Docstoc

49 PILING

Document Sample
49 PILING Powered By Docstoc
					                                            49 PILING
                                          49-1 GENERAL
49-1.01 GENERAL
49-1.01A Summary
Section 49-1 includes general specifications for constructing foundation piles.
49-1.01B Definitions
control zone: Zone that has the same subsurface profile and engineering properties as a
    corresponding support location.
nominal driving resistance: Sum of (1) nominal resistance required to resist the factored axial
   loads and (2) driving resistance from unsuitable or scourable penetrated soil layers that do
   not contribute to the design resistance.
nominal resistance: Design capacity required to resist the factored axial loads.
pile structural capacity design: Design based on the nominal strength as defined in Article
    8.1.3 of the Caltrans Bridge Design Specifications or the nominal resistance as defined in
    Article 1.3.2.1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.
49-1.01C Submittals
49-1.01C(1) General
Before handling or installing piles at a location that is closer than the length of the pile being
handled or installed to the edge of any traveled way open to public use, submit a work plan of the
measures that will be used to provide for the safety of traffic and the public.
Submit a VECP for revisions to specified tip elevations shown or installation methods.
49-1.01C(2) Test Borings
If test borings are specified in the special provisions, submit the log of test borings and the test
boring report upon completion of all test borings. Submit 4 sets of the test boring report and the
log of test borings to OSD, Documents Unit. The submittal must comply with the specifications for
shop drawings.
If corrections to the submittal are required, submit 1 set of the corrected test boring report and the
log of test borings to OSD, Documents Unit.
49-1.01D Quality Control and Assurance
49-1.01D(1) General
Piling must have sufficient length to attain the specified tip elevation shown and extend into the
pile cap or footing.
49-1.01D(2) Determination of Length
You may conduct additional foundation investigation, including installing and axial load testing of
additional nonproduction indicator piling and performing test borings. The Engineer must
authorize locations of additional foundation testing. Notify the Engineer at least 5 business days
before beginning additional foundation testing.
Complete additional foundation investigation before requesting revised specified pile tip
elevations or revisions to the described installation methods.
The Engineer does not authorize a revision to:
1. Specified installation methods where settlement or lateral loads control the design tip
   elevation
2. Specified pile tip elevation above the design tip elevation shown for settlement or lateral
   loads
3. Specified pile tip elevation where the tip elevation is controlled by liquifaction or scour

Indicator compression pile load testing must comply with ASTM D 1143. The pile must sustain the
1st compression test load applied that is equal to the nominal driving resistance, with no more
than 1/2-inch total vertical movement at the top of the pile measured relative to the top of the pile
before the start of compression load testing.
Indicator tension pile load testing must comply with ASTM D 3689 except do not use the loading
apparatus described as "Load Applied to Pile by Hydraulic Jack(s) Acting at One End of Test
Beam(s) Anchored to the Pile." The pile must sustain the first tension test load applied that is
equal to the nominal resistance in tension shown with no more than 1/2-inch total vertical
movement at the top of the pile measured relative to the top of the pile before the start of tension
load testing.
Remove indicator piling as specified for removing portions of bridges.
49-1.01D(3) Load Test Piles
Where shown, complete load testing of each load test pile before drilling holes, casting, cutting to
length, driving, and fabricating reinforcing steel cages for any piles represented by the load test
pile.
Notify the Engineer at least 10 days before drilling or driving piles to be load tested.
Except in cofferdams, the bottom of the footing excavation must be level and dewatered before
pile load testing. The excavation must be kept dewatered during load testing.
Install load test piles with the same type of equipment that is to be used for installation of
production piles.
Load test piles must comply with the requirements for piling as described. Locate load test piles
so that they may be cut off and become a part of the completed structure.
Remove load test and anchor piles that are not incorporated in the completed structure as
specified for removing portions of bridges.
For load test anchorages in piles used as anchor piles:
1. HS threaded steel rods must comply with ASTM A 722 for uncoated, deformed, Type II, HS
   steel bars, including all supplementary requirements, except the maximum weight
   requirement does not apply.
2. Steel plates must comply with ASTM A 709/A 709M, Grade 36.
3. Anchor nuts must hold the HS steel rods at a load producing a stress of not less than 95
   percent of the specified ultimate tensile strength of the HS steel rod.
4. Pipe, couplings, and fittings must be commercially available materials of the types and ratings
   shown.

You may use additional cementitious material in load test and anchor piles.
You may use Type III cement in any load test and anchor pile not used as a part of the completed
structure.
Furnish labor, materials, tools, equipment, and incidentals as required to assist the Department in
the installation, operation, and removal of Department-furnished steel load test beams, jacks,
bearing plates, drills, and other test equipment. This is change order work.
The Department performs testing of load test piles when the concrete in the load test and anchor
piles has developed a compressive strength of at least 2,000 psi.
Allow the Department 15 days to perform pile load tests at each test location. Allow an additional
10 days for the Department to revise the specified tip elevations.
49-1.01D(4) Dynamic Monitoring
Section 49-1.01D(4) applies if dynamic monitoring of driven piling is specified in the special
provisions.
The Department determines which piles from a control zone or support location will receive
dynamic monitoring.
The Department dynamically monitors driven piles using Department-furnished dynamic pile
analyzer monitoring instruments.
The 4th paragraph of section 49-2.01A(4)(b)<Pile Driving Acceptance Criteria> does not apply to
driven piles when dynamic monitoring is required.
The Department conducts penetration and bearing analysis of dynamically monitored piles and
develops bearing acceptance criteria curves for these piles. Penetration and bearing analyses are
based on a wave equation analysis.
Except for load test and anchor piles, do not install production piles until the Engineer provides
you with the bearing acceptance criteria curves for any piles represented by the dynamically
monitored piles.
Piles to be dynamically monitored must be:
1. Available to the Department at least 2 business days before driving.
2. Safely supported at least 6 inches off the ground in a horizontal position on at least 2 support
   blocks. If requested, rotate the piles on the blocks.
3. Positioned such that the Department has safe access to the entire pile length and
   circumference for the installation of anchorages and control marks for monitoring.

Prepare and drive piles to be dynamically monitored in the following sequence:
1. Before driving, rotate and align the pile in the driving leads as directed by the Department.
2. Temporarily suspend driving operations for approximately 15 minutes when the pile tip is 25
   feet above the specified tip elevation shown.
3. During the 15 minute suspension, bolt the 1 lb instrument package securely to plugs or
   expansion anchors previously installed in the pile by the Department. Connect electrical
   cables to the instrument package as directed by the Department.
4. Resume driving operations as directed by the Department. Suspend driving operations
   approximately 1 foot above the specified tip elevation.
5. Remove the cables and instrument package from the pile and deliver them to the Engineer.
6. The following business day, install the instrument package on the pile and attach the cables
   and resume driving the pile to the specified tip elevation.
7. Remove the cables and instruments from the monitored pile and deliver them to the
   Engineer. Replace any damaged cables or instruments in kind that are damaged by your
   activities.

After the pile has been dynamically monitored:
1. Allow 15 days for the Department to revise the specified tip elevations and to provide bearing
   acceptance criteria curves.
2. If pile load testing is performed in addition to dynamic monitoring, allow 25 days for the
   Department to revise the specified tip elevations and to provide bearing acceptance criteria
   curves.

49-1.01D(5) Test Borings
Section 49-1.01D(5) applies if test borings are specified in the special provisions.
Notify the Engineer at least 15 days before drilling test borings.
Drill test borings under the site supervision of, with the log of test borings stamped by, and with
the test boring submittal signed by a geologist or civil engineer who is registered in the State and
has at least 5 years of geotechnical engineering experience with deep foundations in both soil
and rock.
Drill test borings at the center of each pile location shown.
Drill test borings by rotary drill methods to a depth of at least 20 feet below the specified tip
elevation shown. Test borings must be at least 3 inches in diameter.
Perform standard penetration tests in all soil types under ASTM D 1586 for each test boring at 5-
foot maximum intervals and terminate when (1) bedrock is encountered, (2) 10 blows with no
discernable sampler advancement is observed, or (3) ordered.
Core bedrock:
1. Continuously with at least 90 percent core recovery. Rock must not be logged from drill
   cuttings. Rock quality designation must be made at 5-foot maximum intervals.
2. Using an outer and inner core barrel drilling system. The outer core barrel must be fitted with
   a diamond impregnated or polycrystalline drill bit and have an outside diameter of at least 3
   inches. The split inner tube core barrel must have an inside diameter of at least 2 inches.

