Stress and Stress Management

Document Sample
Stress and Stress Management Powered By Docstoc
					  Stress and Stress
    Management



Hahn, et al, Section 1, chapt 2,3
            Stress - types
• Environmental Stressors:
  • Climate, noise, pollution, crowding, time of
    day.
• Physiological stressors:
  • Training, medications, caffeine, injuries,
    disease, nutritional status
            Stress - types
• Emotional stressors:
  • Major stressors - those that create major
    turmoil and usually require major
    adjustment and time to do so.
  • Minor stressors: - those that are short term
    or less severe
Top Ten Stressors in the lives
    of College Students
1.    The Future
2.    Lack of sleep
3.    Wasting time
4.    Inconsiderate smokers
5.    Physical appearance
6.    Too many things to do
7.    Losing things
8.    Lack of time for tasks
9.    High standards
10.   Avoiding loneliness
  Other stressors for College
           students
• Personal relationships
• Parents
• Change in residential environment
  • Rural vs urban, Res vs home
• Support systems, or lack of
• Money
• Courses
         The worst stressors
• Negative ones: consequences are harsher,
  provide no benefit, effect self-concept, self-
  image
• Ambiguous ones: when the problem cannot
  be defined, it is harder to devise solutions.
  Develop avoidance behaviours.
• Uncontrollable events: we feel powerless in
  the face of uncontrollable events.
       Response to Stress
1. Everyone responds differently:
  1. Inherited predispositions
  2. Experience with..
  3. Personality
2. Everyone has a different Optimal level
   of arousal
Level of
performance




              Level of arousal
Stress - acute effects on the
            body



                   QuickTime™ and a
               TIFF (LZW) decompressor
            are neede d to see this picture.
         Symptoms of stress
• Physical:
  •   Accident prone
  •   Sick
  •   Apetite change
  •   Headaches
  •   Insomnia
  •   restlessness
         Symptoms of stress
• Emotional:
  •   Mood swings
  •   Anxiety
  •   Crying spells
  •   Irritable
  •   Bad tempered
         Symptoms of stress
• mental:
  •   Forgetfulness
  •   Confusion
  •   dulled senses
  •   Lethargy
  •   Negative attitude
  •   Poor concentration
   Effects of chronic stress -
      endocrine reaction
• HPA axis is stimulated (hypothalamus,
  pituitary, and adrenal glands)
• Leads to increased secretion of
  Corticotrophin releasing Hormone (CRH),
  which
• Leads to increased levels of
  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which
• Leads to increase production of Cortisol
  (catabolic hormone)
      Effects of chronic stress
•   Headaches
•   Indigestion
•   Insomnia
•   Suppressed immune system
•   Cardiovascular disease/hypertension
•   Depression and /or anxiety
•   Alcohol, tobacco & drug dependency
•   Obesity
             Stress Test
• Partner up.
• One sits with right arm on the rest, close
  eyes and relax as deeply as possible.
               Stress Test
• Partner wait for 5 min. then assess
  visual symptoms (next page). Count
  total no. of “YES”.
• Gently p/u wrist and lift it 3 in. and let it
  go.
• Assess manual symptoms (next page)
    Stress test



       QuickTime™ and a
   TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are neede d to see this picture.
                  Stress Test
• Results:
  •   Excellent       0 points
  •   V. good         1-3 points
  •   Good            4-6 points
  •   Fair            7-9 points
  •   Poor            10-12 points
       Stress Management
• Physical Activity and Stress
  • Decreases likelihood of developing stress
    related disorders
  • Decreases the intensity of the stress
    response.
  • Decreases anxiety
  • Decreases depression
       Stress Management
• Sleep and Recreation
  • Impaired sleep can be the cause and result
    of stress
  • Required sleep varies between individuals,
    but 7 - 8 hrs is minimum.
  • Sleep busters! - big meal late in the
    evening, spicy food, alcohol, nicotine,
    heavy exercise late in the day, lots of
    fluuids, naps in the day, irregular patterns.
       Stress Management
• Recreation is a stress reducer.
  • It must be PLAY
  • It needn‟t be terribly physical e.g. reading
  • Passive participation has been proven of
    value as well.
         Stress Management
•   Coping strategies
•   Three basic strategies:
    1. Emotion-focused coping (reaction)
    2. Problem-focused coping (source)
    3. Appraisal-focused coping (perception of
       source)
      Stress Management
1. Emotion-focusing coping:
    Relaxation techniques
    Stretching
    Prayer
    Positive self-talk
2. Appraisal-focusing coping:
    Changing distorted thinking
            Distorted thinking
1.    All-or-none thinking
2.    Overgeneralization
3.    Mental filter
4.    Discounting positives
5.    Jumping to conclusions
6.    Magnification/minimization
7.    Emotional reasoning
8.    „should‟ statements
9.    Labelling
10.   Blame
 Unraveling Distorted thinking
1. Identify the distortion - write down the
   thought & identify
2. Examine the evidence and distorted
   outcome.
3. Pretend you are a friend looking at the
   evidence and talk to yourself as a friend.
4. Survey method - ask others for an unbiased
   view.
5. Re-distribution of blame - think of other
   causes for an unfortunate event.
       Stress Management
• Problem-focused coping:
  • Depends on degree of control over the
    situation
  • Depends on self-efficacy
  • Depends on outcome expectancy


• Social support is very important
• Social Support Questions                     not     somewhat very true
• I have close personal ties with my relatives    1        2       3
• I have close relationships with friends         1        2       3
• I have a deep and meaningful relationship       1        2       3
                  total for access to social support       ________

• My parents and friends take time to listen to me 1       2      3
• I have friends I can confide in                1         2      3
• I have a nonjudgmental friend who supports me 1          2      3
                total for degree of social support        ________

• I feel comfortable asking others for assistance 1        2     3
• I have confidence in my social skills           1        2     3
• I am willing to open up about my personal life 1         2     3
                 total for getting social support         ________

                Total for Social Support
                       (sum of three scores)              _______
• Locus of Control Questions
                                            not   somewhat   very true
• Hard Work usually pays off                1        2           3
• Buying a lottery ticket isn‟t worth it.   1        2           3.
• Even when I fail I keep trying            1        2           3.
•   I am usually successful at what I do 1           2           3
•   I am in control of my own life       1           2           3
•   I make plans to be sure I am successful1         2           3
•   I know where I stand with my friends 1           2           3


              • Total of locus of control            _______
       Stress Management
• Rating for Social Support:
  • High            24 - 27 total
  • Moderate        18 - 23 total
  • Low             below 18 pts.
• Rating for Locus of Control:
  • High            19 - 21 pts
  • Moderate        12 - 19 pts
  • Low             below 12 pts