Study Philosophy of Science by JerryMakawimbang

VIEWS: 43 PAGES: 14

									                           Study Philosophy of Science

                                      CHAPTER I

                                 INTRODUCTION

Philosophy in English, namely philosophy, while the term comes from

Greek philosophy, philosophia, which consists of two words that mean

(love) or philia (friendship, interested in) and shopia (wisdom, wisdom,

knowledge, skills, practical experience, intelligence). So etymologically,

philosophy means love of wisdom or kebenaran.Plato called Socrates as

philosophos (philosopher) in the sense of a lover of philosophy

kebijaksanaan.Kata        Arabization       which   means      searches       made    by

philosophers. In Big Indonesian Dictionary, the word philosophy is showing

understanding, namely knowledge and investigation with intelligence

about the nature of everything that exists, because the origin and legal.

Humans are humans who have a philosophical self-awareness and

intellect,   as   he     also   has    an     independent      spirit   and    spiritual.

Before Socrates there is one group who called themselves the sophist (the

sophists) meaning scholar. They make human perception as a measure of

reality and using the argument-argument is wrong in their conclusions. So

the meaning of the word sophist mengalamireduksi sophistry. Socrates

because       humility     and    shy        away      from      identification      with

the sophists, forbade himself called a sophist (scholar). Therefore do not

use    the   term      philosophers     before      Socrates    (Motahhari,       2002).

At first the word philosophy means that all scientific knowledge
manusia.Mereka philosophical divide to two parts, namely, theoretical

philosophy and practical philosophy. Theoretical philosophy includes: (1)

natural science, such as: physics, biology, mining science, and astronomy,

(2) the exact sciences and mathematics, (3) the science of divinity and

metaphysics. Practical philosophy include: (1) norms (morality), (2)

housekeeping, (3) social and political. In general philosophy means of

human effort to understand everything in a systematic, radical, and critical.

Mean philosophy is a process not a product. So the process is done is

critical thinking that is operating actively, systematically, and follow pronsip

logic principles to understand and evaluate the information for the purpose

of determining whether the information was accepted or rejected. Thus

philosophy will continue to change until a certain point (Takwin, 2001).
                               CHAPTER II

                        PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE



A. Philosophy

As for some basic understanding of philosophy by the philosopher are:

1. Speculative effort to present a systematic and comprehensive view of all

reality.

2. Efforts to describe the nature of reality end and the base significantly.

3. Efforts to determine the limits and range of knowledge resources,

nature, validity, and value.



4. Critical investigation of the assumptions and statements filed by the

various fields of knowledge.



5. Discipline that seeks to help you see what you say and to express what

you see.



Plato (427-348 BC) stated that philosophy is knowledge that is to reach

the truth which asli.Sedangkan Aristotle (382-322 BC) defines the

philosophy of science is covering the truth contained within the sciences of

metaphysics, logic, rhetoric, ethics, economic, political, and other
philosophers estetika.Sedangkan Cicero (106-043 BC) stated that

philosophy is the mother of all science lainnya.Filsafat is supreme

knowledge and the desire to get it. According to Descartes (1596-1650),

philosophy is a collection of all knowledge, in which God, nature and man

was the subject of inquiry. While Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) argued that

philosophy is the subject of science and knowledge base of everything in it

covered four issues:

a) What can we know?

b) What should we do?

c) Up where we hope?

d) Is it called man?

There are at least three characteristics of philosophical thinking that is:

1) The nature of thorough: someone scientists will never be satisfied if only

to know science only from the standpoint of science itself. He wanted to

know the nature of science from another point of view, to do with morality,

and want to know whether this knowledge will bring happiness itself. This

will make the scientists do not feel arrogant and most powerful. Above the

sky there is heaven. For example: Socrates said he did not know anything.

2) the fundamental nature: that nature is not just that confident that the

science is true. Why science is true? How the assessment process based

on these criteria be? What are the criteria itself is true? Then what really

own it? Like a circular question must begin by determining the correct

point.
3) Speculative: in formulating a circle and determine the starting point of a

circle which also became the end point required a good speculative nature

of the process, analysis and proof. So which ones can be separated

logically or not. Sir Isacc Newton, a very famous scientist, President of the

Royal Society have all three of these characteristics. There are a lot of

improvement inventions scientists previously had done. In his search for

knowledge, Newton not only believe in the truth that already exists

(knowledge at the time). He sued (reexamine) the results of previous

studies such as the Aristotelian logic of motion and cosmology, or the

cartesian logic of the matter motion, light, and the structure of the cosmos.

"I do not define the space, place, time and motion as is known to many

people" says Newton Newton.Bagi no completeness, that there is only a

search of dynamic, always changing and may never finish. "I tekuni a

subject continuously and I wait until the first dawn light came slowly, little

by little until betulbetul light."