Photograph rock cores:
1. Before removal from the split inner tube barrels and placement into core boxes
2. After core boxes are filled and before boxes are removed from the drilling platform

Rock core photographs must be in color, 5 by 7 inches, and labeled with the borehole number,
sample elevation, scale, and date and time of photograph.
Place rock cores in rock core boxes that are labeled as specified in the Soil and Rock Logging,
Classification and Presentation Manual. Include the support or pile location. Store rock core
boxes on or near the job site at an authorized location. Preserve and secure the rock core
samples in a weather-protected facility until notified by the Engineer. Dispose of rock cores or
transport them to Geotechnical Services, as ordered.
The log of test borings and classifying and describing soils and rock must comply with the Soil
and Rock Logging, Classification and Presentation Manual available at the Geotechnical Services
website. Use the same version of the Soil and Rock Logging, Classification, and Presentation
Manual shown on the plans. If no version is shown, use the most current version of the manual.
The test boring report must include:
1. Summary of drilling methods, drilling equipment, drill platforms, and drilling difficulties
   encountered
2. Location map of the surveyed position of the test borings relative to the new pile locations in
   the California Coordinate System and bridge stationing
3. Bore hole surveying notes
4. Photographs of rock cores
5. Copies of original daily drilling notes

After the test boring report and the log of test borings have been authorized, allow 20 days for the
Engineer to notify you of confirmation of or revisions to the specified pile tip elevations. Do not
fabricate or manufacture to length steel pipe piling, permanent steel casing, micropiling, and filled
and unfilled steel casing until you have been notified.
49-1.02 MATERIALS
Reserved
49-1.03 CONSTRUCTION
If the Contract allows the use of more than 1 pile type, use the same type of pile for all piles within
each individual footing.
Reinforced concrete extensions must comply with section 51.<Concrete Structures>
49-1.04 PAYMENT
The payment quantity of load test piles and adjacent anchor piles is the length used in the load
testing. Load test piles and adjacent anchor piles are paid for as the type or class of piling shown
in the Bid Item List.
The length of the reinforced concrete extension is measured from the plane of pile cutoff to the
top of the extension. The extension is paid for as furnish piling or CIDH concrete piling of the type
of piling on which it is constructed.
Payment for structure excavation and structure backfill involved in constructing concrete
extensions is included in the payment for drive pile or CIDH concrete piling of the type of piling on
which the extension is constructed.
                                      49-2 DRIVEN PILING
49-2.01 GENERAL
49-2.01A General
49-2.01A(1) Summary
Section 49-2 includes specifications for constructing driven piles.
49-2.01A(2) Definitions
Reserved
49-2.01A(3) Submittals
49-2.01A(3)(a) General
For pile driving hammers with no way of visually observing the ram stroke, submit a printed
readout as an informational submittal showing hammer energy during driving operations.
49-2.01A(3)(b) Driving System Submittal
Section 49-2.01A(3)(b) applies if a driving system submittal is specified in the special provisions.
The driving system submittal must be sealed and signed by an engineer who is registered as a
civil engineer in the State
Allow 15 days for the Department's review. Allow an additional 15 days for the review of any
resubmittals.
Submit a revised driving system submittal if the hammers change from those shown in the
submittal.
For the driving system submittal, perform driveability studies as follows:
1. Model the proposed driving system including hammers, cap blocks, and pile cushions based
   on a wave equation analysis.
2. Use an authorized computer program.
3. If the driveability analysis hammers indicate that open ended pipe pile and steel shell
   penetration rates are less than 1 foot per 200 blows and the driving stresses exceed 80
   percent of the yield strength of the pipe and steel shell, include assumptions for drilling
   through the center of the piles and shells.
4. When a follower is used, include (1) an analysis of the driving system with the follower and
   (2) an analysis of the driving system without the follower.
Include in the driving system submittal:
1. Results of the driveability analysis showing that all proposed driving systems will install piles
   to the specified tip elevation and nominal driving resistance shown. Driving systems must
   generate sufficient energy to drive the piles with compressive and tensile stresses not more
   than 90 percent of the yield strength of the pile as driven. Include:
   1.1     Pile compressive stress versus blows per foot.
   1.2     Pile tensile stress vs. blows per foot.
   1.3     Nominal driving resistance vs. blows per foot.
2. Complete description of:
   2.1     Soil parameters used, including soil quake and damping coefficients, skin friction
           distribution, and ratio of shaft resistance to total resistance.
   2.2     Assumptions made regarding the formation of soil plugs, drilling through the center of
           open ended steel shells, and the use of closure plates, shoes, and other tip treatment.
3. List of all hammer operation parameters assumed in the analysis, including fuel settings,
   stroke limitations, and hammer efficiency.
4. Copies of all test results from any previous pile load tests, dynamic monitoring, and all driving
   records used in the analyses.
5. Completed Pile and Driving Data Form.

49-2.01A(4) Quality Control and Assurance
49-2.01A(4)(a) General
Reserved
49-2.01A(4)(b) Pile Driving Acceptance Criteria
Except for piles to be load tested and sheet piles, drive piles to at least the nominal driving
resistance and the specified tip elevation shown.
Drive piles to be load tested and sheet piles to the specified tip elevation shown.
If the pile nominal driving resistance is not shown, drive the pile to the nominal resistance shown.
For pile acceptance, use the following formula to determine the required number of hammer
blows in the last foot of driving:
                        1/2
    Ru = (1.83 x (Er)         x log10 (0.83 x N)) - 124

    where:
    Ru = nominal driving resistance, kips
    Er = manufacturer's rating for foot-pounds of energy developed by the hammer at the
          observed field drop height
    N = number of hammer blows in the last foot, (maximum value allowed for N is 96)

49-2.01B Materials
Reserved
49-2.01C Construction
49-2.01C(1) General
If the Engineer revises the pile tip elevation for driven piles, the work involved in furnishing,
splicing, and driving the additional length of pile is change order work.
If the Engineer orders additional lugs be placed on steel piles, furnishing and placing these lugs is
change order work. The Department does not pay for the additional work involved in driving piles
due to these additional lugs.
49-2.01C(2) Driving Equipment
Install driven piles using an authorized impact hammer. The impact hammer must be:
1. Steam, hydraulic, air, or diesel
2. Able to develop sufficient energy to drive the pile at a penetration rate of not less than 1/8
   inch per blow at the nominal driving resistance shown

Do not use vibratory hammers, oscillators, or rotators to install driven piles.
Hammers with an external combustion engine that are not single action must have a transducer
that records ram velocity.
Double acting diesel hammers with internal combustion engines must have a transducer that
records bounce chamber pressure.
Steam or air hammers must have boiler or air capacity of at least that specified by the
manufacturer. The boiler or air compressor must be equipped with an accurate pressure gage.
Maintain the valve mechanism and other parts of steam, air, or diesel hammers such that the
length of stroke and number of blows per minute for which the hammer is designed is attained.
Do not use inefficient steam, air, or diesel hammers.
You may use followers or underwater hammers for driving piles if authorized. If using a follower
or underwater hammer, verify its efficiency by furnishing the first pile in each bent or footing
sufficiently long and drive the pile without the use of a follower or underwater hammer.
49-2.01C(3) Drilling
If necessary to attain the specified tip elevation shown and if authorized, you may drill holes with
a diameter not greater than the least dimension of the pile to the specified depth before driving
the piles.
49-2.01C(4) Predrilled Holes
For piles to be driven through embankments constructed under the Contract, drive piles through
predrilled holes where the depth of the new embankment at the pile location is in excess of 5 feet.
The hole diameter must be at least 6 inches larger than the greatest dimension of the pile cross
section. After driving the pile, fill the space around the pile to the ground surface with dry sand or
pea gravel.
49-2.01C(5) Driving
Use driving heads or driving blocks that hold the pile in position directly under the hammer when
driving.
Protect the heads of driven piles from direct impact of the hammer with a cushion driving block.
Maintain the cushion in good condition during the entire driving operation. Arrange the cushion
driving block such that any reinforcing bars projecting above the pile is not displaced or damaged
during driving.
Provide special driving tips or heavier pile sections or take other authorized measures to prevent
damage to steel piles, steel shells, or steel casings during installation.
If you encounter obstructions to driving, provide special driving tips or heavier pile sections, or
subexcavate below the bottom of footing, or take other measures to prevent damage to the pile
during driving. This is change order work.
Drive piles to the position and line shown. The Engineer rejects piles materially out of line.
Dispose of rejected piles that interfere with the work. Rejected piles that do not interfere with the
work may be removed or cut off and abandoned in place.
49-2.01C(6) Pile Cutoff
Cut off driven piles at the elevations shown and anchor them to the structure. Do not damage the
pile below cutoff.
Dispose of all cutoff lengths of piles.
49-2.01D Payment
Driven piling is paid for as furnish piling and drive pile of the class, type, size, or alternative shown
in the Bid Item List.
Furnish piling is measured from the specified tip elevation shown to the plane of pile cutoff.
Payment for furnish piling includes:
1. Furnishing piles to the job site
2. Splicing piles
3. Furnishing and installing pile anchors and lugs

Payment for drive pile includes:
1.   Driving and cutting the piles off at the elevations shown
2.   Furnishing special driving tips or heavier sections of steel piles
3.   Drilling holes or predrilling holes through embankments
4.   Disposing of material resulting from drilling holes or predrilling holes

49-2.02 STEEL PIPE PILING
49-2.02A General
49-2.02A(1) Summary
Section 49-2.02 includes specifications for constructing steel pipe piles.
49-2.02A(2) Definitions
shop welding: Welding performed at a permanent facility.
field welding: Welding performed at the job site.
49-2.02A(3) Submittals
49-2.02A(3)(a) General
Reserved
49-2.02A(3)(b) Certificate of Compliance
Submit a certificate of compliance for steel pipe piles. The certificate of compliance must be
signed by the facility QC representative. The QC representative must be on record with the
Department's Office of Structural Materials. Include with the certificate of compliance:
1. Statement that all materials and workmanship incorporated in the work and all required tests
   and inspections of this work have been performed as described.
2. Certified mill test reports for each heat number of steel pipe piles being furnished.
3. Test reports for tensile, chemical, and any specified NDT. Test reports must be based on test
   samples taken from the base metal, steel, coil or from the manufactured or fabricated piles.
4. Calculated carbon equivalent. The carbon equivalent may be shown on the mill test report.

