SP R.20

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					May 20,2004                                                                              Page 1 of 81
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6.10 LUBRICATION SPTF NEED TO INCLUDE IN THIS SECTION:
A) SPECIFICATION FOR TURBINE OIL ASTM D 4304
B) OIL VISCOSITY FOR ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS
C) TABULATION OF DIFFERENT OIL PROPERTIES VS MFG REQUIREMENTS
(ADD ON TO A&M TUTORIAL)
D)
6.10.1 Unless otherwise specified, bearings and bearing housings shall be arranged for oil
lubrication using a mineral oil in accordance with ISO 8068:1987 type AR. [API 617]

Discussion: ISO 3448:1992 only establishes a system of viscosity classification for industrial
liquid lubricants and related fluids. ISO 8068:1987 specifies required characteristics of
mineral oils for use as lubricants and control fluids for steam turbine systems requiring oils of
category TSA and that may be used for Gas turbines using oils of category TGA. These oils
are not intended for service when extreme pressure properties are required. ISO 8068:1987
references ISO 3448. ISO 8068:1987 covers ISO VG 32, 46, 68 oils and other required
properties such as Kinematic viscosity, Viscosity index, Pour point, Density, Flash Point, Total
Acid Number (TAN), Foaming, Air Release, Water Separabiliy, Rust-Preventing properties,
Corrosiveness to copper, and Oxidation stability.

ISO 8068:1987 defines the requirements of two types of oil type AR with air release and type B
with no air release requirements. Type AR has been specified.

Note 1. For the purpose of this provision, ASTM XXX is equivalent to ISO 8068:1987.
Note to TFChairmen: Refer to the note for 6.10.5 for the ISO grade of oil.

Synthetic lubricants may have advantages over mineral oils, particularly in certain classes of
machinery operating at high temperatures and/or high pressures. A bearing designed for
synthetics will not easily run on mineral oil lubricants due to cooling and space
considerations. A user would need a relatively sophisticated inventory control system to
prevent inadvertent mixing of mineral oils and synthetics., which are chemically incompatible.
Synthetic lubricants may also be incompatible with certain paints and coatings and they may
be difficult to dispose of.

 6.10.2 For a process gas compressor, the seal-oil (if required) and lube-oil systems shall be
separate or combined as specified. If separate systems are specified, the means of preventing
interchange of oil between the two systems shall be described in the vendor's proposal. [5.2.3,
Item k] Even with sophisticated buffer gas systems, there is usually some process gas
contamination of the seal oil. if that contamination is incompatible with the lube system materials
or with the lube additives (e.g. H2S attacks the tin in babbitt metal, ammonia destroys
antioxidants, etc.) then the preference is for separate systems. In these cases, sour oil trap flow
should be treated as once through. (Stripping and other forms of degassing are not sufficiently
effective). Sweet seal oil flow may also be contaminated occasionally by mist carryover splash,



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etc. along the shaft from the seals to the bearings.To prevent interchange of oil between the two
systems, it is important to have equal pressures in both drain chambers. To assist in the
separation, circumferential surface seals with purge or buffer gas supplied will be more effective
than labyrinth type seals. [ D.Sales ISO- Sentences containing provisions must be in normal text,
not part of a note.]

6.10.3 Unless otherwise specified, a pressurized oil system shall be furnished to supply oil at a
suitable pressure or pressures, as applicable, to the following:
a. The bearings of the driver and of the driven equipment (including any gear).
b. Any continuously lubricated couplings.
c. Any governor and control-oil system.
d. The seal-oil system, if combined with the lube-oil system.

Discussion: This is an example where unit responsibility is required.

 6.10.4 Pressurized oil systems shall be supplied in accordance with ISO 10438-1 and, as
specified, ISO 10438-2, ISO 10438-3 and/or ISO 10438-4; or in accordance with API Std 614
Chapter 1 and, as specified, API Std 614 Chapters 2, 3 and/or 4. [D.Sales ISO]

Note to Task Force Chairs: If the equipment your standard covers is special purpose, require the
the oil systems to be in accaordance with Chapter 1 (General) and 2(Special Purpose) and 4 (Gas
seals) as specified. If the equipment your standard covers is general purpose, require the LO
systems to be in accordance with Chapter 1 (General) and 3 (General Purpose). API 614 Chapter
3 also has a table with system options. You may want to standardize from this table on a default
system. If TF agreement can not be obtained for a default system, just refer to Chapter 3 and let
the purchaser decide what components he wants in the system.

6.10.5 Where oil is supplied from a common system to two or more components of a machinery
train (such as a compressor, a gear, and a motor), the vendor having unit responsibility shall
ensure compatibility of type, grade, pressure and temperature of oil for all equipment served by
the common system.
6.10 5.1 The usual lubricant employed in a common oil system is a mineral oil that corresponds
to ISO 3448 Grade 32. In some cases there can be significant differences in individual
component needs. For example, a refrigeration compressormay need low pour point oil, a gear
may need high viscosity and a turbine may need a conventional mineral oil. In such cases it may
be necessary to change the design of a component or to provide separate oil systems. [ Moved
note to paragraph since cant use ―may‖ in a note. ]

Note to TF Chairmen: Suggest standardization of the ISO grade for your standard and
move the grade requirement to the body of the paragraph and not in a note. For example,
617 Chapter 2 standardized on ISO VG 32 unless otherwise specified. Chapter 3 which
addresses integrally geared machines allows ISO VG 46 with purchasers approval.




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Discussion: For inventory control the ISO VG 32 is usually standardized as the viscosity grade
of oil for SOME machinery. In certain applications with high ambient conditions an oil with
higher viscosity may be recommended by the manufacturer. For example, air cooled heat
exchangers in high ambient temperature conditions which results in high oil supply
temepratures. However an overriding concern from the users standpoint is the ability to
inventory the minimun number of oil Viscosity Grades.

For general information, a chart of viscosity vs temperature is provided below.




For An approximate conversion of cST to SUS multiply the cST by 5 to get SUS.


6.10.6 Any points that require grease lubrication during operation and which cannot be easily
and safely accessed during operation shall be provided with austenitic stainless steel extension
lines terminating at one location.

Discussion: Grease life (relube interval) is typically shorter than time between machinery
inspections. On-line relube is frequently necessary.




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 6.10.7.1 Oil-containing pressure components not mounted inside a reservoir or sump shall
 be steel.

 Discussion: This is a generally required safety feature for components subjected to
 overheating during a fire. If the component can be expected to receive direct impingement of
 fire fighting water, it should not be constructed of a material which will fracture and add fuel
 to the fire. Steel is ductile and will not fracture. Cast and ductile iron, the more common and
 less expensive alternative could fail and add fuel to the fire.

 6.10.7.2 Unless otherwise specified, a shaft driven main oil pump shall be provided.
 Note to TF Chairmen: Review and tailor this requirement to the specific type of machinery under consideration.
 Discussion: If the shaft driven pump fails, it will result in the need to shut down the
 machinery train. Particular care needs to be given to the design of any lubrication system with
 a shaft driven pump. Suction piping design and layout is often critical. Standardized designs
 with known operating characteristics are often quite reliable. Custom engineered systems are
 prone to reliability problems and/or failure.

 6.10.7.3 If specified or if required by the vendor, a hand-operated standby pump shall
  be provided.

 Discussion: This pump is sometimes required for pre-lube (prior to starting) or for hand
 turning during periods of idleness and maintenance. Standby pumps may also be necessary to
 prime a shaft driven pump. For most machines with hydrodynamic bearings, a pressurized oil
 supply prior to startup is essential.

 6.10.7.4 If specified, or for equipment that will operate at idling speeds or will require rapid
  starting, a separately-driven, automatically-controlled standby pump of the same capacity as the
  main pump shall be provided.

 Discussion: The lube oil system needs to be up and running with warm oil for fast starting of
 many types of machinery. Shaft driven oil pumps will not provide enough oil during rapid
 startup. To maintain high machinery reliability, a standby pump is usually required.

     An overhead gravity lube oil supply should be provided for rundown protection in the
 event of loss of oil supply pump(s); for example when both pumps are driven by AC motors
 and both take power from the same feeder and/or motor control center (MCC). For high
 reliability in cases where both pumps are AC motor driven. one common configuration is to
 have each motor connected to a separate MCC and each MCC supplied by a separate
 transformer and feeder. An overhead gravity tank may also be required to maintain the oil
 supply while a standby pump is starting up and establishing the required pressure.

 6.10.7.5 Oil Cooler

 An oil cooler shall be provided in accordance with 6.10.7.5.1 through 6.10.7.5.8.


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 6.10.7.5.1 General

 6.10.7.5.1.1 Each oil cooler shall maintain the oil supply temperature at or below 50 °C (120 °F).
 The cooler shall be water-cooled, shell-and-tube type or plate type or air-cooled type, as
 specified. Coolers shall be in accordance with the standard specified. Internal oil coolers shall not
 be used.[D.Sale – ISO]

 The vendor shall include in the proposal complete details of any proposed shell-and-tube type,
 plate type or air-cooled type cooler.

 Discussion: 120 °F is a typical design requirement for bearings to prevent condensation and to
 provide enough mobility to distribute oil adequately. The 120 °F design temperature is usually
 based on the maximum ambient temperature and normal cooling water temperatures and
 flows.

 Tube-sides of shell-and-tube type coolers are easier to clean than shell-sides. Water is more
 prone to fouling than the lube oil.

 Internal oil coolers are difficult to maintain, prone to leaks and cannot be easily uprated. The
 machine must be shut down to work on them.

 API Standards 661 (for air coolers) and 662 (for plate coolers) were not referenced as design
 standards because these standards are intended for process application and they result in an
 over-design for a general purpose lubrication system.

 Plate type coolers offer space saving advantages. One disadvantage is the disassembly required
 for maintenance. Due to small cooling water passages, plate type coolers plug more easily
 than shell-and-tube designs. Maintenance is therefore highly dependent on cooling water
 quality.

 6.10.7.5.2 Each cooler shall be sized to accommodate the total cooling load.

 6.10.7.5.3 An oil bypass line around the cooler with a temperature control valve shall be included
 to regulate the oil supply temeperature. This includes oil systems where the purchaser supplies
 the cooler. In no case however shall the oil bypass the filter. The control valve shall be in
 accordance with 6.10.7.3.1 through 6.10.7.5.3.4 [API 614]

 Note: When fouling or freezing of the water side of a cooler is a factor, and oil temperature is regulated by adjusting
 water flow through the cooler, it is possible for the water side to silt up or freeze and break at low water flow rates.
 [API 614]

 6.10.7.5.3.1 Unless otherwise specified, the oil bypass valve shall be flanged and pneumatically
 oprated (air-to-open, fail close), two-port or three port temperature control valve. Failure of the
 control valve shall cause all oil to pass through the cooler. [API 614]


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6.10.7.5.3.2 If specified, the temperature control valve shall be an internal,
thermostatically-operated three-port valve. [API 614]

6.10.7.5.3.3 The temperature control valve shall be provided with a manual override that permits
operation independent of temperature conditions. [API 614]

6.10.7.5.3.4 The temperature control valve and piping shall be sized to handle all oil flow passing
through the cooler. For a three-way temperature control valve, the pressure drop should not
exceed that through the cooler. For a two-way temperature control valve, pressure drop should
not exceed 50% of th pressure drop through the cooler. [API 614]

 For water cooled services, this system shall be based on an arrangement by which a portion of
the oil flow bypasses the cooler to maintain constant oil temperature to the equipment. [9.2.3,
Item k]


Discussion: For water cooled services, this arrangement allows bypassing the oil cooler
without the need to reduce cooling water flow rates. This helps avoid fouling of the cooling
water side at low flow rates. It is also a simpler, less costly type of temperature control
arrangement. Normally, fan control and louver adjustment is used to control air-coolers.

6.10.7.5.4 Shell-and-tube coolers shall have water on the tube side. With purchasers approval,
for applications with oil pressures greater than 3 450 kPa (34,5 bar) (500 psi), oil may be on the
tube side. Unless otherwise specified, a removable-bundle design is required for coolers with
more than 0,5 m2 (5 ft2) of surface. Removable-bundle coolers shall be in accordance with
TEMA Class C or other heat exchanger code specified and shall be constructed with a removable
channel cover. Nominal tube outside diameter shall be at least l6 mm (5/8 in) and nominal tube
wall thickness shall be l8 BWG [1,2 mm (0.050 in)]. U-bend tubes may be supplied with
purchaser's approval. [API 614]

Discussion: TEAM C is generally considered minimum construction robustness for reliable
continuous service. Removable bundles are required for larger size bundles. For small
bundles less than 0.5 square meters, it is often more economical to replace the entire cooler
than require a removable bundle design. Channel cover designs allow good access for tube
cleaning. Tubes smaller than l6mm are difficult to mechanically clean. Tubes thicknesses of
18 BWG or less are more prone to mechanical damage when cleaning by hydroblast and when
handling. U-tubes are difficult to mechanically clean but may be chemically cleaned in
smaller sized coolers.

Discussion: For high pressure applications, it may be more economical to place the oil inside
the tubes and not require the cooler casing to be capable of the 500 psi oil.[API 614]




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6.10.7.5.5 Unless otherwise specified, cooler shells, channels, and covers shall be of steel; tube
sheets shall be of brass; and tubes shall be of a copper/zinc/tin non-ferrous material such as UNS
C44300 (ASTM B-111???) (inhibited admiralty).
Note: Alternative materials should be considered for salt and brackish water services. Tube materials such as 90-10
copper-nickel can be an appropriate choice for such services. [The use of the word ―may‖ is not appropriate for use
in a NOTE since it implies ―permission‖ to perform a requirement, and requirements are not allowed in a NOTE.
The use of the word ―can‖ is used to indicate a possibility and is therefore not a requirement and is appropriately
used in a NOTE. [ISO Directives Part 2 Annex G paragraph G.3].

Note: High-pressure oil coolers can require steel tubes and tubesheets.
Discussion: Steel covers are robust and resist rough handling. Brass tube sheets are desirable
for corrosion resistance. Naval brasses (60/40/1 % and 70/30/1 % copper/zinc/tin) are
particularly resistant to impingement of high velocity water and are commonly used in marine
condensers. An alternate choice is one of the aluminum bronze materials. Stainless steel lubes
are generally not recommended because of chloride cracking problems in salt and brackish
water services and poorer heat transfer characteristics.

6.10.7.5.6 To prevent the oil from being contaminated if the cooler fails, the oil-side operating
pressure shall be higher than the water-side operating pressure.

6.10.7.5.7 Both the water side and oil side of the cooler shall be self-venting and self-draining
or shall be completely drainable on the water and oil sides with valved vent and drain
connections.. [API 614]

Discussion: The requirement for vent and drain connections is included to prevent manufacturers
from requiring the user to break a flanged connection to accomplish venting and draining
operations. Valved connections are not specifically required for small general purpose lubrication
system equipment. If valved connections are needed, the requirement should be added.
6.10.7.5.8 Oil coolers shall not be located inside the reservoir.