B. Philosophy of Science

Philosophy takes an important role in philosophy because we can see the

views on any subject (complexity, discuss and test the validity and

accountability of thoughts and ideas that can be justified scientifically and

intellectually (Bagir, 2005). According to the Webster New World

Dictionary, the word scienceberasal from the Latin, scire, which means

knowledge. The language of science means "the state or fact of knowing

and are often taken in the sense of knowledge (knowledge) that
contrasted through intuition or belief. But this word is experiencing

development and change meaning so that means that the systematic

knowledge that comes from 11observasi, studies, and experiments

conducted to determine the nature or principles of what is studied.

Meanwhile, in Arabic, science (ilm) is derived from the word meaning

alima know.

So science is literally not too different from the science that comes from

the word scire.Namun science has a different scope of science (science).

Science is limited in these areas while the science of empiricism-

positiviesme melampuinya with nonempirisme like mathematics and

metaphysics (Labour, 2003). Speaking of science (science) then it will not

be separated from philosophy. The task of philosophy of knowledge is to

show how "knowledge of things as they are." Will Duran in his book The

Story of Philosophy likens that philosophy as marines who seized the

beach for the landing of infantry troops.

These infantrymen as knowledge of them ilmu.Filsafat who won a foothold

for science activities keilmuan.Semua both natural sciences and social

sciences starting from its development as a philosophy. Physics is the

origin of the name of natural philosophy (natural philosophy) and the name

origin of economics is a moral philosophy (moralphilosophy). Issac Newton

(1642-1627) wrote the laws of physics as the Philosophiae Naturalis

Principia Mathematica (1686) and Adam Smith (1723-1790) Father of

Economics wrote a book The Wealth Of Nations (1776) in its function as a
Professor     of   Moral     Philosophy      at   Glasgow      University     .

Agus Comte in Scientific Metaphysic, Philosophy, Religion and Science,

1963 dividing the three levels of knowledge development that is: religious,

metafisic and positive. In the early stages religilah principle which is used

as a scientific postulate that science is a deduction or a translation of the

next religi.Tahap people began to speculate about metaphysics and the

existence of the object of a review form which is free from religious dogma

and to develop knowledge systems on the basis of metaphysical

postulates. The last stage is the stage of scientific knowledge (science) in

which the principles used in the process of positively tested 12verifikasi

objective. This last phase of the most fundamental characteristic of

science other than mathematics. Philosophy of science is part of the

philosophy of knowledge or often also called epistimologi. Epistimologi

derived from the Greek meaning episcmc knowledge, knowledge, and

logos which means the theory. The term was first popularized by J.F.

Ferier 1854 that created two branches of philosophy that epistemology

and ontology (on = being, existence, what + logos = theory), ontology

(theory about what). In simple terms it can be said that the philosophy of

science is the foundation that animates the dynamics of the process of

acquiring knowledge of scientific activity. This means that there is scientific

knowledge and non-classified scientific ilmiah.Adapun is called science or

science short course, the accumulation of knowledge that has been

disistematisasi and organized in such a way, that satisfy the principle of
procedural    settings,   metologis,    technical,   and    normative     Thus

akademis.Dengan tested to meet the validity of scientific truth or validity of

the science, or scientifically reliable. Being non-scientific knowledge is still

quite prailmiah.alam this uptake results in the form of sensory knowledge

that knowingly obtained, both old and new that has been obtained. In

addition, including those obtained passively or out of consciousness as

inspiration, intuition, wangsit, or revelation (the prophet). In other words,

scientific knowledge obtained in conscious, active, systematic, clear the

process is procedural, methodical and technical, not random, then ends

with a verification or test of truth (validity) scientific. While prailmiah

knowledge, although in fact acquired a conscious and active, but it is

random, ie without the method, especially in the form of intuition, therefore

not included in the study. Thus, pre-scientific knowledge because it does

not systematically obtained, there are likely methodological          call it a

knowledge of "instinctive". In the history of its development, in ancient

times, commonly called phase-mystic, there is no difference between

pengetahuanpengetahuan which applies also to objects. In this mystical

stage, human attitudes such as besieged by supernatural forces in the

vicinity, so that all objects appear in totality in terms of diffuses into each

other is not clearly demarcated. The absence of differences between

knowledge-knowledge that has social implications of the position of a

person who has the edge in knowledge to be viewed as a leader who

knows all-galanya.Fenomena is in line with the level of primitive cultures
who are not familiar with the various community organizations, as the

implications of the lack of diversification of employment. A leader is

perceived to trap any function, including as head of government, judges,

teachers, warlords, marriage officer, and so forth. It will also mean that

leaders are able to solve all the problems, according to the functional

diversity that proclaimed him. The next phase is the phase-ontological,

which makes human beings have been liberated from the siege of occult

powers, so as to take distance from the object in the vicinity, and to

review. People who do not recognize the ontological status of objects of

metaphysics would not recognize the status of science-the scientific

status. That is why this stage is considered one of the ontological

characteristics of early development milestone ilmu.Dalam this object with

the subject review early problem-solving approach, relying solely thinking

reasoning logic. This is one of 14ciri scientific approach which is then

further developed into the scientific method more stable form of the

thought process in the analysis and synthesis. In the process takes place

in a deductive logic, which draw particular conclusions from the public.