49-2.02A(3)(c) Inspection Request Form
Submit a TL-38 Inspection Request form at least:
1. 48 hours before performing any field welding of steel pipe piles
2. 10 days before performing any welding of Class N steel pipe piles

For the TL-38 Inspection Request form, go to the METS Web site.
49-2.02A(3)(d) Shop Drawings
Submit shop drawings for attaching handling devices to steel pipe piles. Shop drawings must
include the locations, handling and fitting device details, and connection details. Allow 7 days for
review of the shop drawings.
49-2.02A(4) Quality Control and Assurance
49-2.02A(4)(a) General
The requirements of section 11-3.02<Welding Quality Control> do not apply to longitudinal, skelp
end, or spiral seam welds in steel pipe piles. The requirements of section 11-3.02<Welding
Quality Control> apply only to circumferential welds.
49-2.02A(4)(b) Facility Audit
Fabricate steel pipe piles at a facility on the Authorized Facility Audit List.
49-2.02A(4)(c) Nondestructive Testing
49-2.02A(4)(c)(1) General
Section 49-2.02A(4)(c) applies to NDT of Class N steel pipe piles.
Except for welding performed under API 5L, the acceptance criteria for RT and UT must comply
with AWS D1.1 for cyclically loaded nontubular connections for welds subject to tensile stress.
Perform NDT on backing ring welds using RT or UT for a material thickness of 5/16 inch or
greater or using RT for a material thickness less than 5/16 inch.
49-2.02A(4)(c)(2) Shop Welds
Section 49-2.02A(4)(c)(2) applies to NDT of shop welds.
For welding performed under API 5L:
1. Submit a DVD or VHS videocassette recording of the actual product testing if radiological
   testing is used or the actual radiographic film if film radiography is used. Submit the recording
   before shipping the product from the facility.
2. If film radiography is used to inspect pipe ends or repairs, the transmitted film density must be
   from 2.0 to 4.0 in the area of interest, weld, base metal, and image quality indicators.
3. Reinspect repaired defects using the NDT method that originally detected the defect except
   you may use film radiography for the inspection of repairs if the defect was originally detected
   using radiological testing.

For welding performed under AWS D1.1:
1. Perform NDT on 25 percent of each longitudinal, circumferential, or spiral weld using RT or
   UT.
2. If repairs are required in a portion of the tested weld:
   2.1. Perform NDT on the repaired portion.
   2.2. Perform additional NDT on untested areas on each side of the repaired portion. The
          length of additional NDT on each side of the repaired portion must equal 10 percent of
          the pipe's outside circumference.
   2.3. After this additional 20 percent of NDT is performed, and if additional repairs are
          required, determine and document the total cumulative repair lengths from all NDT. If
          the cumulative weld repair length is equal to or more than 10 percent of the pipe's
          outside circumference, then perform NDT on the entire weld.

49-2.02A(4)(c)(3) Field Welds
Section 49-2.02A(4)(c)(3) applies to NDT of field welds.
Perform NDT on 25 percent of each field weld by RT or UT at locations selected by the Engineer.
The Engineer may select several locations on a given splice. The cover pass must be ground
smooth at locations to be tested.
Personnel performing UT for field welds must have their qualifications verified before performing
NDT, by both written and practical exams. For UT qualification procedures, go to the METS Web
site.
If repairs are required in a portion of the tested weld:
1. Perform NDT on the repaired portion.
2. Perform additional NDT on untested areas on each side of the repaired portion. The length of
   additional NDT on each side of the repaired portion must equal 10 percent of the pipe's
   outside circumference.
3. After this additional 20 percent of NDT is performed, and if additional repairs are required,
   determine and document the total cumulative repair lengths from all NDT. If the cumulative
   weld repair length is equal to or more than 10 percent of the pipe's outside circumference,
   then perform NDT on the entire weld.

49-2.02B Materials
49-2.02B(1) General
49-2.02B(1)(a) General
Piles not specified as Class N in the special provisions must comply with the specifications for
Class R.
The carbon equivalent of steel in steel pipe piles must not exceed 0.45 percent. Use the following
formula to calculate the carbon equivalent:
    CE = C + (Mn + Si)/6 + (Cr +Mo +V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15

    where:
    CE = carbon equivalent, percent

Sulfur content of steel in steel pipe piles must not exceed 0.05 percent.
Seams in steel pipe piles must be complete joint penetration welds.
For welding and prequalifying base metal under Table 3.1 of AWS D1.1, treat steel pipe piles
complying with ASTM A 252 as either ASTM A 572, Grade 50, or ASTM A 709, Grade 50.
Butt welded seams subsequently formed, including skelp end welds, must be 100 percent
ultrasonically tested in the final formed and welded condition. The acceptance criteria for UT must
comply with one of the following:
1. API 5L for API-licensed facilities
2. AWS D1.1 for cyclically loaded nontubular connections for welds subject to tensile stress.

Except for tack welding, do not use gas metal arc welding for welding of steel pipe piles. If gas
metal arc welding is used for tack welding, do not deposit filler metal by short circuiting transfer.
49-2.02B(1)(b) Circumferential Welds
Circumferential welds must be complete joint penetration welds complying with AWS D1.1.
Locate circumferential welds at least 12 inches away from a skelp end weld.
Backing rings must comply with the following:
1. The minimum thickness of the backing ring must be 1/4 inch and the backing ring must be
   continuous.
2. Splices in the backing ring must be made by complete joint penetration welds. These welds
   must be completed and inspected, including performing any required NDT, before final
   insertion into a pipe end.
3. Attach backing rings to pipe ends using the minimum size and spacing of tack welds that will
   securely hold the backing ring in place. Tack weld in the root area of the weld splice. Remove
   and replace cracked tack welds before subsequent weld passes.
4. The gap between the backing ring and the steel pipe wall must not be greater than 5/64 inch.
   One localized portion of the backing ring fit-up may be offset by a gap equal to or less than
   1/4 inch, if the localized portion is (1) equal to or less than 20 percent of the outside
   circumference of the pipe, (2) first seal welded using shielded metal arc E7016 or E7018
   electrodes, and (3) marked such that it can be referenced during any required NDT.
5. Backing rings must have enough width so that the backing ring does not interfere with the
   interpretation of the NDT.

For steel pipe piles with an outside diameter greater than 42 inches and a wall thickness greater
than 1 inch, you may increase the root opening tolerances to a maximum of 3/16 inch.
For welding limited to fit-up and attaching backing rings and handling devices, the preheat and
interpass temperatures must comply with Clause 3.5 and Table 3.2, Category C, of AWS D1.1.
If splicing steel pipe piles using a circumferential weld, the piles must meet the fit-up requirements
of Clause 5.22.3.1 of AWS D1.1.
49-2.02B(1)(c) Tolerances
Dimensional tolerances of steel pipe piles must comply with the following:
1. Outside diameter: ±0.75 percent of the outside diameter shown
2. Wall thickness: -5 to +10 percent of the nominal wall thickness shown
3. Straightness: ±1.0 percent over the length of the pipe

49-2.02B(1)(e) Markings
Except for steel pipe piles marked with the API monogram, mark each length of the steel pipe pile
as follows:
1.   Name and location of the piling manufacturer
2.   State Contract number, for Class N only
3.   Heat number
4.   Welding process
5.   Outer diameter, nominal wall thickness, minimum wall thickness, and length
6.   Year piling was produced
7.   Marked as specified for each class of steel pipe piling. Only Department authorized audited
     facilities are approved to mark piling for use on a Contract.

