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					The Relationship between
  Measures of Teacher
   Quality and Student
 Achievement at Vaughn
  Next Century Leaning
         Center

     H. Alix Gallagher
     SRI International
    November 21, 2002
      Research Context

• Standards-based reform
• Need to improve teacher quality
• Traditional teacher evaluation
  inadequate
   – Typical principal evaluations of
     teachers have little to no correlation
     with student outcomes.
   – Traditional teacher evaluation is generic
     and based on a small sample of teacher
     work and so has limited usefulness for
     improving teacher quality.
   Research Questions
• Are there differences in learning
  between classrooms?
• What is the relationship
  between teacher evaluation
  scores (TES) and classroom
  effects?

  This study compares subject
  area teacher evaluation scores
  and student subject area
  standardized test scores for
  reading, math, and language
  arts.
             Caveats

• There is more to student learning
  than what is measured by the
  Stanford-9.
• There are many causes of differences
  in classrooms besides teachers.
• While we do not believe it is
  appropriate to evaluate teachers
  using student test scores, the
  relationship between evaluation
  scores and test scores is one measure
  of the validity of the evaluation
  system.
   Method and Sample

• Pre-test/Post-test model
  measuring value-added
  achievement on Stanford-9
• 34 second-fifth grade teachers
• 584 students were tested in
  reading and math in 2000 and
  2001; 532 students in language
  arts
• Approximately 10% of students
  lost to mobility
          Subject Area TES

Variable Mean Standard Minimum Maximum
              Deviation


Average    3.24   0.39   2.30   3.85
Literacy
TES

Average    3.13   0.42   2.25   4.00
Math
TES

Average  3.24     0.42   2.30   3.95
Language
Develop-
ment TES
       Literacy
Correlation between
 TES and classroom
effect .545** (p<.01)
 20




 10




   0




 -10




 -20
       2.2    2.4    2.6     2.8    3.0     3.2       3.4   3.6   3.8   4.0


        Teachers' Average Literacy Evaluation Score
    Mathematics
 Correlation between
 TES and classroom
     effect .239
20




10




  0




-1 0




-2 0



-3 0
   2.0     2.2   2.4   2.6   2.8   3.0   3.2     3.4   3.6   3.8   4.0   4.2


       Teachers' Average Math Evaluation Score
  Language Arts
Correlation between
TES and classroom
    effect .175
  30



  20



  10



    0



  -10



  -20


  -30
     2.0     2.2    2.4    2.6     2.8    3.0    3.2       3.4   3.6   3.8   4.0


        Teachers' Average Language Arts Evaluation Score
         Discussion

• Because there are other causes
  of differences in learning
  between classrooms, we would
  not expect a perfect correlation
• Additionally, the lack of
  alignment between measures of
  student learning and teacher
  practice reduce the correlation
  (e.g. Vaughn’s language
  development teacher evaluation
  rubric and the SAT-9 language
  arts test)
   What is the practical
     significance?
• An improvement of one point in
  a teacher’s evaluation score in
  reading would be predicted to
  lead to an increase in growth of
  12.94 scale points—or
  approximately 1/3 of an average
  year gain.
• In math the predicted increase
  in growth would be around 7
  points, while in language arts
  the impact would be around 5
  points.
 Why is the relationship
  stronger in literacy?
• Vaughn has invested in
  substantial professional
  development in literacy as
  opposed to mathematics.
• Both evaluators and teachers
  appear more knowledgeable
  about literacy instruction than
  mathematics instruction.
         Discussion
Findings:
• Teachers make a difference!
  There are significant classroom
  effects at Vaughn.
• The evaluation scores are
  correlated with classroom
  effects, especially in literacy.
• Evaluators’ pedagogical content
  knowledge appears to have a
  significant impact on the
  validity of teacher evaluation
         Limitations

• Small sample size.
• One year of data.
• Stanford-9 is only indicator of
  student learning.
• Stanford-9 is poorly aligned
  with the Vaughn teacher
  evaluation system in language
  arts.

				
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