6.10.7.5.9 If specified, shell and tube or plate frame coolers shall be suitable for use of a 150 ºC
(300 ºF) heating medium. [API 614] Steam may be used for auxiliary heating on startup by
sparging it intothe cooling water. Live steam should not be introduced directly into the cooler.
[API 614] [ moved note to paragraph since it contained a provision –Per D. Sales ISO]

4.5.3 Multi-plate type coolers

4.5.3.1 If specified, and in addition to the requirements of the general cooler section 6.10.7.5 ,
multi-plate type coolers shall be in accordance with 4.5.3.2

4.5.3.2 Multi-plate coolers shall have plates of austenitic stainless steel for fresh water cooling or
titanium for brackish or salt water, or as specified by the purchaser.




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4.5.4 Fin fan coolers
4.5.4.1 Air-cooled heat exchangers are not often required on these systems and, if provided,
their details are usually specified by the purchaser. When a detailed specification is not available,
guidance is provided in 4.5.4.2 through 4.5.4.8.

4.5.4.2 Fin fan coolers shall meet the requirements of the general cooler section 6.10.7.5

4.5.4.3 The cooler shall be provided with two fans. Each fan shall be capable of 100 percent of
the duty requirement

   4.5.4.4 If specified the cooler tubes shall be series 300 stainless steel.

4.5.4.5 If specified the header boxes shall be made of hardened stainless steel plate, The
header plug material shall be selected to prevent galling.

4.5.4.6 Two separate headers shall be provided for each cooler.

4.5.4.7 Electronic vibration switches shall be provided for each fan and shall alarm on high
vibration.

4.5.4.8 Belt drives shall meet the requirements of 7.3

4.5.4.9 Turbulance promotors may only be used with purchaser approval. When supplied
turbulance promotors shall be 300 series stainless steel.

6.10.7.6 Filters

 6.10.7.6.1 Full-flow filters with replaceable elements located downstream of the cooler shall be
supplied. Filters shall not be equipped with a differential pressure limiting valve or any automatic
bypass arrangement which can cause bypass of unfiltered (dirty) oil around the filter elements.
Any filter having a cover with a mass greater than 15 kg (35 lb) shall be provided with a
mechanical lifting device for removing the cover.

Discussion: Oil cleanliness is essential to machinery reliability. To ensure cleanliness, filters
should be the last piece of equipment in the oil system before oil enters the machine. Integral
relief valves typically cannot be checked on standard maintenance shop test rigs.


 6.10.7.6.2 If specified, or if systems include aluminum or microbabbitted bearings, filtration
shall be 10 microns or finer. Other systems shall be provided with filtration of 25 microns or
finer. Filters shall remove at least 90 % of the particles with a size equal to the specified micron
rating.




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 Note: To avoid confusion, the terms nominal and absolute filter ratings are avoided. Filter cartridge or element
 micron rating is based on 90% efficiency. Micron particle size implies the shape of a spherical bead; thus, a l0-
 micron particle is a sphere with a diameter of l0 microns. Within the element's recommended maximum pressure
 drop, l0 microns implies that the efficiency of the filter on particles that are l0 microns or larger in diameter will be
 no less than 90% for the life of the element.
 Discussion: For in-depth discussion of filter performance, Beta ratio, ISO cleanliness code
 and associated terms should be referenced.

 Cleanliness of lube oil systems is one of the most important factors affecting machinery
 bearing life. For optimum life of a typical hydrodynamic bearing, a filter which will keep the
 system to a cleanliness level of ISO Code 18/14 (which is equivalent to 2 000 particles under
 IS micron size and 100 particles over IS micron size) is desirable.

 25 micron filtration is standard for systems supplying babbitted bearings where oil films are a
 minimum of 25 micron (0.001-in) and bearings have good embeddability characteristics.
 However, 25 micron filtration is generally insufficient to minimize silt buildup within the oil
 system.

 Aluminum alloy bearing surfaces do not have the embeddability of babbitt metal and are
 therefore less tolerant to contaminants. These contaminants partially embed and score the
 mating surface of the journal. Solid particulate erosion is sharply reduced by keeping
 maximum particle size less than 40% of the minimum film thickness.

 Microbabbitt bearings have a very thin layer of babbitt [approximately 400  (0.015-in)]. and
 relatively poor embeddability. Systems providing oil to these bearings need to be as clean as
 systems providing oil to aluminum alloy bearings.

 6.10.7.6.3 Filter cartridge materials shall be water and corrosion resistant. Filter cartridges shall
  be resistant to deterioration by water up to a water-in-oil volume fraction of 5 %, and shall be
  suitable for operating temperatures up to 70 °C (160 °F). Metal-mesh or sintered-metal elements
  shall not be used. If specified, filters shall be designed to use filter elements or cartridges of the
  make, model number and type of construction specified. [David Sales ISO]

 Discussion: Typically, oil systems operate with water contamination levels in the range of one
 percent or less and operating temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) or less. Requiring filter
 cartridges to perform at water contamination levels up to five percent provides enough margin
 to avoid equipment upsets in machinery such as steam turbine drives.

 Metal-mesh and sintered-metal filter cartridges are prone to plugging. Corrosion of the media
 causes internal plugging, collapse, potential contamination of the oil system and makes cleaning
 very difficult.

 6.10.7.6.4 Oil flow shall be from the outside toward the center of the filter cartridge or
 cartridges. Filter elements shall be supported to prevent them from rupturing and to prevent
 unfiltered (dirty) oil from bypassing the elements. Design of the complete filter, including the


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 filter/cartridge components shall ensure proper assembly so that internal bypassing cannot occur.
 All components (excluding the filter cases and heads) in contact with filtered oil shall be made of
 stainless steel.

 Discussion: Prevents bypassing due to poor fit up. Stacked cartridges have the potential of
 bypassing. One-piece cartridges minimize this problem. All filter and cartridge design and
 assembly features need to address potential filter-to-cartridge or cartridge-to-cartridge
 misalignment problems, inadequate end cover sealing and other deficiencies which can result
 in bypassing.

 Filter cases and heads are not significantly in contact with filtered oil. Therefore, there is no
 need for these components to be stainless steel.

 6.10.7.6.5 The pressure drop for clean filter elements or cartridges shall not exceed 0.30 bar (5
 psi) at an operating temperature of 40C (100F) and normal flow.

 NOTE 1 - Pressure drop across the total filter system may exceed these values by the amount of pressure drop
 across the transfer valve and other filter system components.

 NOTE 2 - The 0.30 bar (5 psi) is the difference between the drop across the filter housing with no elements
 installed, and the drop across the filter housing with clean elements installed.Cartridges shall have a minimum
 collapsing differential pressure of 5,0 bar (70 psi). [API 614]

 Discussion: 15% yields a pressure drop ratio of about 6 from clean to dirty. This gives a
 adequate life between replacements. 5 bar (70 psi) provides a suitable margin in excess of
 2,5 bar (35 psi) differential pressure limiting device or relief valve plus accumulation to avoid
 accidental collapse of elements.

 6.10.7.6.6 For systems with centrifugal oil pumps, filter cases and heads shall be suitable for
 operation at the maximum pump discharge pressure with the pump running at driver-trip speed.
 For systems with positive displacement pumps, filter cases and heads shall be suitable for
 operation at a pressure not less than the pressure limiting device setting.

 Discussion: Pressure limiting device (modulating type valve) terminology is used because
 these devices do not open instantaneously. Conversely, pressure relief valves (snap acting type
 valves) open instantaneously and normally do not reset at the same relief pressure.
 Frequently, pressure relief valves reset at a substantially lower pressure—sometimes below the
 trip pressure level.

 6.10.7.6.7 The filters shall be equipped with valved vents and clean- and dirty-side valved drain
 connections. The dirty-side connections shall be located lower in the housing than the filter
 elements or cartridge support bases to allow complete drainage of the dirty side [614 4.6.1.6]

 6.10.7.6.8 Unless otherwise specified, dual filters shall be supplied, complete with a separate or
  integral continuous flow transfer valve (or coupled pair of valves) that provides tight-shut-off of


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 the idle filter. The system shall be designed to permit cartridge replacement and repressuring
 during operation.

 6.10.7.7 If specified, a removable steam-heating element external to the oil reservoir or a
  thermostatically controlled electric immersion heater with a sheath of austenitic stainless steel
  shall be provided for heating the charge capacity of oil before start-up in cold weather of the
  equipment being supplied by the oil system. The heating device shall have sufficient capacity to
  heat the oil from the specified minimum site ambient temperature to the lubricated equipment’s
  required start-up temperature within 12 hours. The heat flux through surfaces in contact with the
  oil shall not exceed 2,3 W/cm2 (15 W/in2).[D Sales ISO]
  Discussion: A sheath is not a can. Generally, a can is not used in general purpose lubrication
  system heater designs. If a can is used. it must be carefully designed to avoid high internal
  temperatures.

 In cold weather conditions, lube oil charges in exposed reservoirs can get cold and very
 viscous. One of the most effective ways to deal with this problem is to heat the oil to make it
 less viscous. Under cold weather conditions, the lube oil pump may not be able to move the oil
 through the system. Also, the power required by the lube oil pump may be excessive and
 pressure limiting device sizing may be inadequate to prevent the discharge pressure from
 exceeding the equipment rating. Lube oil pumps are sized for 10 °C (50 °F) oil. If site
 temperatures are lower than 10 °C (50 °F). the oil in the reservoir needs to be heated to 10 °C
 (50 °F) before starting the pump.

 Heaters may also be used to maintain oil reservoir temperature. Maintaining bulk oil in the
 reservoir at 50 °C (120 °F) aids the separation of water condensation.

 Limiting heat flux prevents oil coking due to locally high temperatures. Twelve hours is a
 practical and commonly agreed-upon time period to heat the reservoir oil. If much more rapid
 heatup is used, it results in excessively high heat fluxes and oil coking problems.

 6.10.7.8 The oil reservoir shall:
 a) be constructed of austenitic stainless steel unless it is an integral part of the machine being
      served or is built into the baseplate;
 b) have sufficient capacity to avoid the need for frequent refilling, to provide adequate
      allowance for system rundown, and to provide a retention time of at least 3 min;
 c) have provisions to eliminate air and to avoid foreign matter being drawn into the pump
      suction;
 d) have filling connections, an armoured weld pad oil level sight glass (with maximum and
      minimum levels permanently marked or indicated) and breathers suitable for outdoor use;
 e) have a sloping bottom and connections for complete drainage;
 f) have cleanout openings as large as practicable. [Rearranged and reworded per David Sales
      recommendatons ISO]




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Discussion: With residence times of less than 3 minutes, complete disengagement of air
cannot be ensured under all oil system operating conditions and air will be drawn into the
pump and downstream equipment. Subsequent separation of air may interfere with the proper
functioning of filters, coolers. and control systems.

    SPTF Add filter/breather requirement from 614 with the following discussion
Discussion: From the "Lubrication Excellence 2004 Conference Proceedings"

(An excerpt from the "Best Practices in Bulk Lubricant Storage and Handling"
paper.)

Above the tank's oil level and beneath the roof of the same tank lies the
headspace. Every tank produces different conditions within its headspace as the
contents of oil mist, dirt and water vapor vary considerably. A high percentage of
moisture and solid contaminants that enter lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids in
storage vessels must pass through the headspace.

Breathers are necessary to exclude contamination. The breather needs to have a
particle size and capture efficiency similar to what the transfer oil filter is expected
to have. For example, if the oil filter that is used when discharging the lubricant
out of the tank has a 10-micron filter and 90 percent capture efficiency (Beta 10 =
10), then the breather performance should be the same or better. If the lubricant
is a hydraulic fluid, then the breather usually requires fine breather filtration -
around 3 microns. Gear oils by comparison may need only 10- to 20-micron filters
at 90 percent capture efficiency.


6.10.8 Oil disks and oil rings shall be metal and shall have an operating submergence of
3mm to 6 mm (1/8 in to 1/4 in) above the lower edge of the disk or above the lower edge of the
bore of an oil ring. Oil disks shall have mounting hubs to maintain concentricity and shall be
positively secured to the shaft.

Discussion: Oil rings and disks are simple pumping devices to provide lubrication by
transporting oil from a local bearing housing oil drainage reservoir to the shaft (oil ring) or
an upper reservoir (oil disk). The amount of submergence is critical. Too little submergence of
an oil ring results in the ring skipping on the oil surface and loss of efficiency in picking up
oil. Too much submergence results in excessive drag on the ring. The ring will run at less
than normal speed or will stops resulting in shaft wear. Also, if the ring runs at less than
normal speed it can result in oil starvation.

Oil flingers (slingers) are used to prevent oil migration along a shaft, not as a means of
transporting oil.

6.11 MATERIALS
6.11.1 General



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 6.11.1.1 Materials of construction shall be selected for the operating and site environmental
 conditions specified (see 6.11.1.7).

 Discussion: Key materials concerns are mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The
 purchaser may know of requirements or stream contaminants not listed on the data sheets.
 There may also be differences of opinion between the purchaser and supplier on the suitability
 of materials for the specified process and site environments.

 6.11.1.2 The material specification of all major components shall be clearly stated in the
 vendor's proposal. Materials shall be identified by reference to applicable international standards,
 including the material grade (refer to informative Annex XXX) Where international standards are
 not available, internationally recognized national standards may be used. When no such
 designation is available, the vendor's material specification, giving physical properties- chemical
 composition, and test requirements- shall be included in the proposal. [9.2.3, Item k]

 Discussion: National Standards such as ANSI, DIN, BS are examples of internationally
 recognized national standards. Internationally recognized ―other standards‖ such as API,
 HIS NEMA, AGMA, etc. may also be used.

 6.11.1.3 If specified, copper or copper alloys shall not be used for parts of machines or
  auxiliaries in contact with process fluids. Nickel-copper alloy (UNS N04400), bearing babbitt,
  and precipitation-hardened stainless steels are excluded from this requirement.
 Note: Certain corrosive fluids in contact with copper alloys have been known to form explosive compounds.
 Discussion: There is potential of an explosive mixture occurring under certain conditions. For
 example, ethylene oxide in the presence of copper can form acetylene. Nickel-copper alloys
 (such as Monel and its equivalents), bearing babbitts and precipitation-hardening stainless
 steels also contain certain amounts of copper. However, the presence of nickel in these
 materials acts as a barrier to the process of formation of explosive mixtures.

 6.11.1.4 The vendor shall specify the optional tests and inspection procedures that may be
 necessary to ensure that materials are satisfactory for the service (see 6.11.1.2). Such tests and
 inspections shall be listed in the proposal. [9.2.3, Item j]
 Note: The purchaser can specify additional optional tests and inspections- especially for materials used for critical
 components or in critical services.