49-2.02B(1)(f) Substitutions
Reserved
49-2.02B(2) Class N Steel Pipe Piling
Section 49-2.02B(2) applies to steel pipe piles specified as Class N in the special provisions.
Class N steel pipe piles must comply with one of the following:
1. API 5L, minimum Grade X52, PSL1, and must be:
   1.1. Manufactured, welded, tested, and inspected at a facility licensed to apply the API
         monogram
   1.2. Marked with the API monogram on each length of steel pipe
2. ASTM A 252, Grade 3, and the following:
   2.1   Welding must comply with AWS D1.1.
    2.2.   Groove welds using submerged arc welding from both sides without backgouging
           require a procedure qualification record witnessed by the Engineer.
    2.3    At the start of fabrication and for each thickness of the piling, furnish 3 macroetch
           cross-section test specimens that have been prepared under Clause 4.8.4 of AWS
           D1.1. Remove specimens at locations selected by the Engineer and in the presence of
           the Engineer. Test specimens must indicate that the weld is free of cracks and has
           thorough fusion between adjacent layers of weld metal and between weld metal and
           base metal. Undercut must not exceed 1/32 inch.
    2.4    The weighing of individual pipe is not required as specified in ASTM A 252.
    2.5    Each length of pipe must be marked "Caltrans Class N - A252."

49-2.02B(3) Class R Steel Pipe Piling
Section 49-2.02B(3) applies to Class R steel pipe piles.
Class R steel pipe piles must comply with one of the following:
1. API 5L, minimum Grade X52, PSL1, and must be:
   1.1. Manufactured, welded, tested, and inspected at a facility licensed to apply the API
         monogram, except that hydrostatic testing, flattening tests, and the API monogram are
         not required
   1.2. Marked "Caltrans Class R - API" on each length of steel pipe
2. ASTM A 252, Grade 3, and the following:
   2.1. Arc welding processes must comply with AWS D1.1
   2.2. Groove welds using submerged arc welding from both sides without backgouging will
         require a procedure qualification record witnessed by the Engineer
   2.3. Underfill is not allowed
   2.4. For electric resistance welded pipe, remove the outer diameter flash to a maximum of
         1/32 inch
   2.5. The weld reinforcement must not exceed 1/8 inch
   2.6. The weighing of individual pipe is not required as specified in ASTM A 252
   2.7. Each length of pipe must be marked "Caltrans Class R - A 252"

49-2.02C Construction
49-2.02C(1) General
Steel pipe piles may be retapped to prevent pile set-up provided the field welded splice remains
at least 3 feet above the work platform until the Engineer authorizes the splice.
When attaching handling devices to steel pipe piles, align the welds parallel to the axis of the pile.
Welds must comply with the requirements for attaching backing rings in section 49-
2.02B(1)(b)<Circumferential Welds>. Permanent bolted connections must be corrosion resistant.
49-2.02C(2) Field Welds
Field welds must comply with section 49-2.02B(1)(b).<Circumferential Welds>
Field welds made in the horizontal position where the longitudinal pipe axis is vertical must be
single-bevel groove welds.
The minimum preheat and interpass temperature for splice welding and for making repairs must
be 150 degrees F. If field welding is disrupted, preheating to 150 degrees F must occur before
welding is resumed.
Do not water quench field welds. Allow welds to cool unassisted to ambient temperature.
Remove ends of steel pipe piles to be spliced that have been damaged during driving to a sound
and uniform section. Pipe ends must comply with the tolerances for diameter, edge alignment,
and roundness required to meet the steel pile splice welding requirements. Pipe ends must be
field cut using automated guided cutting equipment. Do not use manual flame cutting.
49-2.02D Payment
Not Used
49-2.03 STRUCTURAL SHAPE STEEL PILES
49-2.03A General
49-2.03A(1) Summary
Section 49-2.03 includes specifications for constructing structural shape steel piles.
49-2.03A(2) Definitions
Reserved
49-2.03A(3) Submittals
Submit a certificate of compliance that includes:
1. Test reports for tensile, chemical, and any specified NDT. Test samples must be taken from
   the base metal, steel, or from the manufactured or fabricated pile.
2. A statement that all materials and workmanship incorporated in the work and all required
   tests and inspections of this work have been performed as described.

49-2.03A(4) Quality Control and Assurance
Reserved
49-2.03B Materials
Structural shape steel piles must comply with ASTM A 36 or ASTM A 572.
Splices must be complete joint penetration groove welds complying with AWS D1.1.
49-2.03C Construction
Field splices must be complete joint penetration groove welds complying with AWS D1.1.
49-2.03D Payment
Not Used
49-2.04 PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILING
49-2.04A General
49-2.04A(1) Summary
Section 49-2.04 includes specifications for constructing PC PS concrete piles.
PC PS concrete piles must comply with sections 50, <Prestressing Concrete>51,<Concrete
Structures> and 52.<Reinforcement>
49-2.04A(2) Definitions
Reserved
49-2.04A(3) Submittals
When requested, submit 2 sets of shop drawings for PC PS concrete piles for use during
construction. Include the following details in the shop drawings:
1.   Pile dimensions
2.   Material type
3.   Prestressing methods
4.   Tendon arrangement and working stresses
5.   Any addition or rearrangement of reinforcement from that shown

Section 50-1.01C(3)<Shop Drawings> does not apply to prestressing systems used for PC PS
concrete piles.
Authorization of the shop drawings is not required.
49-2.04A(4) Quality Control and Assurance
PC PS concrete piles must comply with section 11-2.<Precast Concrete>
The Department inspects PC PS concrete piles at the fabrication site. Notify the Department at
least 10 days before fabricating any piles. Materials to be used must be available to the
Department for testing.
49-2.04B Materials
49-2.04B(1) General
Threaded inserts and other fittings must comply with section 75-1.03.<Miscellaneous Bridge
Metal>
49-2.04B(2) Fabrication
Place concrete for PC PS concrete piles in smooth, mortar-tight forms. Support the forms to
prevent appreciable deformation or settlement during placing or curing.
Finish unformed surfaces to a smooth surface.
Cure PC PS concrete piles under section 90-4.03<Construction> except piles in a corrosive
environment must be steam or water cured.
If piles in a corrosive environment are steam cured, steam cure the piles under section 90-
4.03<Construction> except piles must be kept continuously wet for at least 3 days, including the
holding and steam curing periods.
If piles in a corrosive environment are water cured, the piles must be kept continuously wet by the
application of water as specified in section 90-1.03B(2).<Water Method>
When removed from the form, the pile must:
1. Have true, smooth, even surfaces, free from honeycombs and voids
2. Be straight such that a line stretched from butt to tip on any pile face is not more than 1 inch
   from the face of the pile at any point

Except for PC PS concrete piles in a corrosive environment, remove lifting anchors and fill holes
under section 51-1.03F(2).<Ordinary Surface Finish>
For PC PS concrete piles in a corrosive environment, remove lifting anchors to a depth of at least
1 inch below the surface of the concrete. Fill holes with epoxy adhesive before delivering piles to
the job site. The epoxy adhesive must comply with 95-2.01.<Binder (Adhesive), Epoxy Base>
If using pile anchor dowels, anchor the dowels in cast or drilled holes in the concrete pile with
neat cement paste. The diameter of the holes must be the minimum consistent with placing the
neat cement paste and dowel.
Use methods for drilling holes that will not damage the concrete, reinforcement, or prestressing
steel.
The drilled hole must be free of dust and other deleterious material when placing the neat cement
paste. Neat cement paste and dowel must completely fill the drilled hole. The dowels must be left
undisturbed until the paste has hardened.
49-2.04B(3) Substitutions
Reserved
49-2.04C Construction
49-2.04C(1) General
PC PS concrete piles must not be driven until at least 14 days after casting.
49-2.04C(2) Handling
When handling or transporting PC PS concrete piles, provide slings or other equipment to avoid
bending the pile or cracking the concrete. Replace piles materially damaged in handling or during
driving.
49-2.04C(3) Splicing Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles
Reserved
49-2.04D Payment
Not Used
49-2.05 STEEL SHEET PILING
49-2.05A General
Section 49-2.05 includes specifications for installing permanent steel sheet piles.
49-2.05B Materials
Steel sheet piles must be interlocking steel sheet complying with ASTM A 328/A 328M.
The minimum section modulus per linear foot of wall must be the section modulus shown.
You may install used sheet piles provided the piles are in good condition and no alterations have
been made to reduce the section modulus. Interlocks must be straight, true, and have no gouges
or kinks.
Furnish piles in lengths measured from the specified tip elevation shown to the cutoff elevation.
Splices in steel sheet piles must be complete joint penetration welds complying with AWS D1.1.
49-2.05C Construction
Drive steel sheet piles to the specified tip elevation shown. Remove and redrive or replace piles
that are materially out of line.
49-2.05D Payment
Not Used
                           49-3 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILING
49-3.01 GENERAL
49-3.01A General
Section 49-3 includes specifications for constructing CIP concrete piles.
CIP concrete piles include:
1. CIDH concrete piles
2. CIDH concrete pile rock sockets
3. CISS concrete piles

