Public and Private housing URBANIZATION IN INDIA Level Of Urbanization In India: Basic Facts Of Urbanisation In India (Census 2001): Total Urban population million 285 Percentage to total Population of India 27.78 % Percentage to world’s Urban population 10.02 % Percentage to Asia’s urban population 21.10 % Source, Census 2001, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, India, 2001 URBANIZATION IN INDIA 1. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Punjab and West Bengal accounting for half of the country’s Urban Population. 2. The level of Urbanization is high in the States with high per capita income and vice versa. 3. High Urban growth however been registered in relatively underdeveloped States. (Bihar, UP, Rajasthan, Orissa and MP, have low % of Urban Population) this implies relationship between urban growth and economic development is generally negative. 4. Maharashtra and Haryana records urban growth rates higher than the countries average. 5. Maharashtra is the second most urbanized state in the country after Tamil Nadu with 42.4% of urbanization and that of Tamil Nadu is 43.9%. URBANIZATION IN INDIA Rural-Urban Distribution : Population (%) Rural 742,490,639 72.2% Urban 286,119,689 27.8% Source: Census of India Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Total 238.4 252.1 251.3 278.9 318.6 361.1 439.2 548.2 683.3 846.3 1028.6 Urban 25.8 25.9 28.1 33.4 44.1 62.4 78.9 109.1 159.5 217.6 286.1 URBANIZATION IN INDIA Chart Showing Comparison Of Total Population Of Maharashtra And India: Source: Census of India 2001 Distribution of urban population across size categories reveals that the process of urbanization in India has been large city oriented. This is manifested in a high percentage of urban population being concentrated in class I cities, which has gone up systematically over the decades in the last century. POPULATION & HOUSING HOUSELESS POPULATION IN INDIA: ( in million ) Years 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Total 12.65 19.86 23.43 20.07 19.44 Rural 9.70 15.20 17.24 12.82 11.65 Urban 1.95 4.66 6.19 7.25 7.89 Source: Census of India 2001 POPULATION & HOUSING HOUSELESS HOUSEHOLDS IN INDIA: ( in million ) Years 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Total - 5.65 6.16 5.22 4.48 Rural - 3.88 4.13 3.05 2.60 Urban - 1.77 2.03 2.17 1.88 Source: Census of India 2001 POPULATION & HOUSING PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY NUMBER OF ROOMS OCCUPIED 1961 – 2001( in million ): From the above table it is No. of noticeable that the year 1961 Rooms the percentage of one room occupied 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 dwelling units was 53.1 %. But One Room 53.1 50 45.8 39.6 35.1 this value has decreasing trend Two .In the year 2001 the Rooms 24.7 27 27.8 30.4 29.5 percentage of 1 room dwelling Three units was 35.1 %. On the other Rooms 10.3 11.4 12.2 14.8 17.1 hand percentage of two and three rooms dwelling units are Four or increasing. In 1961 the more percentage of two and three Rooms 11.1 11.4 12.1 14.7 15.9 bedrooms units were 24.7 % No and 10.3 % respectively , Exclusive which has been increased in the rooms 0.9 0.2 2.1 0.04 2.3 year 2001 to 29.5 % and 17.1 Source: Census of India 2001 % respectively. POPULATION & HOUSING PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY NUMBER OF ROOMS OCCUPIED 2001( in million ): Source: Census of India 2001 According to the present data of 2001 Percentage Distribution of Households by Number of Rooms occupied 2001, it proved that approximate 50 % of the households has two and three bed room dwelling units. POPULATION & HOUSING HOUSING SHORTAGE IN INDIA 1961-2001: ( in million ) Years 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Total 15.2 14.6 23.3 22.9 24.7 Rural 11.6 11.6 16.3 14.7 14.1 Urban 3.6 3.0 7.0 8.2 10.6 Source: Census of India 2001 POPULATION & HOUSING HOUSING SHORTAGE IN INDIA BY STATES - 2001: ( in million ) State/UT Total Rural Urban Andhra Pradesh 2.22 1.27 0.95 Arunachal Prad. 0.14 0.12 0.02 Assam 2.36 2.22 0.14 Bihar 4.30 3.95 0.35 Chattisgarh 0.10 0.02 0.08 Gujarat 1.69 0.70 0.99 Goa 0.04 0.02 0.02 Haryana 0.34 0.13 0.21 Himachal Prad. 0.01 0.00 0.01 J&K 0.18 0.11 0.07 Jharkhand 0.15 0.04 0.11 POPULATION & HOUSING Karnataka 1.14 0.48 0.66 Kerala 0.64 0.33 0.31 Madhya Prad. 0.44 0.05 0.39 Maharashtra 2.10 0.73 1.37 Manipur 0.08 0.05 0.03 Meghalaya 0.17 0.15 0.02 Mizoram 0.05 0.04 0.01 Nagaland 0.09 0.09 0.00 Orissa 0.86 0.49 0.37 Punjab 0.30 0.09 0.21 Rajasthan 0.44 0.14 0.30 Sikkim 0.01 0.01 0.00 Tamil Nadu 1.98 0.44 1.54 Tripura 0.21 0.18 0.03 POPULATION & HOUSING Uttar Pradesh 2.12 1.08 1.04 Uttaranchal 0.13 0.05 0.08 West Bengal 1.73 1.09 0.64 A & N Islands 0.03 0.02 0.01 Chandigarh 0.02 0.00 0.02 Dadra & Nagar 0.00 0.00 0.00 Haveli Daman & Diu 0.00 0.00 0.00 Delhi 0.55 0.02 0.53 Lakshadweep 0.00 0.00 0.00 Pondicherry 0.04 0.01 0.03 All India 24.68 14.12 10.56 Source: Census of India 2001 NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 OBJECTIVES: The Housing and Habitat Policy 1998 aims at: 1. Creation of surplus housing stock either on rental or ownership basis . 2. Providing quality and cost effective shelter options, especially to the vulnerable groups and the poor 3. Ensuring that housing, along with the supporting services, is treated as a priority and at par with infrastructure sector. 4. Removing barriers related to legal, financial and administrative for facilitating access to land, finance and technology. 5. Forging strong partnership between private, public and cooperative sectors to enhance the capacity of the construction industry to participate in every sphere of housing and habitat. 