 [The use of the word ―may‖ is not appropriate for use in a NOTE since it implies ―permission‖ to perform a
 requirement, and requirements are not allowed in a NOTE. The use of the word ―can‖ is used to indicate a
 possibility and is therefore not a requirement and is appropriately used in a NOTE. [ISO Directives Part 2 Annex G
 paragraph G.3].

 Note to TF Chairmen: Check to be sure there is space on the data sheets to specify this option.
 Discussion: Material specifications often contain appropriate optional mechanical or
 chemical analysis tests and optional inspections as supplementary requirements. These
 requirements are considered suitable for use with each material specification aid should not


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 surprise the supplier. For critical castings, for instance radiography of certain areas may be
 justified. Carbon equivalent (carbon or carbon with other elements) maximums are sometimes
 specified to improve weldability and to reduce hardness at welds.

 6.11.1.5 External parts that are subject to rotary or sliding motions (such as control linkage
 joints and adjustment mechanisms) shall be of corrosion-resistant materials suitable for the site
 environment.

 Discussion: Corrosion - resistant materials are necessary to prevent binding or seizure.
 Consider exposure to intermittent contaminants from wash down water, nearby process or
 cooling water leakage sources, and process gas leaks, for example.

 6.11.1.6 Minor parts such as nuts, springs, washers, gaskets, and keys shall have corrosion
 resistance at least equal to that of specified parts in the same environment.

 Discussion: Minor parts often perform critical functions and must be corrosion resistant to
 maintain their integrity. Fasteners may be higher strength than other components and
 therefore are more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking.
 Non-ferrous materials often have lower melting points than steel, with reduced fire resistance.

 6.11.1.7 The purchaser shall specify any corrosive agents (including trace quantities) present in
  the motive and process fluids and in the site environment, including constituents that may cause
  stress corrosion cracking
 Note: Typical agents of concern are hydrogen sulfide, amines. bromides, iodides, chlorides, cyanide. fluoride,
 mercury, naphthenic acid and polythionic acid.
 6.11.1.8 If austenitic stainless steel parts exposed to conditions that may promote intergranular
 corrosion are to be fabricated, hard faced, overlaid or repaired by welding, they shall be made of
 low-carbon or stabilized grades.
 Note: Overlays or hard surfaces that contain more than 0.10% carbon can sensitize both low-carbon and stabilized
 grades of austenitic stainless steel unless a buffer layer that is not sensitive to intergranular corrosion is applied.
 6.11.1.9 Where mating parts such as studs and nuts of austenitic stainless steel or materials with
 similar galling tendencies are used, they shall be lubricated with an antiseizure compound
 suitable for the process temperatures and compatible with the material(s) and specified process
 fluid(s). (ISO – David Sales)
 Note: The required torque values to achieve the necessary bolt preload will vary considerably depending if
 antiseizure compounds are used on the threads. . [6.2.8, 6.2.9.4]
 Discussion: Some antiseizure compounds have been found to play a role in promoting stress
 corrosion cracking under certain conditions. For example, the combination of molydisulfide
 thread lubricants and humid air can cause SCC problems in A193 B7 materials. The
 molydisulfide decomposes at elevated temperatures to form corrosive hydrogen sulfide. Also,
 sulfur-based, copper-based and lead-based lubricants can contribute to cracking of materials
 such as l 7-4PH and cold-worked and annealed 304 SS.


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6.11.1.10 When the purchaser has specified the presence of hydrogen sulfide in any fluid,
materials exposed to that fluid shall be selected in accordance with the requirements of NACE
Standard MRO 175. Ferrous materials not covered by NACE MR0 175 shall not have a yield
strength exceeding 620 N/mm2 (90,000 psi) nor a hardness exceeding Rockwell C 22.
Components that are fabricated by welding shall be postweld heat treated, if required, so that
both the welds and the heat-affected zones meet the yield strength and hardness requirements.
It is the responsibility of the purchaser to determine the amount of wet H2S that may be present,
considering normal operation, startup, shutdown, idle standby, upsets, or unusual operating
conditions such as catalyst regeneration.

In many applications, small amounts of wet H2S are sufficient to require materials resistant to
sulfide stress corrosion cracking. When there are trace quantities of wet H2S known to be present
or if there is any uncertainty about the amount of wet H2S that may be present, the purchaser
shall note on the data sheets that materials resistant to sulfide stress corrosion cracking are
required. [ Note made part of the paragraph since it specifies requirements ]

SPTF David Sales indicates that ISO 15156 (all parts) is identical to MRO175. This is not the
case since In addition NACE MRO 103. The following is an excerpt from a ISO workshop:

                                   ISO 15156
                                THE WORKSHOP
The new ISO 15156 has now been published. This document replaces NACE MR0175.
NACE also publishes the standard as NACE MR0175/ISO 15156.
The scope of the ISO is significantly wider than the previous NACE document. We need to
review the NACE MRO175, ISO 15156 and NACE MRO 103 to determine which to reference.

The NACE website lists MRO 175/ISO 15156.

Discussion: NACE MR0175 (2003 is the latest edition) lists ferrous and non-ferrous materials
that are resistant to sulfide stress corrosion cracking. The owner can also use MR0175 to
specify materials resistant to sulfide cracking for environments not specifically defined in that
standard NACE is the only widely recognized standard that exists today.
Sulfide stress corrosion cracking only occurs when moisture (water) is present with the H2S.
In many petrochemical applications the combination of moisture and H2S may occur during
normal operation or during transient conditions (such as startups and shutdowns). The cost of
complying with this requirement is often relatively low compared to the benefits realized.
Post weld heat treatment accomplishes two things: l) tempering back hardened (martensitic)
transformation products produced during welding and 2) stress relief of any induced tensile
stresses during welding.




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6.11.1.11 The vendor shall select materials to avoid conditions that may result in electrolytic
corrosion. Where such conditions cannot be avoided, the purchaser and the vendor shall agree on
the material selection and any other precautions necessary.
Note: When dissimilar materials with significantly different electrical potentials are placed in contact in the presence
of an electrolytic solution, galvanic couples that can result in serious corrosion of the less noble material can be
created. The NACE Corrosion Engineer’s Reference Book is one resource for selection of suitable materials in these
situations.
Discussion: An example of unacceptable galvanic couple is more noble copper alloys (brass,
bronze) connected to less noble steel in an aqueous environment. Steel immediately adjacent
to the copper alloy can corrode at an accelerated rate.

6.11.1.12 Materials, casting factors, and the quality of any welding shall be equal to those
required by Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Code. The manufacturer's data report forms,
as specified in the code, are not required. [6.11.4.2]
Note: For impact requirements refer to 6.11.5
Discussion: Under certain conditions and for certain applications, material traceability is
needed. It is important that the manufacturer has an appropriate internal quality process for
ensuring that the actual material ordered or produced conforms to specific material
requirements for the application. Code manufacturer's data forms are not required but the
quality control system should be auditable and traceable.

6.11.1.13 Low-carbon steels can be notch sensitive and susceptible to brittle fracture at
ambient or lower temperatures. Therefore, only fully killed, normalized steels made to fine-grain
practice are acceptable. Steel made to a coarse austenitic grain size practice (such as ASTM
A 515) shall not be used. (ISO David Sales recommendation)

Discussion: Low alloy steels (such as AISI 4140) are generally made to fine-grain practice
and have adequate toughness. ASTM A515 steel is made to coarse-grained practice. See
Section V Division I Section UG 20F of the ASME Code for additional guidance on brittle
fracture resistance of plate and forged steels.

6.11.1.14 O-ring materials shall be compatible with all specified services. Special
consideration shall be given to the selection of O-rings for high pressure services to ensure that
they will not be damaged upon rapid depressurization (explosive decompression).
NOTE 1- Susceptibility to explosive decompression depends on the gas to which the O-ring is exposed, the
compounding of the elastomer, temperature of exposure, the rate of decompression, and the number of cycles.

NOTE 2- Agents affecting elastomer selection include ketones, ethylene oxide, sodium hydroxide, methanol,
benzene and solvents. (API 676)
Discussion: Explosive decompression occurs when a gas under pressure, absorbed into an
elastomer over a period of time is suddenly released. Damage to the elastomer occurs during
the rapid pressure release.




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6.11.1.15 For cast iron casings the bolting for pressure joints shall be carbon steel in
accordance with ASTM A 307 Grade B. For steel casings the bolting shall be high temperature
alloy steel in accordance with ASTM A 193 Grade B7. Carbon steel ASTM A 194, Grade 2H
nuts shall be used. Where space is limited, ASTM A 563, Grade A case hardened carbon steel
nuts shall be used. Bolting and nuts in accordance with ASTM A 320 shall be used for
temperatures below –30 °C (–20 °F). The grade of ASTM A 320 will depend on design, service
conditions, mechanical properties, and low-temperature characteristics (David Sales ISO
Comment & SPTF Rewording)

Discussion: Carbon steel bolting material (such as ASTM A 307 Grade B) has a yield strength
in the same range as the tensile strength of the cast iron. Use of a lower strength bolt would
make the bolt material the limiting factor instead of the casing. ASTM A 193 B-7 material has
high enough strength to allow the steel casing material to be the limiting factor. An ASTM
A320 bolt material provides protection against low temperature brittle fracture. ASTM A 320
comes in various grades and the grade i.e material properties will depend on the application.

6.11.1.16 Positive Material Identification (PMI)

6.11.1.16.1 PMI testing shall be in accordance with 6.11.16.2 through 6.11.1.16.7.

 6.11.1.16.1 If specified, the following alloy steel items shall be subject to PMI testing:
      a) The pressure casing of rotating equipment
      b) Shafts
      c) Impellers
      d) Blading and shrouds
      e) Locking pins used to secure locking buckets
      f) Discs of built-up rotors
      g) Tie bolts
      h) Locking nuts on built up rotors and reciprocating piston assemblies
      i) Piston rods
      j) Connecting rods
      k) Crosshead pins
      l) Cylinders
      m) Cylinder heads
      n) Valve covers
      o) Shaft sleeves
      p) Bearing oil film surface
      q) Alloy claddings and weld overlays
      r) Pressure casing joint bolting (Studs and nuts)
      s) Inlet guide vanes
      t) Diaphragms
      u) Turbine stationary nozzles and reversing buckets
      v) Pulsation Bottles
      w) Balance pistons


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       x) Overhead seal tank
       y) Rundown oil tank

Note to TF Chairs: Provide boxes on the data sheets which will allow the purchaser to select
which components are to be PMI Tested. This list should be modified based on the equipment
being covered in the specification.

 6.11.1.16.2 In addition to the components outlined in 6.11.1.16.1 other materials, welds,
fabrications and piping shall be PMI tested as specified.

6.11.1.16.3 When PMI testing has been specified for a fabrication, the components comprising
the fabrication, including welds, shall be checked after the fabrication is complete except as
permitted in 6.11.1.16.4. Testing may be performed prior to any heat treatment.

6.11.1.16.4 Unique (non-stock) components such as impellers, turbine blading, and shafts may be
tested after manufacturing and prior to rotor assembly.

6.11.1.16.5 When PMI is specified, techniques providing quantitative results shall be used.

NOTE 1 - PMI test methods are intended to identify alloy materials and are not intended to establish the exact
conformance of a material to an alloy specification.

NOTE 2 - Additional information on PMI testing can be found in API RP 578.

Discussion: PMI is used to verify that the specified materials are used in the manufacturing,
fabrication and assembly of components. Refer to the discussion paragraphs after 6.11.1.16.5
for limitations of this process. Material certifications of castings, forgings, plate, bar stock and
weld rods confirm these meet the specified requirements. They do not guarantee that these
were actually used to manufacturer the specified component. For example, steam turbine
blading bar stock material certificates indicated the material met the drawing requirements,
however the blade manufacturer inadvertently used other improper bar stock he had in
inventory to manufacturer the blades. This was caught by PMI testing of the completed
blading. Likewise, casings and pressure vessels may be fabricated from plate other than
specified due to improper labling of the material. Improper weld rods can also be used during
fabrication. PMI typically identifies alloy materials such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum,
copper, columbium, and titanium.

Discussion: A variety of PMI test methods are available to determine the identity of alloy
materials. The primary methods include:

1) Portable X-ray fluorescence. This technique is used by Texas Nuclear 9266, Texas Nuclear
9277 X-MET 880, Texas Nuclear Metallurgist-XR instruments, Portaspec, Panalyzer 400 or
CSI X-MET-840 instruments . The principal of operation is that one or more gamma ray
sources are used to generate a beam of low energy gama rays to excite the material under



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analysis. The material under analysis then emits a characteristic spectrum of x rays which are
analyzed to determine what elements are present and in what quantity.

Techniques using X-ray fluorescence do not identify elements lighter than sulfur. Therefore
this technique can not be used to detect carbon. It can not differentiate therefore between 304
and 304L stainless or between plane carbon steels such as AISI 1040 or AISI 1030.

 2) Portable optical emission spectroscopy. This technique is used by Spectroport TP 07
instrument. This instrument uses an electric arc to stimulate atoms in the test sample to emit a
charastic spectrum of light for each element in the sample. The combine light spectra from
different elements are passed through a light guide to the optical analyzer. In the analyzer the
light is dispersed into its spectral components, and then measured and evaluated against
stored calibration curves.

This technique leaves a burn spot in the component. Under carefully controlled conditions
some instruments using this method can determine carbon content. The burn spot should be
removed since it is hard and could crack due to stress corrosion or high stress. If the
component is finished, the test should be done on a low stressed area. For field applications, a
hot work permit may be required to use this technique.

3) Laboratory chemical analysis such as:
     a) X-ray emisson spectrometry in accordance with ASTM E 572
     b) Optical spectrometry in accordance with ASTM E 227
     c) Wet chemical analysis in accordance with ASTM E 352 or E 353.

Chemical spot testing and resistivity testing are other quantative methods but are slower or not
capable of proving consistant results with low alloy (<5% Cr) materials and are not
recommended.

The above methods give quantitative results. Other techniques such as eddy-current sorters,
electromagnet alloy sorters, triboelectric testing devices (e.g. ferret meters), and thermoelectric
tests are qualative and as such may only be appropriate for limited sorting applications and
not for specific alloy identification.

6.11.1.16.6 Mill test reports, material composition certificates, visual stamps or markings shall
not be considered as substitutes for PMI testing.

6.11.1.16.7 PMI results shall be within the material specification limits, allowing for the
measurement uncertainty (inaccuracy) of the PMI device as specified by the device manufacturer.
(David Sales ISO)

6.11.2 Castings
6.11.2.1 Castings shall be sound and free from porosity, hot tears, shrink holes, blow holes,
cracks, scale, blisters, and similar injurious defects. Surfaces of castings shall be cleaned by


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sandblasting, shotblasting, chemical cleaning, or other standard methods. Mold-parting fins and
the remains of gates and risers shall be chipped, filed or ground flush.