49-3.01B Materials
49-3.01B(1) General
Concrete must comply with the specifications for concrete designated by compressive strength in
Section 90-1.01D(5).<Compressive Strength>
Unless otherwise shown, concrete must have a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 3,600
psi.
The combined aggregate grading must comply with the 1-inch maximum grading, the 1/2-inch
maximum grading, or the 3/8-inch maximum grading specified in section 90-1.02C(4).<Aggregate
Gradings>
Bar reinforcing steel must comply with section 52.
49-3.01B(2) Mass Concrete
Section 49-3.01B(2) applies to CIP concrete piles with a diameter greater than 8 feet.
The amount of cementitious material must comply with the values shown in the following table:

                            Pile diameter (D)             Maximum amount of
                                  (feet)                  cementitious material
                                                              (lb/cu yd)
                                8 < D ≤ 10                         750
                               10 < D ≤ 14                         720

Cementitious material must comply with section 90-1.02B(3)<Supplementary Cementitious
Materials>, except at least 25 percent of the total cementitious material must be fly ash.
For piles with a diameter greater than 14 feet, concrete must comply with the specifications for
mass concrete in section 51-6.<Mass Concrete>
49-3.01C Construction
Construct CIP concrete piles such that the excavation methods and the concrete placement
procedures provide for placing the concrete against undisturbed material in a dry or dewatered
hole.
Place and secure reinforcement symmetrically about the axis of the pile. Securely block the
reinforcement to provide the minimum clearance shown between the reinforcing steel cage and
the sides of the drilled hole or steel shell.
Steel shells and dewatered drilled holes must be clean and free of water and debris before
reinforcement and concrete are placed.
Provide a suitable light to the Engineer for inspecting the entire length of the steel shell or
dewatered hole before placing reinforcement and concrete.
The methods used to place the concrete must prevent segregation.
Concrete must not be allowed to fall from a height greater than 8 feet without the use of
adjustable length pipes or tubes unless the flow of concrete is directed into the center of the hole
and the concrete is not allowed to strike the reinforcement, reinforcement bracing, and other
objects in the hole.
Vibrate concrete in the upper 15 feet of CIP concrete piles.
After placing concrete, cure the temporarily exposed surfaces of the CIP concrete piles under
section 51-1.03H.<Curing Concrete Structures>
49-3.01D Payment
Furnishing and placing bar reinforcing steel is not included in the payment for CIP concrete piling
unless the CIP concrete piling is one of the following:
1. Less than 24 inches in diameter
2. For pole or overhead sign structures
49-3.02 CAST-IN-DRILLED-HOLE CONCRETE PILING
49-3.02A General
49-3.02A(1) Summary
Section 49-3.02 includes specifications for constructing CIDH concrete piles.
49-3.02A(2) Definitions
Reserved
49-3.02A(3) Submittals
49-3.02A(3)(a) General
Reserved
49-3.02A(3)(b) Pile Installation Plan
Submit a pile installation plan. Include complete descriptions, details, and supporting calculations
for the following:
1. Concrete mix design, certified test data, and trial batch reports.
2. Drilling or coring methods and equipment.
3. Proposed method for casing installation and removal, if necessary.
4. Methods for placing, positioning, and supporting bar reinforcement.
5. Methods and equipment for determining:
   6.1     Depth of concrete
   6.2     Theoretical volume of concrete to be placed, including the effects on volume if casings
           are withdrawn
   6.3     Actual volume of concrete placed
6. Methods and equipment for verifying the bottom of the drilled hole is clean before placing
   concrete.
7. Methods and equipment for preventing upward movement of reinforcement, including the
   means of detecting and measuring upward movement during concrete placement activities.

For concrete placed under slurry, include complete descriptions, details, and supporting
calculations in the pile installation plan for:
1. Concrete batching, delivery, and placing systems, including time schedules and capacities.
   Time schedules must include the time required for each concrete placing activity at each pile.
2. Concrete placing rate calculations. If requested, base calculations on the initial pump
   pressures or static head on the concrete and losses throughout the placing system, including
   anticipated head of slurry and concrete to be displaced.
3. Suppliers’ test reports on the physical and chemical properties of the slurry and any proposed
   slurry chemical additives, including MSDSs.
4. Slurry testing equipment and procedures.
5. Methods of removal and disposal of excavation, slurry, and contaminated concrete, including
   removal rates.
6. Methods and equipment for slurry agitating, recirculating, and cleaning.

49-3.02A(3)(c) Inspection Pipe Coupler Log
If inspection pipes are required, submit a log of the locations of inspection pipe couplers as an
informational submittal upon completion of concrete placement in the hole.
49-3.02A(3)(d) Concrete Placement Log
Submit the concrete placement log as an informational submittal within 1 business day of
completion of concrete placement in the hole.
49-3.02A(3)(e) Coring Logs and Concrete Cores
If coring is performed under section 49-3.02A(4), submit coring logs and concrete cores.
49-3.02A(3)(f) Testing Report
If you perform testing on a rejected pile, submit this additional information in a report. The report
must be sealed and signed by an engineer who is registered as a civil engineer in the State.
Allow the Department 10 days for review and analysis of this report.
49-3.02A(3)(g) Mitigation Plans
For each rejected pile, submit a mitigation plan for repair, supplementation, or replacement. The
mitigation plan must:
1. Comply with the specifications for shop drawings.
2. Be sealed and signed by an engineer who is registered as a civil engineer in the State This
   requirement is waived for either of the following conditions:
   2.1    The proposed mitigation will be performed under the current Department authorized
          version of ADSC Standard Mitigation Plan 'A' - Basic Repair without exception or
          modification.
   2.2    The Engineer determines that the rejected pile does not require mitigation due to
          structural, geotechnical, or corrosion concerns, and you elect to repair the pile using
          the current Department authorized version of ADSC Standard Mitigation Plan 'B' -
          Grouting Repair without exception or modification.

The most recent version of the ADSC Standard Mitigation Plan is available at the following Web
site:
    http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/geotech/ft/adscmitplan.htm

Pile mitigation plans must include:
1. Designation and location of the rejected pile.
2. Review of the structural, geotechnical, and corrosion design requirements of the rejected pile.
3. Step by step description of the mitigation work to be performed, including drawings if
   necessary.
4. Assessment of how the proposed mitigation work addresses the structural, geotechnical, and
   corrosion design requirements of the rejected pile.
5. Methods for preservation or restoration of existing earthen materials.
6. List of any affected facilities. Include methods and equipment to be used for the protection of
   these facilities during mitigation.
7. Your name and the names of any subcontractors on each sheet.
8. List of materials with quantity estimates for the mitigation work and a list of personnel with
   their qualifications who will be performing the mitigation work.


For rejected piles to be repaired, include the following in the pile mitigation plan:
1. Assessment of the nature and size of the anomalies in the rejected pile
2. Provisions for access for additional pile testing, if requested

For rejected piles to be replaced or supplemented, include the following in the pile mitigation plan:
1. Proposed location and size of additional piles
2. Structural details and calculations for any modification to the structure to accommodate the
   replacement or supplemental piles

Replacement piles must comply with the Contract for CIDH concrete piles.
49-3.02A(3)(h) Mitigation Report
If repairs are performed, submit a mitigation report as an informational submittal within 10 days of
completion of the repair. The report must state exactly what repair work was performed and
quantify the success of the repairs relative to the submitted mitigation plan. The mitigation report
must be sealed and signed by an engineer who is registered as a civil engineer in the State. The
mitigation report must include your name and the names of any subcontractors on each sheet.
49-3.02A(4) Quality Control and Assurance
49-3.02A(4)(a) General
Reserved
49-3.02A(4)(b) Preconstruction Meeting
Reserved
49-3.02A(4)(c) Concrete Test Batch
Section 49-3.02A(4)(c) applies to concrete placed under slurry.
Before placing concrete under slurry, produce a concrete test batch and transport it to the job site
under the same conditions and in the same time frame that is anticipated during the placement of
concrete in the piles.
At the job site, place the test batch concrete in an excavated hole or suitable container to allow
for testing. Placing concrete under slurry is not required. The test batch must demonstrate that
the proposed mix design will achieve the minimum required slump after the specified set period.
Do not vibrate or agitate the concrete during the set period.
The Engineer tests the concrete for slump under California Test 556. In addition to meeting the
specified nominal slump, the slump of the concrete must comply with the requirements shown in
the following table:
                                       Slump Requirements
             Time required to place       Minimum set period before      Slump, after set
                          a                                  b
                 concrete , T                        testing                  period
                  T ≤ 2 hours                          2T                   ≥ 7 inches
                  T > 2 hours                     T + 2 hours               ≥ 7 inches
           a
            As described in the pile installation plan
           b
            The set period begins at the start of concrete placement.