6. Using technology for modernizing the housing sector to increase efficiency, productivity, energy efficiency and quality 7. Empowering the Panchayats Raj institutions and village cooperatives to mobilize credit for adding to the housing stock NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT WOULD: • Take steps to bring in legal reforms including formulation of effective foreclosure laws. • Devise macro economic policies to enable flow of resources to the housing and infrastructure sector. • Develop a debt market for housing and infrastructure fully integrated with the financial markets in the country. • Set up a national shelter fund to meet the requirement of low cost funds for the housing needs of the poor. • Promote research and development and transfer of technology for construction of houses. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 • Evolve parameters for optimal use of available resources to promote development and growth in a sustained manner. • Provide fiscal concessions for housing, infrastructure, innovative and energy saving construction materials and methods and also set up a regulatory mechanism to ensure that the concessions are correctly targeted and utilized. • Develop and enforce appropriate ecological standards to protect the environment and provide a better quality of life in human settlements. • Promote the creation of a secondary mortgage market. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 THE STATE GOVERNMENT WOULD: 1. Liberalize the legal and regulatory regime to give a boost to housing and supporting infrastructure. 2. Promote private sector and cooperatives in undertaking housing construction for all segments in urban and rural areas. 3. Undertake appropriate reforms for easy access to land. 4. Facilitate training of construction workers by converging other development programs through building centers and other agencies. 5. Promote decentralized production and availability of building material. 6. Empower the local bodies to discharge their responsibilities in regulatory and development functions. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES WOULD: 1. Identify specific housing shortages and prepare District Housing Action Plans for rural areas 2. Devise programs to meet housing shortages and augment supply of land for housing, particularly for the vulnerable group. 3. Plan expansion of both urban and rural infrastructure services. 4. Enforce effective regulatory measures for planned development. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 THE PUBLIC / PRIVATE FINANCE COMPANIES WOULD: 1. Redefine their role and move away from their traditional approach to housing finance. 2. Develop and expand their reach to meet the needs of people. 3. Devise schemes to lend at affordable rates to those who are in dire need of housing finance support. 4. Mobilize resources from provident funds, insurance funds, mutual funds etc. For house building activities. 5. Develop innovative instruments to mobilize domestic savings. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 HOUSING BOARDS / CORPORATIONS / DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES AND OTHER PUBLIC AGENCIES WOULD: 1. Revise their method of working and redefine their role for facilitating land assembly and development of infrastructure. 2. Forge partnerships with the private sector and cooperatives for housing construction in an efficient manner. 3. Devise flexible schemes to meet the user's requirement. THE CORPORATE, PRIVATE AND CO-OPERATIVE SECTORS WOULD: 1. Take the lead role in land assembly, construction of houses and development of amenities. 2. Forge partnership with state governments and local authorities for construction of houses. 3. Collaborate with the state governments to work out schemes for slum reconstruction on cross subsidization basis. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITAT POLICIES 2005 RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ORGANIZATIONS WOULD : 1. Direct research efforts to locally available raw materials. 2. Reduce the use of scarce natural resources and replace them with renewable resources. 3. Standardize the new technology for easy adoption by various public and private construction agencies. 4. Promote energy efficiency in building materials and construction methods. 5. Promote use of renewable energy sources for the housing sector particularly, solar, bio-mass and waste based energy. 6. Promote disaster mitigation techniques for new constructions as well as strengthening of existing houses to prevent continuing loss of housing stock and human lives from natural hazards like earthquakes, cyclones and floods. 7. Disseminate (spread) information about new technologies and provide training to construction workers in the use of new technologies. URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Level Of Urbanization In Maharashtra: Source: Census of India 2001 URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Population Characteristics: Total Population 9,67,52,247 Urban Population 4,10,19,734 Rural Population 5,57,32,513 Male Population 5,03,34,270 Female Population 4,64,17,977 Source: Economic Survey Of Maharashtra 2003-04 URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Percentage Of Urban Population In Maharashtra State: Source: Census of India 2001 URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Urbanization Trend In Maharashtra State: The trend in urbanization in Maharashtra indicates a random growth till 1961 but shows a continuous growth in the urbanization of the state. The Urbanization in the state is concentrated in some major parts of the state that is they are in the metros and big cities like Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, etc. 1. Maharashtra is the second most urbanized state in the country with 42.4 % of urbanization after Tamil Nadu which has 43.9 % of urbanization. 