6.11.2.2 The use of chaplets in pressure castings shall be held to a minimum. Where chaplets
are necessary, they shall be clean and corrosion free (plating of chaplets is permitted) and of a
composition compatible with the casting.

Discussion: A chaplet is a metal support that holds a casting core in place within a mold.
Molten metal solidifies around a chaplet and fuses it into the finished casting. Use of chaplets
of all inappropriate material is difficult to detect. In corrosive duties this can be catastrophic
because the chaplet provides a clean path through the casting if it is not adequately corrosion
resistant. Plating of the chaplet prevents it from corrosion. Chaplets are illustrated in the
following figure.




                                       Chaplets




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6.11.2.3 Pressure-containing ferrous castings shall not be repaired except as specified in a)
through c). [David Sales – Hanging paragraph]

Discussion: Repair methods such as welding, peening. plugging. burning in and impregnating
are mechanical and only tend to be superficial. They offer limited protection against in-service
leakage.

a) Weldable grades of steel castings shall be repaired by welding, using a qualified welding
procedure based on the requirements of the appropriate pressure vessel code such as Section VIII,
Division 1, and Section IX of the ASME Code. After major weld repairs. and before hydrotest,
the complete repaired casting shall be given a postweld heat treatment to ensure stress relief and
continuity of mechanical properties of both weld and parent metal and dimensional stability
during subsequent machining operations.

Discussion: Section VII Division 1 requires stress relief of carbon steel castings if the repair
thickness (Not the thickness of the casing) is greater than 11/2 in. The code also allows local
stress relieving. Local stress relieving may not be sufficient to develop consistent mechanical
properties in both the weld and parent material and prevent subsequent distortion during
machining. It is for this reason that this paragraph requires stress relieving of the entire
repaired casting. Section IX covers qualification of welding procedures and welding
qualifications.
SPTF: The above change was suggested by the 617 TF.

 b) Cast gray iron may be repaired by plugging within the limits specified in ASTM A 278, A
395, or A 536. The holes drilled for plugs shall be carefully examined, using liquid penetrant, to
ensure that all defective material has been removed.

 c) All repairs that are not covered by the agreed material specification shall be subject to the
purchaser’s approval.

Discussion: This paragraph is also intended to cover metallurgies other than steel and iron
(such as special alloys). ASTM specifications are only one set of specifications. Worldwide,
there are several other recognized material specifications.

6.11.2.4 Fully enclosed cored voids, which become fully enclosed by methods such as
plugging, welding, or assembly, shall not be used. (ISO)
Discussion: Fully enclosed voids which have achieved system pressure during operation can
retain pressure during shutdowns, presenting a safety hazard during any subsequent repair
work (such as machining or welding). There is no satisfactory inspection method to ensure
void does not become pressurized in service.

6.11.2.5 All pressure containing and non pressure containing Ductile (Nodular) iron castings
shall be produced in accordance ASTM A 395 or other internationally recognized standard as



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approved by the purchaser. The production of the castings shall conform to the conditions
specified in 6.11.2.5.1 through 6.11.2.5.4.[API 619]

Discussion: Ductile (Nodular) iron is more ductile than cast iron but less ductile than steel.
This ductility in all sections of the casting is highly dependent on casting technique and the
material selection The following tests in paragraphs 6.11.2.5.1 through 6.11.2.5.4 are attempts
to confirm the ductility at all locations. These tests help ensure the resulting casting is nodular
iron. Delivery delays for nodular iron castings are more common due to probability that
additional castings must be poured to achieve the required material properties.

ASTM A 395 is titled ―Standard Specification for Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining
Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures‖ Although its title indicates ―Pressure
Containing‖ the intent of the paragraph is that it is used when Ductile (Nodular) iron castings
are supplied, even if they are not Pressure containing.

6.11.2.5.1 The keel or Y block cast at the end of the pour shall have a thickness not less than
the thickness of critical sections of the main casting. This test block shall be tested for tensile
strength and hardness and shall be microscopically examined. Graphite nodules shall be
classified under microscopic examination and shall be in accordance with ASTM A 247. There
shall be no intercellular flake graphite.
Note 1: Critical sections are typically heavy sections, section changes, high-stress points such as drilled lubrication
points, the cylinder bore, valve ports, and flanges. Normally, bosses and similar sections are not considered critical
sections of a casting. If critical sections of a casting have different thicknesses average size keel or Y blocks can be
selected in accordance with ASTM A 395.

Deleted by SPTF since quality levels are not listed in either ASTM A 247 or ASTM A 395 and it is not clear what
Quality level needs to be agreed upon. Additionally can’t specify a requirement in a note.
Note 2: ASTM A395 requires the microstructure of Grade 60-40-18 nodular iron to be essentially ferritic, contain no
massive carbides, and have a minimum of 90 % Type I and Type II Graphite nodules as in Fig. 1 or Plate I of Test
Method A 247.

Note 3: ASTM A395 requires the microstructure of Grade 60-45-15 nodular iron to be 45 % pearlitic, maximum,
contain no massive carbides, and have a minimum 90 % Type I and Type II Graphite nodules as in Fig.1 or Plate I of
Test Method A 247


Discussion: Ensures tests are representative of casting properties. The cooling rate,
determined in pad by the section thickness, can affect the casting toughness and chemical
segregation. In general, Charpy V-notch impact specimens from a more rapidly cooled thinner
section will be non-representative of the main casting. Thicker critical sections that are cooled
more slowly are also less likely to give non-representative properties. ASTM A247 is
specifically referenced because it is the only recognized standard available today. In most
cases, acceptance levels depend on the service application.

The quality of the nodules depends on the innoculant such as magnesium additive. This
changes the surface tension and causes the graphite to form as nodules rather than flakes.


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The efficiency of the innoculant decays as time and that is the reason for requiring the test
blocks to be taken at the end of the pour.

Refer to SP Annex 12 for additional discussion of Nodular Iron and illustrations of the Type I
& Type II graphite nodules

6.11.2.5.2 A minimum of one set (three samples) of Charpy V-notch impact specimens at one-
third the thickness of the test block shall be made from the material adjacent to the tensile
specimen on each keel or Y block. All three specimens shall have an impact value not less
than.12 J (9 ft-lbf) and the mean of the three specimens shall not be less than 14 J (10 ft-lbf) at
room temperature. (ISO - Use abbreviations not spelled out units)

Discussion: Ensures adequately uniform toughness at all locations in castings.

6.11.2.5.3 An ―as-cast‖ sample from each ladle shall be chemically analyzed.

6.11.2.5.4 Brinell hardness tests shall be made on the actual casting at feasible critical sections
such as section changes, flanges, and other accessible locations such as the cylinder bore and
valve ports. Sufficient surface material shall be removed before hardness tests are made to
eliminate any skin effect. Tests shall also be made at the extremities of the casting at locations
that represent the sections poured first and last. These shall be made in addition to hardness test
on keel or Y blocks in accordance with 6.11.2.5.1.

Discussion: The quality and properties of ductile (nodular) iron castings is heavily dependent
on procedure, pour rates, temperatures. cooling rates, section thickness, etc.
Casting material properties cannot be verified except by test of material which has undergone
closely similar history.
Changes in cooling rates produced by different section thickness can affect hardness. Thinner
sections generally have higher hardness.
The skin effect of a casting can contain different carbon content (either increased or
decreased) and have different hardness than the cast material beneath it. Decarburization will
produce lower hardness readings.
Composition differences (not only chemistry) between sections poured first and last can affect
the material properties.

6.11.3 Forgings
6.11.3.1 The forging material shall be selected from those listed in Appendix XXX.
Note to TF Chairmen: Forging materials cannot be referenced to an informative appendix. Tailor this paragraph to
the specific components of each type of equipment.

6.11.3.2 Pressure-containing ferrous forgings shall not be repaired except as specified in a)
and b).



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a) Weldable grades of steel forgings shall be repaired by welding. using a qualified welding
procedure based on the requirements of the appropriate pressure vessel code such as Section VIII.
Division l and Section IX of the ASME Code. After major weld repairs. and before hydrotest. the
complete forging shall be given a postweld heat treatment to ensure stress relief and continuity of
mechanical properties of both weld and parent metal.

Discussion: ISO has indicated [API 610] that ―postweld‖ should be ―post-weld‖. ASME
Pressure vessel code uses the term postweld without the hyphen. Therefore we will not insert
the hyphen into postweld.

b) All repairs that are not covered by ASTM specifications shall be subject to the purchaser's
approval.


6.11.4 Welding
6.11.4.1 Welding of piping, pressure-containing parts, rotating parts and other highly stressed
parts, weld repairs and any dissimilar-metal welds shall be performed and inspected by operators
and procedures qualified in accordance with Section VIII, Division l, and Section IX of the
ASME Code. [2.11.4.4,4.2.1.3 or purchaser approved standard such as EN 287 & EN 288 for
welding procedures and welder qualification.

Discussion: The default is the ASME code. Welding in ASME B 31.1 the piping code, refers to
the ASME code for weld procedures and qualifications. Ensures proper qualification of both
procedures and personnel.

6.11.4.2 Unless otherwise specified, other welding, such as welding on baseplates, nonpressure
ducting, lagging, and control panels, shall be performed by welders qualified in accordance with
AWS D1.1 or Section IX of the ASME Code or other purchaser approved welding standard. [API
614]

Discussion: Requires all non-pressure welds to be covered by a structural code unless
otherwise specified. We want to provide a default and 610 defaults to this one standard. ‖or
other purchaser approved welding standard‖ allows the purchaser to approve other standards
i.e. Canadian or other. Section IX is more stringent than AWS D1.1 and if a welder is
qualified to Section IX he should be qualified to weld a base plate.

6.11.4.3 The vendor shall be responsible for the review of all repairs and repair welds to ensure
that they are properly heat treated and nondestructively examined for soundness and compliance
with the applicable qualified procedures (see 6.11.1.12). Repair welds shall be nondestructively
tested by the same method used to detect the original flaw, however, the minimum level of
inspection after the repair shall be by the magnetic particle method in accordance with 8.2.2.4 for
magnetic material and by the liquid penetrant method in accordance with 8.2.2.5 for nonmagnetic
material. Unless otherwise specified, procedures for major repairs shall be subject to review by
the purchaser before any repair is made.


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 Discussion: Makes the vendor responsible for assuring that repairs are properly heat treated
 and nondestructively examined by the same method as originally used to detect the repair.

 6.11.4.4 Pressure-containing casings made from wrought materials or combinations of wrought
 and cast materials shall conform to the conditions specified in 6.11.4.4.1 through 6.11.4.4.4.

 Discussion: Requires NDE of pressure containing casing welds to be examined to ensure their
 integrity.

 6.11.4.4.1 Before welding, plate edges shall be examined by the magnetic particle method to
 confirm the absence of laminations.

 Discussion: Previous paragraph required plate edges to be inspected by magnetic particle
 examination as required by ASME Section VIII, Division 1,UG-93(d)(3), & ―internationally
 recognized standards‖. As indicated by Davis Salles , all internaltionally recognized pressure
 vesssel codes do not have this requirement. Therefore the paragraph was revises to default to
 the Mag particle inspection and not reference any Pressure vessel code. If ASME is
 referenced, one may be tempted to add the ―Internatinalized recognized code‖ phrase‖ which
 could result in a conflict witin the paragraph.

 6.11.4.4.2 Accessible surfaces of welds shall be inspected by magnetic particle or liquid
  penetrant examination after back chipping or gouging and again after post-weld heat treatment. If
  specified. the quality control of welds that will be inaccessible on completion of the fabrication
  shall be agreed on by the purchaser and vendor prior to fabrication.

 Discussion: Requires NDE after back chipping or back gouging to assure complete removal of
 defects before completion of welding. For welds in pressure containing components, typical
 NDE inspections include root passes and final welds before and after PWHT. For welds in
 non-pressure containing parts, the final weld before and after PWHT is typically inspected.
 There is sometimes concern about the inspection of non-accessible welds, particularly if they
 are critical joints such as the longitudinal weld of a reciprocating compressor cylinder bore.

 6.11.4.4.3 Pressure-containing welds, including welds of the case to axial- and radial-joint
 flanges, shall be full-penetration welds.

 Discussion: This assures that the full strength of the component will be developed in the
 attachment weld.

 6.11.4.4.4 Casings and cylinders fabricated from materials that, according to internationally
 recognized standards such as Section VIII, Division l, of the ASME Code require post-weld heat
 treatment, shall be heat treated regardless of thickness.




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 Discussion: This requirement applies specifically to welds used to fabricate casings and
 cylinders. PWHT is required for these welds regardless of the thickness of the part.

 6.11.4.4.5 If specified, in addition to the requirements of 6.11.4.1, specific welds shall be
  subjected to 100% radiography, magnetic particle inspection, or liquid penetrant inspection.

  6.11.4.6 Connections welded to pressure casings and cylinders shall be installed as specified in
  a) through d). [2.4.2]
 a) If specified, proposed connection designs shall be submitted for approval before fabrication.
  The drawings shall show weld designs, size, materials, and pre and post-weld heat treatments.

 Discussion: Provides the option to the purchaser for approving important welding details,
 welding procedures. and heat treatment before the start of fabrication.

 b) All welds shall be heat treated in accordance with Section VIII, Division 1, Sections UW-10
 and UW- 40, of the ASME Code.

 Discussion: For connections welded to pressure casings and cylinders, the requirement for
 PWHT depends on thickness. Deleted ―internationally recognized standards‖ since these may
 not require PWHT which is required.

 c) Post-weld heat treatment, when required, shall be carried out after all welds, including piping
 welds, have been completed.

 Discussion: This requires that PWHT should be carried out when all components have been
 welded to the pressure casing or cylinder.

 d) Auxiliary piping welded to alloy steel casings and cylinders shall be of a material with the
 same nominal properties as the casing or cylinder material or shall be of low carbon austenitic
 stainless steel. Other materials compatible with the casing or cylinder material and intended
 service may be used with the purchaser's approval.

 Note: Low carbon austenitic stainless steel is identified by the letter L after the numeritical
 designation such as 304L or 316 L. ( David Sales ISO)

 Discussion: Other materials may include chromium-molybdenum alloys and 12-percent
 chrome steels, for instance. For high temperature refinery services for example a minimum
 alloy content of 5 Cr-1/2 Mo is generally needed in service where 12 Cr is specified. In certain
 situations, higher alloy pipe may be needed.

 6.11.5 Low Temperature Service
 6.11.5.1 The purchaser shall specify the minimum design metal temperature and concurrent
  pressure used to establish impact test and other material requirements.