After testing, dispose of the concrete test batch.
49-3.02A(4)(d) Acceptance Testing
49-3.02A(4)(d)(i) General
Section 49-2.03A(4)(d) applies to CIDH concrete piles except for piles (1) less than 24 inches in
diameter or (2) constructed in dry holes or holes dewatered without the use of temporary casing
to control ground water.
The Department performs acceptance testing using gamma-gamma logging to test the concrete
density of the pile for homogeneity.
After notification by the Engineer of pile acceptance, dewater the inspection pipes and cored
holes and fill them with grout. Grout must comply section 50-1.02C.<Grout> Fill inspection pipes
and holes using grout tubes that extend to the bottom of the pipe or hole or into the grout already
placed.
49-3.02A(4)(d)(ii) Vertical Inspection Pipes
Install vertical inspection pipes for acceptance testing as follows:
1. Inspection pipes must be schedule 40 PVC pipe with a nominal pipe size of 2 inches.
   Watertight PVC couplers are allowed to facilitate pipe lengths in excess of those
     commercially available. Log the location of the inspection pipe couplers with respect to the
     plane of pile cutoff.
2.   Cap each inspection pipe at the bottom. Extend the pipe from 3 feet above the pile cutoff to
     the bottom of the reinforcing cage. Provide a temporary top cap or similar means to keep the
     pipes clean before testing. If pile cutoff is below the ground surface or working platform,
     extend inspection pipes to 3 feet above the ground surface or working platform.
3.   If any changes are made to the pile tip, extend the inspection pipes to the bottom of the
     reinforcing cage.
4.   Install inspection pipes in a straight alignment, parallel to the main reinforcement, and
     securely fastened in place to prevent misalignment during installation of the reinforcement
     and placing of concrete in the hole. Construct CIDH concrete piles such that the relative
     distance of inspection pipes to vertical steel reinforcement remains constant.
5.   Fill inspection pipes with water upon completion of the concrete placement to prevent
     debonding of the pipe.
6.   Inspection pipes must be completely clean, dry, and unobstructed at the time of testing
     providing a 2-inch diameter clear opening.
7.   Provide safe access to the tops of the tubes.

After placing concrete and before requesting acceptance testing, test each inspection pipe in the
presence of the Engineer by passing a 1-1/4-inch diameter by 4'-6" long rigid cylinder through the
length of pipe.
If an inspection pipe fails to pass the rigid cylinder:
1. Immediately fill all inspection pipes in the pile with water
2. Core a nominal 2-inch diameter hole through the concrete for the entire length of the pile for
   each inspection pipe that does not pass the rigid cylinder
3. Locate cored holes as close as possible to the inspection pipes they are replacing and no
   more than 5 inches clear from the reinforcement

Coring must not damage the pile reinforcement. Core holes using a double wall core barrel
system with a split tube type inner barrel. Coring with a solid type inner barrel is not allowed.
Coring methods and equipment must provide intact cores for the entire length of the pile.
Preserve cores and identify them with the exact location the core was recovered from the pile.
The coring activity must be logged by an engineering geologist or civil engineer licensed in the
State and experienced in core logging. Coring logs must comply with the Department's Soil and
Rock Logging, Classification, and Presentation Manual. Coring logs must include core recovery,
rock quality designation, locations of breaks, and complete descriptions of inclusions and voids
encountered during coring.
The Department evaluates the portion of the pile represented by the cored hole based on the
submitted core logs. If the Department determines that a pile is anomalous based on the coring
logs, the pile is rejected.
49-3.02A(4)(d)(iii) Gamma-Gamma Logging
The Department performs gamma-gamma logging under California Test 233.
Separate reinforcing steel as necessary to allow the Department access to the inspection pipes.
After requesting testing and providing access to the piles, allow 15 days for the Department to
perform the testing and to prepare and provide the pile acceptance test report.
During testing, do not perform construction activities within 25 feet of any gamma-gamma logging
activity.
If the Department determines that a pile is anomalous under California Test 233, Part 5C, the pile
is rejected.
49-3.02A(4)(d)(iv) Rejected Piles
If a pile is rejected:
1. Suspend concrete placement in the remaining piles
2. Revise the pile installation plan
3. Do not resume concrete placement until the revised pile installation plan is authorized

Allow 30 days for the Department to determine whether the rejected pile requires mitigation and
to provide this information to you. Day 1 of the 30 days is the 1st day after access has been
provided to the Department to perform acceptance testing.
The Department may perform additional tests to further evaluate a rejected pile. These tests may
include crosshole sonic logging and other means of inspection selected by the Department. The
pile acceptance test report will indicate if the Department intends to perform any additional testing
and when the testing will be performed. Allow the Department 20 additional days for a total of 50
days to perform these tests and to provide supplemental results.
You may perform your own testing on the rejected pile.
The Department determines whether the rejected pile requires mitigation due to structural,
geotechnical, or corrosion concerns. The Department considers the estimated size and location
of the anomaly and potential effects on the design. The Department provides you with the
conclusions of this analysis for developing the mitigation plan.
If a rejected pile does not require mitigation, you must either (1) repair the pile under an
authorized mitigation plan or (2) the Department deducts the amount shown in the table for each
anomaly up to the maximum total deduction:

                                                           Anomaly Deduction
             Anomaly location               D < 4 feet         4≤D<6                  D≥6
      Entirely or partially within the       $1,000             $2,000               $4,000
      upper 2/3 of the pile length
      Entirely within the lower 1/3 of         $500              $1,000              $2,000
      the pile length
      Maximum total deduction                 $2,000             $4,000              $8,000
      Note:
      D = Nominal pile diameter

The Department may deduct the amount from any moneys due or that may become due under
the Contract.
If a rejected pile requires mitigation or you elect to repair a rejected pile that does not require
mitigation, submit a mitigation plan for the repair, supplementation, or replacement of the rejected
pile.
If the Engineer determines that it is not feasible to repair the rejected pile, submit a mitigation plan
for replacement or supplementation of the rejected pile.
49-3.02B Materials
49-3.02B(1) General
Reserved
49-3.02B(2) Concrete
Concrete placed under slurry must:
1. Have a nominal slump equal to or greater than 7 inches. The nominal and maximum slump
   and penetration requirements in section 90-1.02G(6) <Quantity Of Water And Penetration>
   do not apply to concrete placed under slurry.
2. Contain not less than 675 pounds of cementitious material per cubic yard and be
   proportioned to prevent excessive bleed water and segregation.

In a freeze-thaw area, the formed portion of CIDH concrete piles must contain not less than 675
pounds of cementitious material per cubic yard.
49-3.02B(3) Aggregate Grading
For concrete placed under slurry, the combined aggregate grading must comply with the 1/2-inch
maximum grading or the 3/8-inch maximum grading specified in section 90-1.02C(4).<Aggregate
Gradings>
49-3.02B(4) Permanent Steel Casings
Permanent steel casings must comply with section 49-2.02.<Steel Pipe Piling>
49-3.02B(5) Grout
Grout used to backfill casings must comply with section 50-1.02C.<Grout> except that:
1. The minimum cement content of the grout must not be less than 845 lb/cu yd of grout
2. Aggregate must be used to extend the grout as follows:
   2.1  Aggregate must consist of at least 70 percent fine aggregate and approximately 30
        percent pea gravel, by weight
   2.2  Fine aggregate must comply with Section 90-1.02C<Aggregates>
   2.3  The size of pea gravel must be such that 100 percent passes the 1/2-inch sieve, a
        minimum 90 percent passes the 3/8-inch sieve, and not more than 5 percent passes
        the No. 8 sieve

49-3.02B(6) Slurry
49-3.02B(6)(a) General
Reserved
49-3.02B(6)(b) Mineral Slurry
Mineral slurry must be mixed and thoroughly hydrated in slurry tanks. Sample and test slurry from
the slurry tanks before placement in the drilled hole.

Recirculate or continuously agitate slurry in the drilled hole.

For recirculated slurry:
1. Remove drill cuttings from the slurry before discharging the slurry back into the drilled hole
2. Sample and test slurry at least every 2 hours after beginning its use until tests show that the
   samples taken from the slurry tank and from near the bottom of the hole have consistent
   specified properties. Once consistent properties have been achieved, sample slurry at least
   twice per shift as long as the specified properties remain consistent.

For non-recirculated slurry:
1. Sample and test slurry from the drilled hole at least every 2 hours after beginning its use.
   Sample the slurry at mid-height and near the bottom of the hole.
2. Recirculate slurry if tests show samples taken from mid-height and near the bottom of the
   hole do not have consistent specified properties.

