
              In France, Germany rose against landlords
              Many sought more radical forms of Protestantism
          Urban citizens also tended towards Protestantism
          Persecution of witches
       Elite and Mass Culture
          Prior to Reformation, there were two cultures, elite and common
          Two rarely intermixed or cooperated
          Mass culture such as entertainment
          Faith often became elite culture
       The nuclear family strengthened by capitalism
          Families more independent economically, socially, and emotionally
          Love between men and women
          Parents and children became more important
                      GENDER ISSUES
 Renaissance saw expansion of women’s rights
       Books written for women
       Education of women allowed
       Women could enter public arena as intellectuals
       Artesmia Gentileschi was a painter
 Reformation took back many of the rights
       Many reformers were women
          Many threatened males traditional roles
          Margaritte of Navarre, Elizabeth of England
       Protestants emphasized family role of women
 Witch-hunts in Europe
       Theories, fears of witches intensified in 16 th century
       Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship
       About sixty thousand executed, 95 percent of them women
 Commercial, Capitalist Revolution
       Women needed often to support family by outside work
       Many women merchants very successful
       Women assumed new economic roles
 Education and Women
       Education was one of few avenues open to women
       Aristocratic women often educated
 Enlightenment saw first major victories for women’s rights
       Women ran intellectual salons of France
       Many very prominent as philosophes: Madame de Stael
       Some few feminists appeared
 The reconception of the universe
     The Ptolemaic universe
        A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres
        Could not account for observable movement of the planets
        Compatible with Christian conception of creation
     The Copernican universe
        Copernicus suggested sun was center of universe, 1543
        Implied that the earth was just another planet
 The Scientific Revolution
     Science becomes the new authority and challenges faith for control
     Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) demonstrated planetary orbits elliptical
     Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
         With a telescope saw sunspots, moons of Jupiter, mountains of the moon
         Theory of velocity, falling bodies anticipated modern law of inertia
         Tried by Inquisition as his ideas challenged Papal infallibility
     Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
         M athematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686
         Mathematical explanations of laws govern movements of bodies
         Newton's work symbolized the scientific revolution
                 Direct observation
                 Mathematical reasoning
 Enlightenment
       Thinkers called philosophes
       Sought natural laws that governed human society
       Center of Enlightenment was France
       Theory of progress was ideology of philosophes
       Apply reason/science to society, government, law
 Voltaire (1694-1778)
       Champion of religious liberty and individual freedom
       Prolific writer; father of Enlightenment
 John Locke
       All human knowledge comes from sense perceptions
       Life, Liberty and Property; 1689 English Bill of Rights
       Allowed persons to revolt against an oppressive ruler
 Adam Smith: laws of supply and demand determine price
 Montesquieu: checks, balances, balanced government
 Deism
       Popular among thinkers of Enlightenment
       Accepted existence of a god
       Denied supernatural teachings of Christianity
       God the Clockmaker
       Ordered the universe according to rational and natural laws
 Impact of Enlightenment
       Weakened the influence of organized religion
       Encouraged secular values based on reason rather than revelation
       Subjected society to rational analysis, promoted progress and prosperity
       Enlightenment applied science to every day life and made science practical

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