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Note: Normally, this will be the lower of the minimum surrounding ambient temperature or minimum fluid pumping
temperature; however, the purchaser can specify a minimum design metal temperature based on properties of the
pumped fluid such as autorefrigeration at reduced pressures.
Discussion: ―concurrent pressure‖ was added on the recommendation of API 617 TF to
clarify the conditions for minimum design metal pressure.

6.11.5.2 To avoid brittle failures, materials and construction for low temperature service shall
be suitable for the minimum design metal temperature. The purchaser and the vendor shall agree
upon the minimum design metal temperature and any special precautions necessary with regard
to conditions that may occur during operation, maintenance, transportation, erection,
commissioning and testing. Care shall be taken in the selection of fabrication methods, welding
procedures, and materials for vendor furnished steel pressure retaining parts that can be subject to
temperatures below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. The published design-allowable
stresses for materials manufactured in accordance with internationally recognized standards such
as the ASME Code and ANSI standards are based on minimum tensile properties. Some
standards do not differentiate between rimmed, semikilled, fully killed, hot-rolled, and
normalized material, nor do they take into account whether materials were produced under fine-
or course-grain practices all of which can affect material ductility . The vendor shall exercise
caution in the selection of materials intended for services between –30 °C (–20 °F) and 40 °C
(100 °F).


Discussion: In general. ferritic steels (such as carbon steel and low alloy steel containing
chrome and moly) and martensitic steels (such as 12% chrome) can have ductile-to-brittle
transition temperatures as high as 40 °C (100 °F). The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature
is affected by such items as steel manufacturing process heat treatment. and minor changes in
alloy content. None of these are readily apparent to the owner.
Ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures are determined by impact testing. Common material
properties such as hardness and tensile strength are not necessarily indicators of a material's
toughness.
Weld heat affected zones cannot be easily measured by Charpy V-notch impact toughness
tests.
Proper alloy selection, fabrication, and welding procedures are generally the best way to
ensure adequate toughness.

6.11.5.3 All carbon and low alloy steel pressure containing components including nozzles,
flanges, and weldments shall be impact tested in accordance with the requirements of Section
VIII, Division 1, Sections UCS-65 through 68, of the ASME Code or purchasers approved
equivalent standard. High-alloy steels shall be tested in accordance with Section VIII, Division l,
Section UHA-51, of the ASME Code or purchasers approved equivalent standard. For materials
and thicknesses not covered by Section VIII, Division l of the ASME Code or equivalent
standards, the purchaser shall specify requirements. Impact testing of a material may not be
required depending on the minimum design metal temperature, thermal, mechanical and cyclic


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loading and the governing thickness. Refer to requirements of Section VIII,Division l, Section
UG-20F of the ASME Code, for example. [Note moved to paragraph since it contains
requirements and ―may‖.

6.11.5.4 Governing thickness used to determine impact testing requirements shall be the greater
of the following:
a. The nominal thickness of the largest butt welded joint.
b. The largest nominal section for pressure containment, excluding:
    1. Structural support sections such as feet or lugs.
    2. Sections with increased thickness required for rigidity to mitigate shaft deflection.
    3. Structural sections required for attachment or inclusion of mechanical features such as
    jackets or seal chambers.
c. One fourth of the nominal flange thickness, including parting flange thickness for axially
split casings (in recognition that the predominant flange stress is not a membrane stress.)
    The results of the impact testing shall meet the minimum impact energy requirements of
Section VIII, Division l, Section UG-84, of the ASME Code or equivalent standard.

Discussion: Selection of materials which do not require impact testing is usually' preferable to
using materials which necessitate impact testing. Some codes such as ASME may not require
impact tests under certain specific conditions.

6.12 NAMEPLATES AND ROTATION ARROWS
6.12.1 A nameplate shall be securely attached at a readily visible location on the equipment and
on any major piece of auxiliary equipment.

Discussion: The nameplate attachment must withstand the normal wear and tear that occurs
during handling, installation, and maintenance of equipment. Nameplates provide a back-up
source of important equipment information. See 6.12.3.

6.12.2 Rotation arrows shall be cast-in or attached to each major item of rotating equipment at a
readily visible location.

Discussion: Rotation arrow's permit easy field verification of correct equipment rotational
direction.

6.12.3 Nameplates and rotation arrows (if attached) shall be of austenitic stainless steel or
nickel-copper (UNS N04400) alloy. Attachment pins shall be of the same material. Welding is
not permitted.

Discussion: Corrosion - resistant materials help nameplates and arrow's withstand corrosive
plant environments. Welding introduces unnecessary uncertainties about the effects of intense
local heating of components such as pressure casings. Nameplate data provides permanent
and easily found information useful when other sources such as paper and electronic files are
unavailable or of questionable accuracy.


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6.12.4 The following data (where relevant) shall be clearly stamped or engraved on the
nameplate:
a. Vendor's name
b. Serial number
c. Size, type and model
d. Rated capacity
e. Purchaser item number or other reference

    The purchaser shall specify whether SI or customary units are to be shown.
Note to TF Chairmen: Data listed on the machine's nameplate should be amended for the particular class of
equipment under consideration. Other nameplate data can include:
a. Maximum continuous speed
b. Maximum allowable casing working pressure
c. Maximum allowable Temperature
d. Critical speeds (within the operating range and die first one above)
Note: Lateral critical speeds determined from running tests shall be stamped on the nameplate followed by the word
―TESTS.‖ Critical speeds predicted by calculation up to and including the first critical speed above trip speed and
not identifiable by test shall be stamped on the nameplate followed by the abbreviation ―CALC.‖


7 Accessories
7.1 DRIVERS
7.1.1General
7.1.1.1 The driver shall be of the type specified, shall be sized to meet the maximum specified
operating conditions, including external gear and coupling losses, and shall be in accordance with
applicable specifications, as stated in the inquiry and order. The driver shall operate under the
utility and site conditions specified in the inquiry.

7.1.1.2 The driver shall be sized to accept any specified process variations such as changes in
the pressure, temperature or properties of the fluids handled, and plant start-up conditions.

7.1.1.3 The driver shall be capable of starting under the conditions specified and the starting
method shall be agreed by the purchaser and the vendor. The driver's starting-torque capabilities
shall exceed the speed-torque requirements of the driven equipment.

Discussion: The worst case conditions need to be considered for all drivers. These are
generally covered in the following paragraphs: 7.1.2–7.1.4.

7.1.1.4 The supporting feet of drivers with a weight greater than 250 kg,(500lbs) shall be
provided with vertical jackscrews.

7.1.2 Motors



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7.1.2.1 Motor drives shall conform to Internationally recognized standards such as API
Standard 541 or 546 as applicable.(Motors that are below the power scope of API Std 541 or 546
shall be in accordance with IEEE 841 or IEC 60034). Electric motor drivers shall be rated w/a
1.0 S.F. The motor rating shall be at least 110% of the greatest power required (including gear
and coupling losses) for any of the specified operating conditions. Consideration shall be given to
the starting conditions of both the driver and driven equipment and the possibility that these
conditions may be different from the normal operating conditions.
NOTE - The 110% applies to the design phase of a project. After testing, this margin might not be available due to
performance tolerances of the driven equipment.

Note to Task Force Chairman: If your standard requires drivers less than 250 horsepower insert the applicable
industry standard reference, since API 540 covers motors 250 horsepower and higher.
Discussion: Some purchasers use 115% of maximum power required or the next larger frame
size(not including service factor), to take advantage of increased capacity at a slight increase
in cost.

7.1.2.2 The purchaser shall specify the type of motor and its characteristics and accessories,
including but not limited to the following:
a. Electrical characteristics.
b. Starting conditions (including the expected voltage drop on starting).
c. The type of enclosure.
d. The sound pressure level.
e. The area classification, based on API Recommended Practice 500A or equivalent
international standard.
f. The type of insulation.
g. Add purchase standard [see 610]h. The ambient temperature and elevation above sea level.
i. Transmission losses.
j. Temperature detectors, vibration sensors, and heaters specified
k. Auxiliaries (such as motor-generator sets, ventilation blowers, and instrumentation).
l. Vibration acceptance criteria.
m. Use in variable frequency drive applications.
Note to task force chairmen: If the equipment covered in your standard uses API Standard 541 or 546, paragraph
7.1.2.2 is not required. If the equipment in your standard does not use 541 or 546, keep 7.1.2.2 in your standard.
Discussion: This is a partial check list and the user should consult individual standards for
additional requirements. The purchaser should use a larger size motor if a VFD is too costly.

7.1.2.3 The motor's starting torque shall meet the requirements of the driven equipment, at a
reduced voltage of 80% of the normal voltage, or such other value as may be specified, and the
motor shall accelerate to full speed within 15 seconds or such other period of time agreed upon
by the purchaser and the vendor.

Discussion: The actual time to accelerate the motor during starting is dependent upon the
difference between the speed torque of the motor and the driven equipment. Motor



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accelerating torque is affected by the motor terminal voltage. Refer to API Std 546 for the
minimum required difference.

No bullet added because this is default paragraph.

7.1.3 Steam Turbines
7.1.3.1 Steam turbine drivers shall conform to ISO 10437 [API611 or 612]. Steam turbine
drivers shall be sized to deliver continuously not less than 110% of the maximum power
requirement of the driven equipment, (including any gear and coupling losses) when operating at
any of the specified operating conditions, with the specified normal steam conditions. [API 672]
NOTE - The 110% applies to the design phase of the project. After testing, this margin might not be available due to
performance tolerances of the driven equipment.
Discussion: The last sent was added to make consistent with the note in 7.1.2. which also
discusses the 110% capability.
Discussion: It is to be considered with the normal steam conditions. API Standards require
that the rated power of the driven equipment, at its corresponding speed, be developed with
minimum inlet and maximum exhaust steam conditions.
7.1.4 Gas Turbines
7.1.4.1 Gas turbine drivers shall conform to API Std 616 and shall be sized as agreed by the
purchaser and the vendor taking account of site conditions, particularly variations in ambient air
temperature
Note to Task Force Chairman: SOME voted negative on ISO 3977 Section 5 and therefore should not reference it in
our documents.

7.1.5 Gear Units
7.1.5.1 Gear units shall conform to API 613 (for special purpose applicatons). Gear units shall
conform to API 677 (for general purpose applications)

7.2 COUPLINGS AND GUARDS
7.2.1 Unless otherwise specified, non lubricated flexible element couplings and guards between
drivers and driven equipment shall be supplied by the manufacturer of the driven equipment.
[API 677]

Discussion: Modification to 7.2.1 eliminates grease cplgs due to the 5 year continuous operation
requirement in the 6.1.1.

7.2.2 Couplings for special purpose applications shall conform to ISO 10441 [API 671] The
make, type and mounting arrangement shall be agreed by the purchaser and the vendors of the
driver and driven equipment.
Note: For the purpose of this provision, API 671 is equivalent to ISO 10441.




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[Eliminated reference to ISO 14691 GP Cplg specification since SOME negatively balloted it ].

 7.2.3 Couplings for general purpose applications shall be all-metal flexible element, spacer-type
couplings manufactured to meet AGMA 9 000 Class 9 and shall comply with the following:
a) Flexible elements shall be of corrosion-resistant material.
b) Couplings shall be designed to retain the spacer if a flexible element ruptures.
c) Coupling hubs shall be steel.
d) The distance between the driven and driver shaft ends (distance between shaft ends, or DBSE)
shall be at least 125 mm (5 in) and shall permit removal of the coupling, bearings, seal and rotor,
as applicable, without disturbing the driver, driver coupling hub or the suction and discharge
piping. This dimension, DBSE, shall always be greater than the minimum total seal length.

NOTE - The DBSE dimension usually corresponds to the nominal coupling spacer length.

e) Provision shall be made for the attachment of alignment equipment without the need to
remove the spacer or dismantle the coupling in any way.

NOTE - One way of achieving this is to provide at least 25 mm (1 in) of bare shaft between the
coupling hub and the bearing housing where alignment brackets may be located.

f) Couplings operating at speeds in excess of 3 800 r/min shall meet the requirements of API 671
for component balancing and assembly balance check. [API 610 & ISO DIS 13709:2005]

• g)   If specified, couplings shall be balanced to ISO 1940-1 grade G6.3.

[a-g fromAPI 610]

Note To Task Force Chairman: Information pertaining to guards can be found in the Appendix of API Std 671. If
your standard covers special purpose equipment reference API Std. 671. If your standard covers general purpose
equipment reference ISO 14691. We can not reference ISO 10441 (which covers SP couplings) as an entire
document since we negative balloted it. You can reference certain paragraphs in it however.
7.2.4 Information on shafts, keyway dimensions (if any), and shaft end movements due to end
play and thermal effects shall be furnished to the vendor supplying the coupling.
NOTE - This information is normally furnished by the vendor of the driven equipment or the driver vendor.
Discussion: Various parties take on different roles of responsibility to establish an acceptable
design of the system.

7.2.5 The couplings and coupling-to-shaft juncture shall be designed and manufactured to be
capable of transmitting power at least equal to the power rating of the motor including service
factor. [API 614 & 610]

7.2.6 The purchaser of the coupling shall provide or include an idling adapter, as required for
the mechanical running test (see 8.3.3.1.8).



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    Discussion Coupling vendor usually furnishes the adapter. However, this option is open for
    the coupling and equipment vendor.

    7.2.7 Coupling mountings shall conform to ISO 10441 [API 671], for special purpose
    applications. Unless otherwise specified, the couplings for general purpose equipment shall be
    mounted in accordance with the requirements of 7.2.7.1 through 7.2.7.5. For a tapered-hub
    coupling, the vendor shall provide a plug gauge from a matched plug and ring set, for the purpose
    of checking the bore of the hub, unless an alternative method of ensuring a correct fit has been
    agreed.

    7.2.7.1 Flexible couplings shall be keyed to the shaft. Keys and keyways and their tolerances
    shall conform to AGMA 9002, Commercial Class).

    7.2.7.2 Flexible couplings with cylindrical bores shall be mounted with an interference fit.
    Cylindrical shafts shall comply with (AGMA 9002) and the coupling hubs shall be bored to the
    following tolerances (ISO 286-2): [ISO R 775 withdrawn]
    a. For shafts of 50mm (2 in)diameter and smaller—Grade N7
    b. For shafts larger than 50 mm (2 in) diameter—Grade N8

    7.2.7.3 Where servicing (such as for mechanical seal) requires removal of the coupling hub
    from the shaft, and the shaft diameter is greater than 60 mm (2.5 in), the coupling hub shall be a
    taper fit. Taper for keyed couplings shall be 1/10 conical, long series, in accordance with ISO
    R775 or alternately 1/16 (0.75 in /ft, diametrical) for compliance with U.S. standards.

    7.2.7.4 Coupling hubs shall be furnished with tapped puller holes at least 10 mm (0.375in)
    diameter to facilitate removal.