Sample and test slurry before final cleaning of the bottom of the hole and again just before
placing concrete. Sample the slurry at mid-height and near the bottom of the hole. Cleaning of the
bottom of the hole and placement of the concrete must not start until tests show that the samples
have consistent specified properties.
Mineral slurry must comply with the requirements shown in the following table:
                                                                    a
                                 Mineral Slurry Requirements
                    Property                             Test                             Value
Density                                          Mud Weight (Density),
                                                                                                     b
    Before placement in the drilled hole and           API 13B-1                     64.3–69.1 pcf
    during drilling                                    Section 1
                                                                                                     b
    Before final cleaning and immediately                                            64.3–75.0 pcf
    before placing concrete
Viscosity                                        Marsh Funnel and Cup.
    Bentonite                                    API 13B-1, section 2.2               28–50 sec/qt

     Attapulgite                                                                      28–40 sec/qt
pH                                                  Glass electrode pH meter            8–10.5
                                                          or pH paper
Sand content                                                 Sand,
     Before final cleaning and immediately            API 13B-1, section 5          ≤ 4.0 percent
     before placing concrete
a
 Slurry temperature must be at least 40 degrees F when tested.
b
 If authorized, you may use slurry in salt water. The allowable density of slurry in salt water may
be increased up to 2 pcf.

Remove any caked slurry on the sides or bottom of hole before placing reinforcement.

If concrete is not placed immediately after placing reinforcement, the reinforcement must be
removed and cleaned of slurry, the sides of the drilled hole must be cleaned of caked slurry, and
the reinforcement again placed in the hole for concrete placement.
49-3.02B(6)(c) Synthetic Slurry
Synthetic slurry product and property requirements are specified in the special provisions.

Do not use synthetic slurries in holes drilled in primarily soft or very soft cohesive soils as
determined by the Engineer.

A manufacturer's representative must:
1. Provide technical assistance for the use of their product
2. Be at the job site before introduction of the synthetic slurry into the drilled hole
3. Remain at the job site until released by the Engineer

Sample and test synthetic slurries:
1. When the slurry temperature is at least 40 degrees F.
1. At mid-height and near the bottom of the hole.
2. During drilling to verify the slurry properties.
3. When drilling is complete but before final cleaning of the bottom of the hole. When samples
   comply with the requirements shown in the tables for the slurry product selected, clean the
   bottom of the hole of any loose or settled material.
4. After final cleaning and before placing concrete.

49-3.02B(6)(d) Water Slurry
You may use water as slurry when a casing is used for the entire length of the drilled hole.
Water slurry properties must comply with the requirements shown in the following table:
                                Water Slurry Requirements
                    Property                          Test                             Value
Density                                        Mud Weight (Density),
                                                                                                a
   Before final cleaning and immediately            API 13B-1                        63.5 pcf
   before placing concrete                          Section 1

Sand content                                                 Sand,
   Before final cleaning and immediately               API 13B-1, section 5        ≤ 0.5 percent
   before placing concrete
a
 If authorized, you may use salt water slurry. The allowable density of the slurry may be
increased by 2 pcf.


49-3.02C Construction
49-3.02C(1) General
Except for CIDH concrete piles for sound walls and retaining walls, you may propose to increase
the diameter and revise the pile tip elevation of CIDH concrete piles with a diameter less than 2
feet.
For CIDH concrete piles for sound walls and retaining walls, you may propose to increase the
diameter of CIDH concrete piles with a diameter less than 2 feet, except that pile tip elevations
must not be revised.
49-3.02C(2) Drilled Holes
The axis of the drilled hole must not deviate from plumb more than 1-1/2 inches per 10 feet of
length.
During excavation, do not disturb the foundation material surrounding the pile. Equipment or
methods used for excavating holes must not cause quick soil conditions or cause scouring or
caving of the hole.
For rock sockets, equipment and drill methods must not result in soften materials on the borehole
walls.
After excavation has started, construct the pile expeditiously to prevent deterioration of the
surrounding foundation material from air slaking or from the presence of water. Remove and
dispose of deteriorated foundation material, including material that has softened, swollen, or
degraded, from the sides and the bottom of the hole.
Just before placing reinforcement or concrete, clean the bottom of the hole to remove any loose
sand, gravel, dirt, and drill cuttings.
After placing reinforcement and before placing concrete in the hole, if caving occurs or
deteriorated foundation material accumulates on the bottom of the hole, clean the bottom of the
hole. You must verify that the bottom of the hole is clean.
Remove water that has infiltrated the hole before placing concrete. Do not allow fluvial or
drainage water to enter the hole.
Portions of the hole may be enlarged, backfilled with slurry cement backfill, concrete, or other
material, and redrilled to the diameter shown to control caving. Backfill material at enlarged piles
must be chemically compatible with concrete and steel, be drillable, and have the necessary
strength required for the conditions.
Dispose of material resulting from placing concrete.
49-3.02C(3) Temporary Steel Casings
Furnish temporary steel casings where shown and where necessary to control water or to prevent
quick soil conditions or caving of the hole. Place temporary casings tight in the hole.
Section 11-3<Welding> does not apply to temporary steel casings.
Temporary casings must be:
1. Watertight and of sufficient strength to withstand the loads from installation, removal, lateral
   concrete pressures, and earth pressures
2. Non-corrugated with smooth surfaces
3. Clean and free of hardened concrete

Remove the temporary casing during concrete placement. In a dewatered hole, maintain the
concrete in the casing at a level of at least 5 feet above the bottom of the casing or (2) at a level
above the bottom of the casing adequate to prevent displacement of the concrete by material
from outside the casing, whichever is greater
If slurry is not used, do not withdraw the temporary casing until the concrete head in the casing is
greater than the groundwater head outside of the casing. Maintain this positive concrete head
during withdrawal of the casing.
You may vibrate or hammer the temporary casing to (1) assist in removal of the casing from the
hole, (2) prevent lifting of the reinforcement, and (3) prevent concrete contamination.
The withdrawal of casings must not leave voids or cause contamination of the concrete with soil
or other materials.
49-3.02C(4) Reinforcement
Reinforcement for CIDH concrete piles with increased diameters and revised tip elevations must
comply with the following:
1. Size and number of the reinforcing bars and hoops, the percentage of bars required to extend
   to the pile tip, and the size and pitch of spiral reinforcement must be the same as shown for
   the original piles.
2. Required length of the spiral reinforcement and of any reinforcing bars that do not extend to
   the pile tip must be at least the length that would have been required for the original specified
   or ordered tip elevation.
3. Diameter of the spiral or hoop reinforcement must remain the same as required for the
   original pile or may be increased to provide not less than the concrete cover required for the
   original pile. Provide positive means to ensure that the reinforcement is centered in the pile.

49-3.02C(5) Permanent Steel Casing Installation
Section 49-2.01A(4)(b)<Pile Driving Acceptance Criteria> does not apply to permanent steel
casings.
For permanent steel casings placed in a drilled hole:
1. The casings must be watertight and of sufficient strength to prevent damage and to withstand
   the loads from installation activities, drilling and tooling equipment, lateral concrete pressures,
   and earth pressures.
2. Use spacers to center the casing inside the drilled hole. You may weld spacers to the outside
   of the casing.
3. Fill voids in the annular space between the casing and the soil with grout.
4. Place grout from the bottom of the casing using grout tubes. Place grout continuously until all
   voids have been filled and the grout reaches the top of the casing. Free fall of the grout from
   the top to the bottom of the casing is not allowed.
5. Pump grout into the annular space such that the grout head is maintained uniformly around
   the casing and no visible evidence of water or air is ejected at the top of the grout.
6. Place grout tubes along the circumference of the casing with a minimum of 4 grout tubes per
   casing. The spacing of the grout tubes must not exceed 4 feet.
7. Extend grout tubes to within 1 foot of the bottom of the casing.

If the Engineer lowers the permanent steel casing tip elevation:
1. CIDH concrete pile, including bar reinforcing steel and inspection pipes, must extend to that
   same elevation.
2. Tip elevation of the rock socket must extend to maintain the length of the rock socket into
   rock as shown.

The additional work involved in lowering the permanent steel casing tip elevation is change order
work.
49-3.02C(6) Optional Construction Joint
Section 49-3.02C(6) applies to CIDH concrete piles where an optional construction joint is shown.
If you construct the optional construction joint and a permanent steel casing is not shown, you
must furnish and install a permanent casing. The permanent casing must:
1. Be watertight and of sufficient strength to prevent damage and to withstand the loads from
   installation procedures, drilling and tooling equipment, lateral concrete pressures, and earth
   pressures.
2. Extend at least 5 feet below the construction joint. If placing casing into rock, the casing must
   extend at least 2 feet below the construction joint.
3. Not extend above the top of the drilled hole or final grade whichever is lower.
4. Not increase the diameter of the CIDH concrete pile more than 2 feet.
5. Be installed by impact or vibratory hammers, oscillators, rotators, or by placing in a drilled
   hole. Casings placed in a drilled hole must comply with section 49-3.02C(5)<Permanent Steel
   Casing Installation>