2. Maharashtra is the second largest State population wise after utter Pradesh. 3. The only State having 7 cities with one million population. 4. The State took 60 years (1901-61) to double, however, it has taken 40 years to have an increase of 2.5 times. URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Cities With Million Plus Population: Cities 1991 2001 Decennial (Lakh) (Lakh) Growth (%) Greater Mumbai 99.10 119.14 20.23 Nagpur 16.22 20.51 26.45 Pune 15.60 25.40 62.87 Kalyan – Dombivali 10.14 11.93 17.67 Thane 7.97 12.62 58.36 Nashik 6.47 10.77 66.48 Pimpri- Chinchwad 5.16 10.06 95.06 Source: Economic survey of Maharashtra 2003-04 URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Causes Of Rapid Urban Growth In Maharashtra: i) In rural areas agriculture has not been able to sustain the labour force and population i.e. Push factor. ii) Job opportunities in big urban centers, pull factor. People migrate to big cities with a hope for jobs. iii) Good services, facilities and amenities available in big urban centers and their absence in small towns and villages. URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Migration In Maharashtra: The magnitude of migration can be seen from the fact that after 1991, the net additions in the population of the state, up to 2001 was 1.80 crore, of which 0.32 crore were in-migrants. In other words, for every five persons added in the population of Maharashtra during the decade 1991-2001, one person was an in-migrant. Source: Census of India 2001 URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Comparison Of Percentage Contribution To Total Urban Population Of Major Cities In Maharashtra State: PERCENTAGE YEARS Source: Census of India 2001 URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Reasons For Migration In Maharashtra: Source: Economic Survey Of Maharashtra 2005-06 URBANIZATION IN MAHARASHTRA Emerging Urban Challenges: • Globalization and rising global competition. • Multiple pressures on urban space. • Rising competition among cities - Growing inequality – skewed allocation of resources. • Improved standards of governance in many cities. • Competitive Advantage. • Maximum value at least cost. • Rapid/Uneven Urbanization. • Growth of Metropolitan Cities. • Urbanization of Poverty -Growing urban poverty and unemployment. • Urban Housing Problems. • Un-planning of Planned process. • Urban Infrastructure Stressed. • Urban environment threatened. • Larger quality of life deficits. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES OBJECTIVES: • To facilitate affordable housing in urban and rural areas, create adequate housing stock for Lower Income Group (LIG), Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and shelters for the poorest of the poor on ownership or rental basis. • To promote sustainable development of urban and rural growth centers and to promote employment opportunities. • To pursue the target of cities without slums through equitable slum redevelopment and rehabilitation strategy and shelters for the poor. • To deregulate housing sector and encourage competition and public private partnerships in financing, construction and maintenance of houses for Lower Income Groups (LIG) and Weaker Sections of the society. • To rationalize development control regulations and streamline approval procedures. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES • To promote rental housing through amendments in the Rent Control Act and incentives to different options of rental housing for weaker sections. • To facilitate the redevelopment and renewal of inner city areas and dilapidated buildings through options of land assembly, conserving heritage structures and places of archeological importance. • Encourage technology innovation, training and capacity building of the construction workers to enhance their productivity and improve quality of housing stock. • To create ring fenced infrastructure fund in cities to fund quality infrastructure required for housing and economic growth. • To conserve ecologically sensitive areas and promote environmentally sustainable cities and townships. Taking cognizance of the specific problems of metropolitan areas like Mumbai, the objective of the housing policy would be to ensure time bound redevelopment of slums and reconstruction of old and dilapidated buildings on precinct/cluster approach. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES STRATEGIES: Land Availability: • Provide adequate lands for Low Income Group (LIG)/Economically Weaker Section (EWS) housing within and in proximity of cities, towns and rural areas. • Inclusionary Zoning provisions for Low Income Group (LIG) housing in private layouts. • Ensure integrated and planned development of peri-urban areas to promote affordable housing. • Efficient use of land through higher Floor Space Index (FSI) for Low Income Group (LIG) housing. • Dis-incentivising retention of vacant land in urban areas through capital value based property tax. • Lands reserved for Public housing and housing for Dishoused be developed through Public Private Partnership or non-monitory incentives under the Development Control Regulation (DCR) • Property value index based Transfer of Development Rights for Low Income Group (LIG)/ Middle Income Group (MIG) in identified zones in Metropolitan Region. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Land Availability: • In the Urban areas, Municipal Corporations/ Municipal Councils grant development permission for residential/commercial use. Also the concerned owner has to obtain Non Agriculture (N.A) Permission. Thus, the owner has to approach different authorities. This causes considerable delay in permission process. As per Section 45 of the Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act, the Municipal Corporation/Municipal Council is required to send copy of the sanctioned building plans to the Collector concerned. In such cases it will not be necessary for the land owner to apply to the Collector separately for Non Agriculture (N.A) permission. Also the Collector can automatically fix and recover amount of Non Agriculture (N.A) assessment based on the plans received from the department. • Municipal Corporation/ Council. In order to streamline the procedure for obtaining development permission, it is proposed to amend the provisions of Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966 that Non Agriculture (N.A) assessment can be liable from the date of issue of commencement certificate. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Land Availability: • Similarly after the Municipal Corporation/Council grants permission to change one Non Agriculture (N.A) used to another Non Agriculture (N.A) used residential to commercial, industrial to residential, in such cases it will not be necessary for the land owner to apply to the Collector separately. The Collector .can automatically revised Non Agriculture (N.A) assessment according to the change in use and recover the amount from the date of change of use granted by the Municipal. • Corporation / Municipal Council. It is proposed to amend the provisions of Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966, accordingly. • In order to decongest Municipal Corporations areas in MMR region and to make available affordable houses to the middle class, it is necessary to encourage Special Township Schemes outside the Municipal Corporation area by raising FSI limit of 0.5 to 1.0 in Urbanizable Zone (U-1 and U-2). It is proposed to carry out appropriate changes in the Development Control Regulations. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Finance / Subsidy: • Availability of subsidized serviced Government Land for Low Income Group (LIG) housing and shelters. • Linking Employment Generation Schemes (EGS) to lower income housing construction in rural and ‘C’ Class Municipal areas. Public private partnership for housing of migrant labors. • Committed State financial allocation for centrally sponsored housing schemes for both rural and urban areas - specially for Scheduled Caste (SC)/Scheduled Tribe (ST) and other socially and economically challenged groups. • Enabling use of land as collateral security for mortgage finance. Soft loan/ interest subsidy for Low Income Group (LIG) housing through cooperative sector and other banks. Empowering cooperative institutions for housing finance and construction. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Finance / Subsidy: • Impose capital value based Development Charges/ Fee and create a dedicated housing and Infrastructure Development Fund” in cities. • Incentives for Low Income Group (LIG) housing. • Cross-subsidized Low Income Group (LIG) construction by Maharashtra housing & Area Development Authority (MHADA)/ City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO)/ Regional Planning Bodies etc through public private partnerships and creation of Real Estate Investment Fund by these institutions for funding housing for weaker sections. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Infrastructure: • Infrastructure development shall be an integral part of every housing project whether public or private. • Local Bodies to develop infrastructures like roads, water supply, sanitation and other amenities near the housing sites through development planning process, using housing and Infrastructure Fund and accessible Government funding support. • State Government support to Urban Local Bodies (ULB) for market borrowing for infrastructure development. • State agencies like Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC), Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran (MJP), Maharashtra housing & Area Development Authority (MHADA) and Cities & Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) to facilitate infrastructure development through Public – Private Partnerships. • The private developers should fund and provide necessary infrastructure in case of townships. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Development of Satellite Townships: In view of the rapid urbanization process and growing population in the urban areas of Maharashtra and Mumbai in particular, Government has decided to give importance to providing connectivity and better means of communication to the Satellite Townships. Housing Policy will have to take the above development into consideration. For example, the Mumbai Trans harbour Link connecting the Island City of Mumbai to Navi Mumbai will open up the hinterland around Nhava Sheva for development and boost housing and other developmental activities. An exercise will be undertaken to identify such connectivity infrastructure projects and development of housing will have to be dovetailed accordingly. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Role of Private Sector: The State would facilitate the participation of private sector in: • Development and maintenance of infrastructure. • Technical support in City Planning process. • Technology up gradation and human resource development in housing construction. • Development of slums and urban renewal. • Rental housing. Construction of MIG Houses: It has become very essential also to address the acute accommodation problem being faced by the middle class in urban areas. Their dream and desire is to own a small tenements typically 450 or 500 sq. ft. with one bed room, kitchen, drawing room and attached toilet facilities. It is proposed to incentives construction of such tenements through mandatory zoning provisions as well as grant of higher Floor Space Index (FSI). MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Planning Reforms: • Streamline building approvals through innovative reforms such as self approvals through accredited architects and use of Information Technology. • Liberalizing Development Controls, promoting efficient use of the land through higher Floor Space Index (FSI) for Low Income Group (LIG) housing, wherever feasible. Improve building designs to prevent amalgamation of Low Income Group (LIG) Houses by Higher Income Group (HIG). • Sales Purchase transactions should be in terms of Carpet Area. • Development Control Rules (DCR) should be standardized for different categories of cities . • Housing settlement report to suggest integrated development of new Growth Centers in rural areas, and Small and Medium Towns. • Incentives and regulatory mechanism for Conservation of Heritage structures & precincts, and protection of ecologically sensitive areas. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Rental Housing: • Amendment to the Rent Control Act. • Strengthening the foreclosure laws for rental housing finance. • Incentivizing Low Income Group (LIG) rental housing through higher Floor Space Index (FSI) and fiscal incentives in Property Tax and duties. • Public- private partnership to develop and maintain transit shelters through grant of Government land at concessional rates, higher Floor Space Index (FSI) and supporting infrastructure. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Housing Technology : • Technology development to reduce cost of housing and promote durable housing. • To promote eco-housing, low energy consuming construction techniques and materials. • Encourage the use of precast and prefabricated building material for speedy and cost effective construction of mass housing. • Enforcement of the National Building Code and earthquake resistant construction guidelines. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Institutional Framework: • Housing Department to coordinate policy reforms along with Urban Development Department. • Urban Local Bodies (ULB) supported by State agencies to be responsible for enabling infrastructure development and Low Income Group (LIG) housing through Development Planning process and creation of Ring Fenced Development Funds. • Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) to be the planning authority and nodal agency for slum redevelopment. • Regional Planning Authorities to help in identifying suitable land for housing. • The Revenue and Forest Department at the State level and Collectors at the District level to identify and acquire and allot land for housing. • Zilla Parishads and Village Panchayats to plan and implement rural housing with the support of District collectors, DRDA and District Planning Committees. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Encourage Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Housing Sector: As part of economic reforms and liberalization, Government of India has recently permitted Foreign Director Investment (FDI) in the Housing Sector. Government shall create enabling environment, which will encourage Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in our State either through local partners or even directly. It is expected that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into housing Sector will bring home the experience and advantages of modern housing technology from different parts of the world. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Special township policy: Government of India has announced its policy to permit 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) for development of integrated township. In order to encourage private investment in housing sector and to facilitate housing at affordable prices, the following incentives will be available for projects under Special Township Area :- • Non-agriculture permission will be automatic. • Exemption from Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976.(not into existence) • Government Land falling under township area shall be leased out to the developer at the current market rate. • The condition that only agriculturist will be eligible to buy agriculture land shall not be applicable in Special Township Area. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Special township policy: • There shall be no ceiling limit for holding agriculture land to be purchased by the owner/developer for such project. • There will be floating FSI in the township. Unused FSI of one plot can be used anywhere in the whole township. • The stamp duty rates applicable in the Special Township area shall be 50% of prevailing rates. • A Special Township Project shall be partially exempted from payment of scrutiny fee for processing the development proposal. • 50% concession in payment of development charge. • Development of basic infrastructure and amenities shall be an integral part of the project. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES CLUSTER APPROACH: In order to promote cluster redevelopment, it is proposed to give higher FSI to large cluster redevelopment. The main objectives of the cluster approach will be as follows:- • To transform the fractured development in to cohesive urban unit as laid down in Development Plan. • To provide modern accommodation and social services which raise living standards and reduce disparities amongst different sections of population. • To provide an environment which permits the residents of such areas to live fuller and richer lives free of physical and social stress that are generally associated with haphazard urban development. • To facilitate development and proper maintenance of infrastructure facilities such as sewerage / storm water drainage /DP Roads which cannot be developed because of the present haphazard development. • To generate maximum number of surplus tenements for rehabilitation of the occupiers who are on Master List of MHADA. • The fact that MHADA will play the nodal role in the cluster approach and shall be a signatory to all the agreements will provide greater acceptability and credibility amongst the tenants and landlords. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Redevelopment of Old MHADA Colonies: The Redevelopment of old MHADA colonies all over Maharashtra State has become an important issue because in several colonies, optimal utilization of land has not been done. More than 70% of these colonies were built for the Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) categories. Over the decades, there has been growth in these families both in terms of members and income. Under the present DCR of 33(5) if the MHADA Colony has more than 60% LIG tenements then 20% extra FSI and permission to load TDR is available. However, the size of the tenement is restricted to 30 sq. mts. There is no justification to expect the EWS/LIG families to stay in tenements smaller in size than 30 sq. mts. in perpetuity. Hence it is proposed to allow redevelopment of such colonies by providing higher FSI. and to revise the ceiling of 30 sq. mts. for LIG tenements. This will enable the present occupants to have better accommodation as well as create additional housing stock. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Mandatory Layout for EWS / LIG / MIG: In every layout, whether private or public, it shall be mandatory to provide at least 10% of the layout for EWS/LIG tenements and another 10% of the layout for MIG tenements. The size of the EWS/LIG tenements shall not exceed 30 sq. mts. and it should not exceed 50 sq. mts. for MIG tenements in such a composite layout. Similar policy will be followed for Special Township Project and when industrial layout is converted into a residential layout. The above mandatory reservations for EWS/LIG/MIG are minimum. Higher FSI will be available if more area is allotted for EWS/LIG tenements in any layout. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Eco Housing: Eco-Housing program with focus on resource conservation measures like site planning, total water management, energy conservation, eco-friendly and energy efficient materials, environment architecture, renewable energy, solid waste management and other innovative eco-friendly technologies which will benefits both to citizen as well as to the municipalities in terms of reduced load on municipal infrastructure being implemented in Pune Municipal Corporation will be replicated in other Urban Local Bodies to popularize Eco- Housing activities across the State. It is proposed to incentives such Eco- Housing Projects through rebate in Municipal Taxes and Development Charges. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Development of areas in the periphery of the municipal corporation through Ahmedabad model of town planning schemes: Due to small and fragmented holdings and intense population pressure on the lands located in the cities peripheral areas, there has been unplanned and haphazard development. The traditional approach was to acquire the land and develop planned townships. Under the new townships policy, land are allowed to be pooled and planned development is facilitated. We propose to encourage the landowners to offer their lands for development through town planning schemes, on the lines of Ahmadabad model. Each landowner will offer part of their land for infrastructure development and as open spaces at ready reckoner rates. The cost of infrastructure development will be proportionately set off against the value of land. Developed land would be handed back to the landowners in proportion to their retainable land. MAHARASHTRA HOUSING POLICIES Urban Renewal through Land Pooling: In order to improve quality of life in cities, old and congested layouts will have to make for better planned layouts. This would be possible if land owners and occupiers of existing buildings agree to pool their lands to create a larger land parcel that is amenable to making a planned layout. The existing policy provides very little incentive for people to come together and undertake renewal of their areas. An FSI linked incentive scheme will be formulated that will provide the necessary incentive to aggregate lands not only in Mumbai but also in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region and the limits of all Municipal Corporations.
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