    7.2.7.5 To assure that the connected machinery is accurately aligned, the total indicator reading
    of coupling registration and alignment surfaces shall be controlled within specific limits. The
    coupling surfaces used for checking alignment shall be concentric with the axis of coupling hub
    rotation within the following limits: 13 micrometers (0.0005 inch) total diameter, with a
    minimum applicable tolerance of 25 micrometers (0.001 inch) total indicator reading and a
    maximum of 75 micrometers (0.003 inch) total indicator reading. All other diameters not used
    for location, registration, or alignment shall be to the coupling manufacturer’s standard, provided
    balance requirements are met. (614) SPTF Hold implementing this paragraph. Not in 614 and
    the paragraph is confusing. Do not include until an accepted SOME standard which includes this
    paragraph is located.

    7.2.8 Each coupling shall have a coupling guard which is removable without disturbing the coupled
    elements and shall meet the requirements of :7.2.8.1 through 7.2.8.3 [API 610] .

   7.2.8.1 Coupling guards shall enclose the coupling and the shafts to prevent personnel from contacting
    moving parts during operation of equipment train. Allowable access dimensions shall comply with
    specified standards, such as ISO 14120, EN 953 or ASME B15.1.




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    7.2.8.2 Guards shall be constructed with sufficient rigidity to withstand a 900 N (200 lbf) static point load
    in any direction without the guard contacting moving parts.

   7.2.8.3 Guards shall be fabricated from solid sheet or plate with no openings. Guards fabricated from
    expanded metal or perforated sheets may be used if the size of the openings does not exceed 10 mm
    (0,375 in). Guards shall be constructed of steel, brass or nonmetallic (polymer) materials. Guards of
    woven wire shall not be used. If specified, non-sparking guards of agreed material shall be supplied.

    Discussion: Requirements listed in 7.2.8are intended for general purpose equipment and are
    derived from the requirements for special purpose equipment (see API Standard 671).Guard
    requirements for special purpose equipment is found in API 671 and need not be repeated
    here for SP equipment.

    Discussion: When specifying non sparking material for guards, monel is the only metal
    considered non sparking and it is suitable for fabricating a guard.

    7.3 BELT DRIVES
    7.3.1 Belt drives shall only be used for equipment of 150 kw (200 brake horsepower) or less
    and require purchasers approval. Unless otherwise specified, timing type belts and sheaves shall
    be provided All belts shall be of the static-conducting type and shall be oil resistant. The drive
    service factor shall not be less than 1.75 based on the driver nameplate power rating. [618]
    NOTE - Oil resistant belts require a core of Neoprene or an equivalent material.


    Discussion: Torque transmission requires multiple V belts to be used. For each belt to
    transmit the same torque, matched sets of individual belts, individual belts banded together in
    a banded multi-V belt design or multiple banded multi-V belts are required. Banded multi- V
    belts are required in lieu of matched sets of individual belts for easier maintenance. There is
    more chance of losing or misplacing one belt in a matched set than one entire banded
    multi-V belt.
    V-belts also impose high side loading on the radial bearings. When using V-belts, the radial
    bearings therefore have to be upgraded. Additionally, the banded V-belt design imparts a
    higher load than matched sets of individual belts. It is not uncommon therefore that ball
    bearings are upgraded to roller bearings when belt drives are used. One should not change
    from matched sets of individual belts to a banded design without checking the load - carrying
    capability of the radial bearings.

    7.3.2 The vendor shall provide a positive belt-tensioning device. This device shall incorporate a
    lateral adjustable base with guides and hold-down bolts, two belt-tensioning screws, and locking
    devices. All bearing lubrication points shall be accessible. [618 9th Edition]

    Discussion: Although other belt tensioning devices have been provided, they are not always
    reliable.




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7.3.3 When a belt drive is to be used, the vendor who has unit responsibility shall inform other
manufacturers of the connected equipment. The other manufacturer(s) shall be provided with the
radial load resulting from the belt drive and, for reciprocating machines, the vibratory torque
characteristics. The drive manufacturer shall take into account the radial load and torque
variation conditions and shall provide bearings with a life at least equivalent to that specified in
6.9.1.

7.3.4 Belt drives shall meet the requirements of 7.3.4.1 through 7.3.4.7.

7.3.4.1 The distance between the centers of the sheaves shall be at least 1.5 times the diameter
of the larger sheave.

Discussion: If the distance is less than 1.5 there might be insufficient arc of contact. [API 618]

7.3.4.2 The belt wrap (contact) angle on the smaller sheave shall be at least 140°.

7.3.4.3 The shaft length on which the sheave hub is fitted shall be at least equal to the width of
the sheave hub.

Discussion: The sheave hub should not overhang the end of the shaft.

7.3.4.4 The length of a shaft key used to mount a sheave shall be equal to the length of the
sheave bore.

7.3.4.5 Unless otherwise agreed or specified, each sheave shall be mounted on a tapered
adapter bushing.

7.3.4.6 To reduce the moment on shafts due to belt tension, the sheave overhang distance from
the adjacent bearing, shall be minimized.

7.3.4.7 Sheaves shall meet the balance requirements of ISO 1940( ANSI S2.19, Grade 6.3).

Discussion: This is a chart of unbalance versus speed rather than a procedure.

7.4 MOUNTING PLATES
7.4.1 General
•7.4.1.1 The equipment shall be furnished with soleplates or a baseplate as specified.

7.4.1.2 Mounting plates (baseplates and soleplates) shall comply with the requirements of
7.4.1.3 through 7.4.1.13

7.4.1.3 The upper and lower surfaces of mounting plates and any separate pedestals mounted
thereon shall be machined parallel. The surface finish shall be 3,2 μm (125 μin) Ra or better.


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7.4.1.4 The mounting plate or plates shall be furnished with horizontal (axial and lateral)
jackscrews, the same size or larger than the vertical jackscrews. The lugs holding these
jackscrews shall be attached to the mounting plates in such a manner that they do not interfere
with the installation of the equipment, jackscrews or shims. Precautions shall be taken to prevent
vertical jackscrews in the equipment feet from marring the shimming surfaces. Alternative
methods of lifting equipment for the removal or insertion of shims or for moving equipment
horizontally, such as provision for the use of hydraulic jacks, may be proposed. Such
arrangements should be proposed for equipment that is too heavy to be lifted or moved
horizontally using jackscrews. Jack screws shall be plated for rust resistance. [API 677 ]

7.4.1.5 Machinery supports shall be designed to limit the relative diplacement of the shaft end
caused by the worst combination of pressure, torque and allowable piping stress, to 50 m
(0.002 in) (See 6.5 for allowable piping loads).

7.4.1.6 When pedestals or similar structures are provided for centerline supported equipment,
the pedestals shall be designed and fabricated to permit the machine to be moved using
horizontal jackscrews.

7.4.1.7 Unless otherwise specified, epoxy grout shall be used for machines mounted on
concrete foundations. The vendor shall blast-clean in accordance with ISO 8501 Grade Sa2
(SSPC SP6), all grout contact surfaces of the mounting plates and coat those surfaces with a
primer compatible with epoxy grout.

 Discussion: Epoxy primers have a limited life after application. The grout manufacturer should
be consulted to ensure proper field preparation of the mounting plate for satisfactory bonding of
the grout.

7.4.1.8 The anchor bolts shall not be used to fasten equipment to the mounting plates.

Discussion: You don’t want to disturb the attachment to the foundation when removing the
equipment.

7.4.1.9 Mounting plates shall conform to the following:
a. Mounting plates shall not be drilled for equipment to be mounted by others.
b. Mounting plates shall be supplied with leveling screws.
c. Outside corners of mounting plates which are in contact with the grout shall have 50 mm. (2
in) minimum radiused outside corners(in the plan view). See Figures 7-1,7-2,7-3,7-4d. The
bottom embedded corners shall be chamfered or radiused.
d. All machinery mounting surfaces shall be treated with a rust preventive immediately after
machining.
e. Mounting plates shall extend at least 25 mm (1 in) beyond the outer three sides of equipment
feet.



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NOTE - Item c: Radiused corners are recommended to prevent the potential of cracking the grout.

NOTE - Item e: This requirement allows handling of shims and mounting level or laser type instruments to
check alignment.




                           Figure 7-1 Typical Mounting plate arrangement




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              Figure 7-2 Typical Mounting Plate Arrangement




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              Figure 7-3 Typical Mounting Plate Arrangement




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                        Figure 7-4 Typical Mounting Plate Arrangement

7.4.1.10 The alignment shims shall be provided by the Vendor in accordance with API RP 686
Chapter 7 and shall straddle the hold-down bolts and vertical jackscrews and be at least 6 mm (1/4
in) larger on all sides than the equipment feet.


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Discussion: API 686 Chapter 7 paragraph 5.4.2 describes in detail the amount of shims to be
provided.

7.4.1.11 Unless otherwise specified, anchor bolts shall be furnished by the purchaser.

Discussion: The Purchaser usually supplies the anchor bolts because they are field installed.
Refer to sketch in API 686 for typical installation details.

7.4.1.12 Hold down bolts used to attach the equipment to the mounting plates, and all
jackscrews, shall be supplied by the vendor.

7.4.1.13 Equipment shall be designed for installation in accordance with API RP 686.

Discussion: Parallism of the feet for IMO 3D pumps is 0.005‖ and c324 pump is 0.010‖ /foot.
For IEE Flatness differential is 0.005‖ and a standard NEMA is 0.010‖ therefore all feet
should have shims under them [API 614]


7.4.2 Baseplate [7.4.3.1]
7.4.2.1 When a baseplate has been specified, the purchaser shall indicate the major equipment
to be mounted on it. A baseplate shall be a single fabricated steel unit, unless the purchaser and
the vendor agree that it may be fabricated in multiple sections. Multiple-section baseplates shall
have machined and doweled mating surfaces which shall be bolted together to ensure accurate
field reassembly. A baseplate with a nominal length of more than 12 meters (40 ft) or a nominal
width of more than 4 meters (12 ft) may have to be fabricated in multiple sections because of
shipping restrictions.

 [Note eliminated and made part of the paragraph - The use of the word ―may‖ is not appropriate
for use in a NOTE since it implies ―permission‖ to perform a requirement, and requirements are
not allowed in a NOTE. The use of the word ―can‖ is used to indicate a possibility and is
therefore not a requirement and is appropriately used in a NOTE. [ISO Directives Part 2 Annex
G paragraph G.3].


7.4.2.2 When a baseplate(s) is provided, it shall extend under the drive-train components to
contain and drain any leakage.
.

Discussion: This is a housekeeping consideration for personnel safety and to prevent damage
resulting from shipping.

7.4.2.3 Single-piece baseplates shall be furnished with a gutter type drain 3 inches wide and 2
inches deep around the circumference of the base deck.The gutter shall be sloped at least 1 in 120


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 toward the pump end, where a tapped drain opening of at least DN 50 (NPS 2) shall be located to
 effect complete drainage. [610 Para 7.3.1 modified]

 7.4.2.4 All joints, including deck plate to structural members, shall be continuously seal-welded
 on both sides to prevent crevice corrosion. Stitch welding, top or bottom, is unacceptable.[610
 Pare 7.3.7]

 7.4.2.5 If specified, the baseplate shall be designed to facilitate the use of optical, laser based or
  other instruments for accurate leveling in the field. The details of such facilities shall be agreed
  by the purchaser and vendor. Where the requirement is satisfied by the provisions of leveling
  pads and/or targets, they shall be accessible with the baseplate on the foundation and the
  equipment mounted. Removable protective covers shall be provided. Leveling pads or targets
  shall be located close to the machinery support points. For non column mounted baseplates, a pad
  or target should be located at each corner . When required for long units, additional pads shall be
  located at intermediate points. [616]
 Note To Task Force Chairman: The above provisions may be required only for special purpose equipment.


 7.4.2.6 If specified, the baseplate shall be designed for column mounting (that is, of sufficient
  rigidity to be supported at specified points) without continuous grouting under structural members.
  The baseplate design shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

 7.4.2.7 The baseplate shall be provided with lifting lugs for at least a four-point liftLifting lugs
 attached to the equipment shall be designed using a maximum allowable stress of one - third of
 the specified minimum yield strength of the material. Welding applied to lifting lugs shall be full
 penetration, continuous welds and be in accordance with ANSI / AWS D1.1. The welds shall be
 100% NDE tested in accordance with the applicable code. Lifting the baseplate complete with all
 equipment mounted shall not permanently distort or otherwise damage the baseplate or the
 equipment mounted on it.[API 610] [ 616]

 7.4.2.8 The bottom of the baseplate between structural members shall be open. When the
 baseplate is designed for grouting, it shall be provided with at least one grout hole having a clear
 area of at least 0,01 square meter (20 square inches) and no dimension less than 75 mm (3 in) in
 each bulkhead section. These holes shall be located to permit grouting under all load-carrying
 structural members. Where practical, the holes shall be accessible for grouting with the
 equipment installed. The holes shall have 13-millimeter (1/2-in) raised-lip edges, and if located in
 an area where liquids could impinge on the exposed grout, metallic covers with a minimum
 thickness of 16 gauge shall be provided. Vent holes at least 13 mm (1/2 in) in size shall be
 provided at the highest point in each bulkhead section of the baseplate.

 7.4.2.9 The underside mounting surfaces of the baseplate shall be in one plane to permit use of
 a single-level foundation. When multi section baseplates are provided, the mounting pads shall
 be in one plane after the baseplate sections are doweled and bolted together.




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 7.4.2.10 Unless otherwise specified, nonskid metal decking covering all walk and work areas
 shall be provided on the top of the baseplate.

 Note: Non skid surfaces can be obtaind by, non-skid coatings, or grating over the metal decking.
 [SPTF]

 Discussion: OSHA does not have any requirement for non-skid surfaces. Refer to SP Annex
 11 for additional information on this subject.


 7.4.2.11 All upper baseplate mounting surfaces shall meet the following criteria:

 1. They shall be machined after the baseplate is fabricated.
 2. They shall be machined to a finish of 6,3 μm (250 μin) arithmetic average roughness Ra or
 better. [From 6.2.11 for casings]
 3. They shall have each mounting surface machined within a flatness of 40 μm per linear meter
 (0.0005 in per linear foot) of mounting surface. [API 619]
 4. Mounting surfaces for each piece of equipment shall be machined in the same horizontal plane
 within 25 μm (0.001 in) to prevent a soft foot.
 5. Mounting planes for different equipment shall be machined parallel to each other within 50 m
 (0.002 in).

 Discussion: Refer to 6.2.11 for the casing mounting surfaces requirements
 7.4.2.12 The tolerances in 7.4.2.9 shall be recorded and verified by placing the baseplate in
 unrestrained condition on a flat machined surface at the place of manufacturer. [API 613]

 Discussion: The surfaces being discussed are those on which the equipment is mounted and
 on the bottom of the baseplate.