This follows the theory of coherence, namely regarding attachment of

properties contained in the source, called the premises that have been

verified, with a conclusion which in turn automatically have the certainty of

truth. In other words the practical conclusion has been directed by the truth

of the premises concerned. Although these conclusions have a certainty of

truth, but remember that the process is considered still to be rational-
abstract, it must be followed by a logic to think this induktif.Hal follow the

correspondence theory, namely the adjustment of the results of rational

thought with the support of empirical data through research, in order to

attract general conclusions from the khusus.Sesudah through ontological

stage,   then   entered   the   final   stage   of   the   functional   phase.

At the functional stage, the human attitude is not only free from the siege

of supernatural forces, and not merely empirical scientific knowledge, but

more than itu.Sebagaimana known, such knowledge is functionally

associated with direct use for human needs in his life. Phase functional

knowledge axiology aspel actually enter the process philosophy of

science, namely that discusses scientific charity and professionalism

associated with moral rules. In the meantime, when we talk about stages

of development of knowledge in a single breath also included review of

philosophy that involves questions about the nature of science. First, of

ontological terms, ie on what and where was to be achieved science. This

means that from the beginning we had no grip and social phenomena.

In this case involves that have a dimension of existence in space and time,

and affordable by such inderawi.Dengan experience, include the

phenomenon can be observed, can be measured, so that data can be

processed, interpreted, verified, and drawn conclusions. In other words, do

not work on the things unseen as a matter of heaven or hell that a claim of

religious sciences. 15Telaahan second is from epistimologi terms, namely

meliputi normative aspects achieve scientific validity of the acquisition of
knowledge, in addition to procedural aspects, methods and techniques of

obtaining data empirically. All of them commonly called the scientific

method, covering basic steps and their order, including logical thinking

process that goes in it and means it uses scientific thinking. The third

review is in terms of axiology, which as already mentioned above relating

to the development of moral rules obtained by the use of science The

theory of knowledge which is subjective will give the answer "NO", we

would not be possible to know, find things behind the safety and our ideas.

While the theory of knowledge that is objective will give the answer "YES".
                                    CHAPTER III

                                     CLOSING



A. Conclusions



Philosophy in English, namely philosophy, while the term comes from

Greek philosophy, philosophia, which consists of two words that mean

(love) or philia (friendship, interested in) and shopia (wisdom, wisdom,

knowledge,          skills,     practical         experience     ,        intelligence).

According     to     the      Webster      New     World   Dictionary,     the   word

scienceberasal from the Latin, scire, which means knowledge. The

language of science means "the state or fact of knowing and are often

taken in the sense of knowledge (knowledge) that contrasted through

intuition or belief. But this word is experiencing development and change

meaning so that means that the systematic knowledge that comes from

11observasi, studies, and experiments conducted to determine the nature

or principles of what is studied. Meanwhile, in Arabic, science (ilm) is

derived      from        the     word        that     means      knowing          alima

Philosophy of science is part of the philosophy of knowledge or often

also called epistimologi. Epistimologi derived from the Greek meaning

episcmc knowledge, knowledge, and logos which means the theory. The

term was first popularized by J.F. Ferier 1854 that created two branches of
philosophy that epistemology and ontology (on = being, existence, what +

logos = theory), ontology (theory about what).
                               REFERENCES



                Bagir, Haidar, 2005, Handbook of Islamic Philosophy,

                Publisher Throne, PT Mizan Pustaka, Bandung.

A. Chalmers F. 1983. What's That Called Science / A Research on the

                 Nature and Status of Science and Methods. Translation

                 Editor Hasta Mitra. Jakarta.

Engels, Frederick, 2000, Feurbach and German Philosophy, Publisher

                     teplok Press, Jakarta.

Faisal, Sanafiah, 2004, Designing Social Research (Qualitative and

                   Quantitative      format),    Qualitative    Research

                   Methodology, Publisher RajaGrafindo PT Persada,

                   Jakarta.

Fuad Ihsan.H.A, 2010          Philosophy of Science, New York: Rineka

                   reserved.

Gleick, James, 2006, Mystery Apple Newton, Isacc Newton A Story of

                 Struggle, Publisher Mizan, Bandung.

Golshani, Mehdi, 2003, Philosophy SainsMenurut Qur'an, Publisher

                Mizan, Bandung

The Liang Gie .. Pengatar Philosophy of Science. London: Publisher of

Liberty. 2007

								
To top