Section 49-2.01A(4)(b)<Pile Driving Acceptance Criteria> does not apply to permanent casings.
49-3.02C(7) Placing Concrete
Section 51-1.03D(3)<Placing Concrete Under Water> does not apply to CIDH concrete piles.
You may construct CIDH concrete piles 24 inches in diameter or larger by excavating and
depositing concrete under slurry.
Form and finish portions of CIDH concrete piles shown to be formed under Section 51.<Concrete
Structures>
49-3.02C(8) Placing Concrete Under Slurry
Section 49-3.02C(8) applies when placing concrete under slurry.
After placing reinforcement and before placing concrete in the drilled hole, if drill cuttings settle
out of the slurry, clean the bottom of the drilled hole. Verify that the bottom of the drilled hole is
clean.
Carefully place concrete in a compact, monolithic mass, using a method that prevents washing of
the concrete. Vibrating of concrete is not required.
Placing concrete must be a continuous activity lasting no longer than the time specified for each
concrete placing activity at each pile in your pile installation plan.
The delivery tube system must consist of one of the following:
1. A tremie tube or tubes, each of which is at least 10 inches in diameter, fed by one or more
   concrete pumps
2. 1 or more concrete pump discharge tubes, each fed by a single concrete pump

The delivery tube system must consist of watertight tubes with sufficient rigidity to keep the tube
ends always in the mass of concrete placed. If only 1 delivery tube is used to place the concrete,
place the tube near the center of the hole. Multiple tubes must be uniformly spaced in the hole.
Internal bracing for the steel reinforcing cage must accommodate the delivery tube system. Do
not use tremies for piles without space for a 10-inch diameter tube.
During concrete placement, provide a fully operational standby concrete pump at the job site that
is adequate to complete the work in the time specified in the pile installation plan.
Do not allow concrete to fall into the slurry during concrete placing operations. Cap the delivery
tube with a watertight cap, or plug the tube above the slurry level with a good quality, tight fitting,
moving plug that will expel the slurry from the tube as the tube is charged with concrete. The cap
or plug must be designed to release as the tube is charged.
Extend the pump discharge or tremie tube to the bottom of the hole before charging the tube with
concrete. After charging the tube with concrete, induce the flow of concrete through the tube by
slightly raising the discharge end.
During concrete placement:
1. Embed the tip of the delivery tube within 6 inches of the bottom of the hole until 10 feet of
   concrete has been placed. Maintain the embedment of the tip at least 10 feet below the top
   surface of the concrete
2. Do not rapidly raise or lower the delivery tube
3. Maintain the slurry level 10 feet above the piezometric head or within 12 inches of the top of
   the drilled hole, whichever is higher

If the seal is lost or the delivery tube becomes plugged and must be removed:
1   Withdraw and clean the tube.
2   Cap the tip of the tube to prevent slurry from entering.
3   Restart the operation by pushing the capped tube 10 feet into the concrete and then
    reinitiating the flow of concrete.

Maintain a log of concrete placement for each drilled hole. The log must:
1. Show the pile location, tip elevation, dates of excavation and concrete placement, total
   quantity of concrete placed, length and tip elevation of any casing, and details of any hole
   stabilization method and materials used.
2. Include an 8-1/2 by 11 inch graph of concrete placed versus depth of hole filled as follows:
   2.1     Label the graph with the pile location, tip elevation, cutoff elevation, and the dates of
           excavation and concrete placement.
   2.2     Plot the graph continuously throughout concrete placement. Plot the depth of drilled
           hole filled vertically with the pile tip at the bottom and the quantity of concrete placed
           horizontally.
   2.3     Take readings at each 5 feet of pile depth, and indicate the time of the reading on the
           graph.

If a temporary casing is used, maintain concrete placed under slurry at a level at least 5 feet
above the bottom of the casing. The withdrawal of the casing must not cause contamination of
the concrete with slurry.
The equivalent hydrostatic pressure inside the casing must be greater than the hydrostatic
pressure on the outside of the casing.
Dispose of material resulting from using slurry.
49-3.02D Payment
Not Used
49-3.03 CAST-IN-STEEL-SHELL CONCRETE PILING
49-3.03A General
49-3.03A(1) Summary
Section 49-3.03 includes specifications for constructing CISS concrete piles.
CISS concrete piles include:
1. Driving steel shells
2. Cleaning out opened ended steel shells
3. Placing reinforcement and concrete

49-3.03A(2) Definitions
Reserved
49-3.03A(3) Submittals
Submit a cleanout method for open-ended CISS concrete piles as an informational submittal.
49-3.03A(4) Quality Control and Assurance
After the steel shell is driven and before placing reinforcement and concrete, the Engineer
examines the steel shell for collapse or a reduced diameter at any point. The Engineer rejects
any steel shell that is improperly driven, broken, or shows partial collapse to such an extent as to
materially decrease its nominal resistance.
49-3.03B Materials
Steel shells must comply with the specifications for steel pipe piles in section 49-2.02.<Steel Pipe
Piles>
Steel shells must be sufficiently watertight to exclude water during concrete placement.
49-3.03C Construction
49-3.03C(1) General
Remove and replace rejected steel shells, or drive a new shell adjacent to the rejected shell. Fill
rejected shells that cannot be removed with concrete. If a new shell is driven to replace a rejected
shell, enlarge the footing.
If the Engineer revises the pile tip elevation for CISS concrete piles, the work involved in
furnishing, splicing, and driving the additional length of pile is change order work.
49-3.03C(2) Open-Ended Cast-In-Steel-Shell Concrete Piling
Section 49-3.03C(2) applies to open-ended CISS concrete piles.
Internal plates must not be used.
After driving, clean out the steel shell as follows:
1. Do not disturb the foundation material surrounding the pile when cleaning out the steel shell.
2. Equipment or methods used must not cause quick soil conditions or cause scouring or caving
   around or below the pile.
3. Steel shells must be free of any soil, rock, or other material deleterious to the bond between
   concrete and steel before placing reinforcement and concrete.
4. The bottom 8 feet of the pile must not be cleaned out.
After the steel shell has been cleaned out, construct the pile expeditiously in order to prevent
deterioration of the surrounding foundation material from the presence of water. Remove
deteriorated foundation materials from the bottom of the steel shell, including materials that have
softened, swollen, or degraded.

Dispose of material resulting from cleaning out the steel shells.
If conditions render it impossible or inadvisable in the opinion of the Engineer to dewater the steel
shells before placing reinforcement and concrete, seal the bottom of the steel shell under section
51-1.03(D)(3).<Concrete Deposited Under Water> After sealing, dewater and clean out the steel
shell.
49-3.03C(3) Close-Ended Cast-In-Steel-Shell Concrete Piling
Reserved.
49-3.03D Payment
CISS concrete piles are paid for as furnish cast-in-steel-shell concrete piling and drive cast-in-
steel-shell concrete pile of the sizes shown in the Bid Item List.
Payment for furnish cast-in-steel-shell concrete piling includes:
1. Furnishing steel shells at the job site
2. Furnishing reinforcement and concrete
3. Splicing steel shells

Payment for drive cast-in-steel-shell concrete pile includes:
1.   Driving and cutting off the steel shells at the elevations shown
2.   Furnishing special driving tips or heavier sections of steel shells
3.   Drilling holes or predrilling holes through embankments
4.   Cleaning out and disposing of material from open-end steel shells
5.   Placing seal course concrete in open-ended steel shells
6.   Dewatering open-ended steel shells
7.   Placing reinforcement and concrete
8.   Disposing of material resulting from drilling holes, predrilling holes, or cleaning out open-
     ended steel shells

                                  49-4 STEEL SOLDIER PILING
49--4.01 GENERAL
Section 49-4 includes specifications for drilling holes and installing steel soldier piles in the drilled
holes.
49--4.02 MATERIALS
49-4.02A General
Steel soldier piles must comply with section 49-2.03.<Structural Shape Steel Piles>
49-4.02B Concrete Anchors
Concrete anchors must comply with the specifications for stud connectors in section 55.<Steel
Structures>
Stud connectors must be Type B complying with Clause 7 of AWS D1.5.
49-4.03 CONSTRUCTION
49-4.03A General
Clean and prepare piles in heat affected areas before splicing steel piles or welding concrete
anchors.
49-4.03B Drilled Holes
Drill holes for steel soldier piles into natural foundation material. Drilled holes must be accurately
located, straight, and true.
Plumb and align the pile before placing concrete backfill and lean concrete backfill. The pile must
be at least 1 inch clear of the sides of the hole for the full length of the hole to be filled with
concrete backfill and lean concrete backfill. Ream or enlarge holes that do not provide the
clearance around steel piles.
Furnish and place temporary casings or tremie seals if necessary to control water or to prevent
caving of the hole.
Remove loose materials existing at the bottom of the hole after drilling operations have been
completed before placing the pile.
Do not allow surface water to enter the hole. Remove all water in the hole before placing
concrete.
If temporary casings are used, they must comply with 49-3.02C(3).<Temporary Casings>
Maintain alignment of the pile in the hole while placing backfill material.
49--4.04 PAYMENT
Not Used
                                        49-5 MICROPILING
Reserved
                                  49-6 MISCELLANEOUS PILING
Reserved
                                    49-7 ALTERNATIVE PILING
Reserved

				
DOCUMENT INFO