 7.4.2.13 If specified, sub-sole plates shall be provided by the vendor.

 7.4.2.14 Support for the equipment shall be located directly beneath the equipment feet and
 shall extend in-line vertically to the bottom of the baseplate.[SPTF]

 7.4.3 Soleplates and Subsoleplates
 7.4.3.1 When soleplates have been specified, they shall meet the requirements of 7.4.3.1.1 and
 7.4.3.1.2 in addition to those of 7.4.1.
 NOTE - Refer to Appendix ―xx‖ for a typical sketch.

 Note To API Editor: Include a standard sketch and plans from API 617, pages 28-30. Define the title as an
 ―informative appendix‖.




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7.4.3.1.1 Adequate working clearance shall be provided at the bolting locations to allow the use
of standard socket or box wrenches and to allow the equipment to be moved using the horizontal
and vertical jackscrews.

7.4.3.1.2 Soleplates shall be steel plates that are thick enough to transmit the expected loads
from the equipment feet to the foundation, but in no case shall the plates be less than 40 mm
(11/2 in) thick.

7.4.3.2 When subsoleplates have been specified, they shall be steel plates at least 25 mm (1 in)
thick. The finish of the subsoleplates’ mating surfaces shall match that of the soleplates (see
7.4.1.2.3).

7.5 CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION
7.5.1 General
7.5.1.1 Instrumentation and installation shall conform to the requirements of ISO 10438

NOTE - For the purposes of this provision API Std 614 is equivalent to ISO 10438.

Discussion: Generally, the purchaser’s Instrument Specification defines the location of
instrumentation required.


• 7.5.1.2 Unless otherwise specified, controls and instrumentation, equipment and wiring shall be
designed for outdoor installation They shall have a minimum ingress protection level of IP 65 as
detailed in IEC 60529, or a NEMA 4 minimum rating per NEMA Standard Publication 250, as
specified. When IP 65 protection level is specified, the controls and instrumentation, equipment
and wiring shall comply with the construction requirements of IEC 60079 ―Electrical apparatus
for explosive atmospheres‖

• 7.5.1.3 Terminal boxes shall have a minimum ingress protection level of IP 66 as detailed in IEC
60529 or a NEMA 4X minimum rating per NEMA Standard Publication 250, as specified.[API 614]
When IP 66 protection level is specified, the terminal boxes shall comply with the construction
requirements of IEC 60079 ―Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres‖ Terminal boxes
shall be metal.

Note 1: IEC addresses Environment protection and electrical protection separately. Ingress
protection is covered by the IP designation in IEC 60529. Electrical protection is covered by IEC
60079.

Note 2: The IP Code only addresses requirements for protection of people, ingress of solid
objects, and ingress of water. There are numerous other requirements covered by the NEMA
Type designations that are not addressed by the IEC 60529/IP Codes. IEC 60529 does not specify
the following:
               Construction requirements


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                  Door and cover securement
                  Corrosion resistance
                  Effects of icing
                  Gasket aging and oil resistance
                  Coolant effects

The Type designation of NEMA specifies requirements for these additional performance
protections. For this reason, the IEC enclosure IP Code designations cannot be converted to
enclosure NEMA Type numbers. (NEMA Publication ―A brief comparison of NEMA 250 and
IEC 60529‖)

Note 2: NEMA addresses both environmental and electrical protection (Construction features) in
one standard NEMA Publication 250.

Discussion: 7.5.1.2 & 7.5.1.3. Motor enclosures and instrument housings such as transmitters,
& pressure switches are generally available as NEMA 4 and not 4X. However terminal boxes
are readily available as NEMA 4X. IP levels of ingress protection are generally used in IEC
systems and NEMA ratings are used in NEC systems. However, some equipment has both IP and
NEMA ratings and meet the requirements of either system. Refer to SP ANNEX 10A & B which
provides a list of FAQ’s, the protection required by the designations after IP and NEMA, and a
comparison of NEMA 250 and IEC 60529.


7.5.1.4 Instrumentation and Controls shall be designed and manufactured for use in the area
classification (class, group, and division or zone) specified in 6.1.11.

7.5.1.5 All conduit, armored cable and supports shall be designed and installed so that it can be
easily removed without damage and shall be located so that it does not hamper removal of
bearings, seals, or equipment internals.

7.5.1.6 Where applicable, controls and instrumentation shall conform to API RP 551 Part 1 [API
614]

7.5.2 Control Systems
7.5.2.1 The compressor may be controlled on the basis of inlet pressure, discharge pressure,
flow, or some combination of these parameters. This may be accomplished by suction throttling,
variable inlet guide vanes, speed variation, discharge blowoff (when a constant-speed driver is
used), or a cooled bypass from discharge to suction. The control system may be mechanical,
pneumatic, hydraulic, electric, or any combination thereof. The system may be manual, or it may
be automatic with a manual override. The purchaser shall specify the source of the control signal,
its sensitivity and range, and the equipment to be furnished by the vendor.
Note to Task Force Chairmen: Modify to address each specific type of equipment.




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 Discussion: Inlet guide vanes are not normally recommended for use in hydrocarbon service.
 They have been found to cause problems over time, due to sticking(non functional) and/or
 prone to leakage of potentially dangerous gases.

 7.5.2.2 For a variable-speed drive, the control signal shall act to adjust the set point of the
 driver's speed-control system. The speed of the machine shall vary linearly and directly with the
 control signal. Unless otherwise specified, the control range shall be from the maximum
 continuous speed to 95% of the minimum speed required for any specified operating condition or
 70% of the maximum continuous speed, whichever is lower.

 7.5.2.3   If specified, a combination of control modes shall be provided.
 NOTE - Typically, this will be necessary on machines with a limited speed range, on multiservice or multistream
 applications.
 Discussion: Example of combination control modes include:
 a. Plant air compressor-This would be suction throttling in addition to blow off
 b. Reciprocating compressors-This would be a combination of valve unloading and by-pass
 c. Motor drive is considered a limited range machine

 7.5.2.4 The full range of the specified control signal shall correspond to the required operating
 range of the driven equipment. Unless otherwise specified, the maximum control signal shall
 correspond to the maximum continuous speed or the maximum flow.

 7.5.2.5    Unless otherwise specified, speed shall be adjustable by means of a hand speed changer.

 7.5.2.6 Actuation of the control signal or failure of the signal or actuator shall neither prevent
 the governor from limiting the speed to the maximum permissible nor prevent manual regulation
 with the hand speed changer.

 7.5.3 Instrument and Control Panels
  7.5.3.1 If specified, a panel shall be provided and shall include all panel-mounted instruments
 for the driven equipment and the driver. Such panels shall be designed and fabricated in
 accordance with the purchaser’s description. The panel is to be freestanding, located on the base
 of the unit, or in another location, as specified. The instruments on the panel shall be clearly
 visible to the operator from the driver control point. If the panel contains lamps a lamp test push
 button shall be provided. The instruments to be mounted on the panel will be specified.[API 614]

 Note to task force Chairmen: Panel-mounted instruments listed on the data sheets may be selected from the following
 list:
 a. Pressure gauges: inlet steam, exhaust steam, steam chest, first-stage steam (on multistage turbines), extraction,
 first stage after extraction section, nozzle bowl (for each valve on automatic multivalve turbines), steam seal,
 compressor suction, compressor discharge, interstage gas, lube oil, control oil, pump discharge, bearing-oil inlet
 header.
 b. Differential pressure gauges: seal oil, oil filter seal gas.



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c. Temperature gauges: inlet and outlet oil cooler, radial-bearing oil outlet, thrust-bearing oil outlet, compressor
suction gas, compressor discharge gas, inlet steam.
d. Compressor flowmeter.
e. Pump flowmeter.
f. Tachometer.
g. Ammeter for motor drive.
h. Alarms and indicator lights.
i. Seal gas flowmeter.

 7.5.3.2 Unless otherwise specified, panels shall be made of steel plate at least 3 mm (1/8 in)
thick, reinforced, self supporting and closed on the top and sides. If specified, the backs of panels
shall be closed to minimize electrical hazards, to prevent tampering or to allow purging for safety
or corrosion protection. All instruments shall be flush mounted on the front of the panel and all
fasteners shall be of corrosion - resistant material.

 Unless otherwise specified, panels shall reinforced, self supporting and closed on the top and
sides. The front shall be steel plate at least 3 mm (1/8 in) thick .Tops and sides shall be a
minimum of 12 guage in accordance with Table XXX If specified panels shall be totally enclosed
to minimize electrical hazards, to prevent tampering or to allow purging for safety or corrosion
protection. All instruments shall be flush mounted on the front of the panel and all fasteners shall
be of corrosion resistant metal. All interior and exterior surfaces of carbon steel panels shall be
prepared and coated with an industrial grade coating system. [API 614 ]

                                         12 Gage Steel         Material
                                                              Thickness
                                                               (inches)

                                        Uncoated        0.1046
                                        Galvanized      0.0934
                                        Stainless Steel 0.1094

                                                     Table XXX

Discussion: It is not uncommon to have these panels constructed of stainless steel to reduce
the life cycle cost.

7.5.3.3 Gauge boards and panels shall be completely assembled, piped and wired, requiring
only connection to the purchaser's external piping and wiring circuits.[API 614 ]

7.5.3.4 When more than one wiring point is required on a unit for control or instrumentation, the
wiring to each electrical control device or instrument shall be provided from common terminal
box (es), with terminal posts. Unless otherwise specified, separate terminal boxes shall be
supplied for segration of the AC and DC electrical signals. Each terminal box shall be mounted
on the unit, baseplate, or shipped loose as specified. or it's base if any. With purchasers approval



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    one terminal box may be provided if it is provided with an internal barrier that separates the AC
    and DC wiring.

    Discussion: An electrical control device can be a transmitter in addition to a switch. The term
    electrical control device is more general than switch.

    7.5.3.5 In addition to the requirements in 6.2.4.1, additional signal segreation by terminal boxes
    shall be specified

    7.5.3.6. Unless otherwise specified, each terminal box shall be mounted on the unit, or baseplate.

    NOTE - Terminal boxes on some soleplate mounted equipment can result in maintenance access problems.
    Maintenance access problems can be addressed by shipping terminal boxes loose for field wiring to a nearby
    location.

    7.5.3.7 All leads and posts on terminal strips, switches and instruments shall be tagged for
    identification. If specified, purchasers tagging shall be applied in addition to the vendors tagging.
    Wiring inside panels shall be neatly run in wire ducting [API 614 ]

    7.5.3.8 Interconnecting piping, tubing or wiring for controls and instrumentation, furnished by
    the vendor, shall be disassembled only to the extent necessary for shipment.

    7.5.4 Instrumentation
    7.5.4.1 Tachometers
       A tachometer shall be provided if specified for variable speed units. The type, range and
    indicator provisions shall be as specified. Unless otherwise agreed, the tachometer shall be
    supplied by the driver vendor and shall be furnished with a minimum range of 0–125% of
    maximum continuous speed.

    7.5.4.2 Temperature Gauges
    7.5.4.2.1 Dial type temperature gauges shall be heavy duty and corrosion resistant. They shall
    be at least 125 mm (5 in) diameter, bimetallic or liquid filled types and, unless otherwise agreed,
    shall have black marking on a white background.

    7.5.4.2.2 The sensing elements of temperature gauges shall be in the flowing fluid.
    NOTE - This is particularly important for lines that can run partially full.


    7.5.4.3 Thermowells
       Temperature sensing elements shall be furnished with austenitic stainless steel, solid bar,
    separable thermowells. Unless otherwise specified, the thermowell shall have a 25mm (1 in)
    process connection. For pressurized lines, this connection shall be flanged. For non pressurized



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 lines, this connection shall be threaded. The thermowell internal connection shall be 13 mm (1/2
 in). [API 674]

 Discussion: Definition of flammable was eliminated , refer to the discussion after SP 3.9.

 Discussion: Internal threaded connections which may become jammed or , it may be possible
 to unloosen the entire thermowell from the piping.

 7.5.4.4 Thermocouples and Resistance Temperature Detectors
     Where practical, the design and location of thermocouples and resistance temperature
 detectors shall permit replacement while the unit is operating. The lead wires of thermocouples
 and resistance temperature detectors shall be installed as continuous leads between the
 thermocouple or detector and the terminal box located on the equipment or the baseplate.

  7.5.4.5 Pressure Gauges
     Pressure gauges (not including built-in instrument air gauges) shall be furnished with AISI
 Standard Type 316 stainless steel bourdon tubes and stainless steel movements, 110-mm
 (41/2-in) dials [150-mm (6-in) dials for the range over 55 bar (800 psi)], and NPS 1/2 male alloy
 steel connections. Black printing on a white background is standard for gauges. If specified,
 liquid-filled gauges shall be furnished in locations subject to vibration. Gauge ranges shall
 preferably be selected so that the normal operating pressure is at the middle of the gauge’s range.
 In no case, however, shall the maximum reading on the dial be less than the applicable relief
 valve setting plus 10%. Each pressure gauge shall be provided with a device such as a disk insert
 or blowout back designed to relieve excess case pressure.

 7.5.4.6 Vibration and Position Detectors
 7.5.4.6.1 Unless otherwise specified, vibration and axial position transducers shall be supplied,
 installed, and calibrated in accordance with API Standard 670.

 7.5.4.6.2 Unless otherwise specified, vibration and axial-position monitors shall be supplied
 and calibrated in accordance with API Standard 670.
 Note to FT chairmen: For Special purpose equipment, eliminate ―Unless otherwise specified‖ and mandate Probes
 and readouts. For GP equipment TF to decide criteria.

 7.5.4.6.3 If specified, a bearing-temperature monitor shall be supplied and calibrated in
  accordance with API Standard 670.

 7.5.4.7 Solenoid Valves
 7.5.4.7.1 Direct solenoid-operated valves shall be used only in clean, dry instrument-air
 service, shall have Class F insulation or better, and shall have a continuous service rating. When
 required for other services, the solenoid shall act as a pilot valve to pneumatic valves, hydraulic
 operated valves.



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 Discussion: Solenoid valves are used in clean dry service because of low operating force and
 may possibly stick if used in dirty service.

 7.5.4.8 Pressure Safety (Relief) Valves (PSV) . [API 614 ]

 7.5.4.8.1 The vendor shall furnish the relief valves that are to be installed on equipment or
 piping that the vendor is supplying. Other relief valves related to equipment or piping outside the
 system that the vendor is supplying, shall be furnished by the purchaser. The vendor's quotation
 shall list all relief valves and shall clearly state that these valves will be furnished by the vendor.

 7.5.4.8.2 The sizing, selection and installation of relief valves shall meet the requirements of
 API Recommended Practice 520, Parts I and II. Relief valves shall be in accordance with API
 Standard 526. The vendor shall determine the size and set pressure of all relief valves within his
 scope of supply and recommend the size and setting of relief valves supplied by others required
 to protect the equipment he supplies. Relief valve sizes and settings shall take into account all
 possible modes of equipment failure.

 7.5.4.8.3 Unless otherwise specified, relief valves shall have steel bodies.

 Discussion: This is a generally required safety feature for components subjected to
 overheating during a fire.

 7.5.4.8.4 If specified thermal relief valves shall be provided for accessories or cooling jackets
  that may be blocked-in by isolation valves.

 Discussion: During a blocked in event of a component, heat added can cause fluid expansion
 resulting in a fire or an explosion. The thermal relief valve relieves when it senses an increase
 in pressure. [API 619]

 7.5.4.9 Flow Indicators
 7.5.4.9.1 Flow indicators shall be furnished in the oil-drain return line from each bearing, gear,
 and seal. Unless otherwise specified flow indicator shall be installed in the outlet piping of each
 continuously lubricated coupling.

 7.5.4.9.2 Unless otherwise specified, the flow indicator shall be:
 a. Flanged
 b. Bulls-eye-type with glass on both sides
 c. Steel body construction
 d. Diameter of not less than one half the inside diameter of the oil pipe.
 e. Clearly show the minimum oil flow.
 NOTE -To facilitate viewing of the flow of oil through the line, each flow indicator should be installed with its
 bullseye-glass in a vertical plane.




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 7.5.5 Alarms and Shutdowns
 7.5.5.1 An alarm/shutdown system shall be provided which will initiate an alarm if any one of
 the specified parameters reaches an alarm point and will initiate shutdown of the equipment if
 any one of the specified parameters reaches the shutdown point.

 7.5.5.2 The purchaser shall specify the alarms and trips required which, as a minimum, should
  include those listed in Table 2.
 Note to Task Force Chairmen: Insert Table here.
 7.5.5.3 The Vendor shall advise the purchaser of any additional alarms and/or shutdowns
 considered essential to safeguard the equipment.

 7.5.5.4 The purchaser shall specify the extent to which this alarm/shutdown system is to be
  supplied by the equipment vendor. This can conveniently be achieved by the use of a
  responsibility matrix.
 614 deleted this matrix because nobody used it.

 7.5.5.5 Unless otherwise specified, the alarm/shutdown system shall comply with the
 requirements of 7.5.5.5.1 through 7.5.5.5.8
 NOTE - It is accepted that with some systems, particularly those based on conventional direct acting instruments,
 complete compliance with the requirements of 7.5.5.5.1 through 7.5.5.5.8 may not be achievable. Examples of
 alarm/shutdown system arrangements generally considered acceptable, are given in Appendix XXX.
 7.5.5.5.1 For every shutdown parameter an alarm shall be provided with the alarm point set at a
 lesser deviation from the normal condition than the associated shutdown point.

 7.5.5.5.2 Any alarm parameter, reaching the alarm point, shall initiate an audible warning or
  flashing light or both as specified. It shall be possible to determine which parameter initiated the
  alarm.

 7.5.5.5.3 Any shutdown parameter, reaching the shutdown point, shall cause the equipment to
  shutdown and shall initiate an audible warning or a flashing light or both as specified which shall
  be distinguishable from those associated with an alarm. It shall be possible to determine which
  parameter initiated the shutdown.

 7.5.5.5.4 When any component of the alarm/shutdown system malfunctions, an alarm shall be
 initiated and shall be distinguishable from alarms resulting from malfunction of the equipment.
 To accomplish this redundant sensors may be required.

 7.5.5.5.5 When any malfunction of a component of the shutdown system results in the system
 being unable to recognize a shutdown condition, the equipment shall automatically shutdown and
 an alarm shall be initiated. This alarm shall be distinguishable from shutdowns resulting from
 malfunction of the equipment(fail-safe system). When a non-fail-safe system is specified, a




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 failure that results in the system being unable to recognize a shutdown condition shall also result
 in all other shutdown and alarms remaining functional

 7.5.5.5.6 When a non-fail safe system is specified, a failure that results in the system being
 unable to recognize an alarm condition shall also result in all other alarms and shutdowns
 remaining functional.

 7.5.5.5.7 It shall be possible to test every component of every alarm function while the
 equipment is in operation. Such testing shall not require the disarming of any shutdown function.

 7.5.5.5.8 With the exception of the final shutdown device (circuit breaker, steam trip and
 throttle valve, fuel valve, etc.),it shall be possible to test every component of every shutdown
 function while the equipment is in operation. The testing of components associated with a
 shutdown function shall not require disarming of any other shutdown function nor any alarm
 function.
 NOTE - This allows all alarms to be bypassed during testing of switches.

 7.5.5.6 If specified, the alarm/shutdown system shall incorporate a first-out annunciator facility
  to indicate which parameter first reached the alarm level and which parameter first reached the
  shutdown level, in the event that multiple alarms and/or shutdown result from a single initial
  event. Where this facility is not incorporated as part of an integrated control and monitoring
  system, a separate annunciator instrument shall be provided (See 7.5.5.9).

  7.5.5.7 If specified, the alarm/shutdown system shall incorporate an event recorder to record
 the order of occurrence of alarms and shutdowns. Time resolution shall be not greater than 100
 milliseconds.[API 614 ].

 NOTE - The special event recorder normally associated with a DCS may not have a sufficiently
 fast scanning rate.

 7.5.5.8 Unless otherwise specified, the necessary valving and switches or bridging links
 (Jumpers) or other approved protocol shall be provided to enable all instruments and other
 components, except shutdown sensing devices, to be replaced with the equipment in operation. .
 [API 614 ]

  7.5.5.9 If specified, shutdown sensing devices shall be provided with valving, bridging links or
 other approved protocol to allow replacement with the equipment in operation. Isolation valves
 for shutdown sensing devices shall be provided with means of locking the valves in the open
 position.[API 614 ]

 7.5.5.9 Annunciator




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 7.5.5.9.1 If a first-out annunciator feature has been specified in 7.5.5.6 , whether as a separate
 instrument or incorporated into an integrated control and monitoring facility, the sequence of
 operation shall be as follows:
 a. The first parameter to reach alarm or shutdown shall cause the flashing of a light and the
 sounding of an audible device.
 b. The alarm or shutdown condition shall be acknowledged by operating an alarm silencing
 button, common to all alarms and shutdowns.
 c. When the alarm or shutdown is acknowledged, the audible device shall be silenced but the
 light shall remain steadily lit as long as that alarm or shutdown condition exists.
 d. If another parameter reaches an alarm or shutdown level the light shall return to the flashing
 condition and the audible device shall sound, even if the previous alarm/shutdown condition has
 been acknowledged but still exists.

 Discussion: ISA 18.1 Annunciator Sequence and Specifications was reviewed by the 614 TF
 and it was decided not to reference this document. ISA 18.1 describes annunciator sequences
 and does not default to any one sequence. It is not a specification that describes the
 component details of an annuniator. Since the functions of an annunciator have been
 specified in 7.5.5.9 referencing ISA 18.1 has not been included.
 7.5.5.9.2 If the first-out annunciator feature is provided by a separate instrument, this shall be
 mounted on a local panel. There shall be approximately 25% spare points and separate
 connections shall be provided for remote indication if any alarm operates or any shutdown
 operates.

 7.5.5.10 Alarm and Trip Switches
    Where alarm and/or shutdown functions are initiated by locally mounted switches, such
 switches shall comply with 7.5.5.10.1 through 7.5.5.10.9

 7.5.5.10.1 Each alarm switch and each shutdown switch, except as noted in 7.5.5.10.7 and
 7.5.5.10.8 shall be furnished in a separate housing located to facilitate inspection and
 maintenance.

 Discussion: For extreme adverse corrosive environment non metal housings may be required.

 7.5.5.10.2 Hermetically sealed, single pole, double throw switches with a minimum capacity of 5
 amperes at 120 volts AC and 0.5 ampere at 120 volts DC shall be provided. Mercury switches
 shall not be used.

 7.5.5.10.3 The purchaser shall specify whether switches shall be connected to open (deenergize)
  or close (energize) to initiate alarms and shutdowns.

 Discussion: Switches connected to open (deenergize) are normally considered to be fail safe.
 However, 7.5.5.10.3 allows the purchaser to make decisions based on possible combinations
 which may be available.



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 7.5.5.10.4 Alarm and trip switches shall not be adjustable from outside the housing.

 7.5.5.10.5 Housings for alarm and shutdown switches shall comply with the requirements of
 7.5.6.2

 7.5.5.10.6 The sensing elements of pressure switches shall be of stainless steel (AISI Standard
  Type 300 stainless steel). Low pressure switches ,which are actuated by falling pressure, shall be
  equipped with a pressure gage, valved bleed or vent connection to allow controlled
  depressurizing during testing. High pressure switches which are activated by rising pressure,
  shall be equipped with a valved test connection so that a portable pump can be used to raise the
  pressure during testing. The arrangement to be used shall be specified by the purchaser. Typical
  arrangements are described in Appendix X.X.X.

 Discussion: The pressure gage described does not have to be permanently installed.

 7.5.5.10.7 Temperatures shall be measured by thermocouples or resistance temperature
  detectors as specified and shall be connected to local panel mounted instruments. Multipoint
  instruments may be used except that alarms and shutdowns shall be connected to separate
  instruments and separate alarm or shutdown contacts(switches) shall be provided for each
  temperature monitored. Each alarm and shutdown level shall be separately adjustable.

 7.5.5.10.8 Vibration and/or axial position switches shall be provided by instruments complying
 with the requirements API 670 (see 3.5.4.6).

 7.5.5.10.9 Level switches shall be of the float or displacer type mounted in separate enclosures
 which can be isolated from the associated vessel. Level switches shall be capable of testing with
 out shutting down the equipment or removing the vessel or reservoir from service. Valved test
 connections shall be provided to enable the level to be artificially raised or lowered as necessary
 to test the function of the switch or a top mounted switch can be provided on atmospheric vessels
 such as oil reservoirs.

 7.5.6 Electrical Systems
 7.5.6.1 Motors, heaters and instrumentation shall be suitable for the power supplies specified.
 A pilot light shall be provided on the incoming side of each supply to indicate that the circuit is
 energized. The pilot lights shall be installed on the control panel.

 7.5.6.2 Electrical equipment located on the unit or on any separate panel shall conform to the
 electrical area classification specified. Electrical starting and supervisory controls may be either
 AC or DC.

 Discussion: Requirements may differ, depending on whether a ―division‖ or ―zone‖ electrical
 area classification is specified. For additional information regarding area classification refer
 to the IEC 79 (National Electric Code)



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7.5.6.3 Power and control wiring, located on, adjacent to, or connected to the equipment, shall
be resistant to oil, heat, moisture and abrasion. Stranded conductors shall be used when
connected to or located on machinery or in other areas subject to vibration. Measurement and
remote control panel wiring may be solid conductor. The insulation shall be flame retardant,
moisture and heat resistant thermoplastic, and when necessary for abrasion resistance shall be
provided with an outer covering. Wiring shall be suitable for the local temperatures to be
encountered.

Discussion: Stranded wire is normally used to avoid failure due to fatigue in areas subject to
vibration. Solid wire may be used in areas not subject to vibration.

Discussion: Refer to NEC Article 310 for a description of insulation and types of sheathing.

7.5.6.4 All leads on terminal strips, switches, and instruments shall be permanently tagged for
identification. All terminal boards in junction boxes and control panels shall have at least 20%
spare terminal points.

7.5.6.5 To guard against accidental contact, enclosures shall be provided for all terminal strips,
relays, switches and other energized parts. Electrical power wiring shall be segregated from
instrument and control signal wiring both externally and, as far as possible, inside enclosures.
Inside enclosures which may be required to be opened with the equipment in operation, for
example, for alarm testing or adjustment, shall be provided with secondary shields or covers for
all terminal strips and other exposed parts carrying electrical potential in excess of 50 volts.
Maintenance access space shall be provided around or adjacent to electrical equipment or in
accordance with the appropriate code such as the National Electrical Code, Article 110.

Discussion: The 50 volt components inside a panel are meant to be in a secondary enclosure.

 7.5.6.6 Electrical materials including insulation shall be corrosion resistant and nonhygroscopic
insofar as is possible. If specified for tropical location, materials shall be given the treatments
specified in 7.5.6.6.1 and 7.5.6.6.2.

7.5.6.6.1 Parts (such as coils and windings) shall be protected from fungus attack.

7.5.6.6.2 Unpainted surfaces shall be protected from corrosion by plating or another suitable
coating.

7.5.6.7 Control, instrumentation and power wiring, that is not within a fully enclosed panel or
other enclosure, shall be in the form of armoured cable or shall be run in metal conduit as
specified. Cables shall be supported on cable trays. Conduit shall be properly supported to avoid
damage caused by vibration and isolated and shielded to prevent interference between different
services. Conduits may terminate (in the case of the leads to temperature elements, shall
terminate) with a length of flexible metal conduit, long enough to facilitate maintenance without


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removal of the conduit. In applications where conduit temperatures are above 60 °C, (140 °F)
the flexible conduit shall be 19 mm bronze hose with four-wall-interlocking construction and
joints with packed-on heatproof couplings shall be used.

7.5.6.8 For Division 2 locations, flexible metallic conduits shall have a liquid tight
thermosetting or thermoplastic outer jacket and approved fittings. For Division 1 locations, an
NFPA-approved connector shall be provided.

Discussion. For division 2 non jacketed flexible cable (BX Cable) can be provided. 7.5.6.8
requires a liquid tight, thermoplastic outer jacket.

7.5.6.9 AC and DC circuits shall be clearly labeled, connected to separate terminal blocks, and
isolated from each other.

7.5.6.10 Conduit drains shall be installed in all conduit low points for outdoor installations. [API
614 ]

 7.5.6.11 If specified for indoor installations conduit drains shall be installed in all conduit low
points for outdoor installations.[API 614 ]

7.6 PIPING
7.6.1 General
7.6.1.1 Piping design, joint fabrication, examination and inspection shall be in accordance with
ASME B 31.3. . Welding of piping shall be performed in accordance with 6.11.4.1

Discussion: Wording removed since welding of piping is covered in 6.11.4.1and there is no need to
restate in 7.6.1.1.

7.6.1.2 Auxiliary systems are piping systems that include the following services:
    Group I
       1. Sealing fluid.
       2. Gland and flushing fluid.
       3. Recirculation fluid.
       4. Balance gas.
       5. Buffer gas.
       6. Fuel gas or oil.
       7. Starting gas.
       8. Process-side drains and vents.
       9. Solvent injection.
    Group II
       1. Sealing steam.
       2. Steam injection.


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        3.    Water injection.
        4.    Starting air.
        5.    Instrument and control air.
        6.    Drains and vents associated with above systems.
    Group III
       1. Cooling water.
       2. Liquid wash(water based).
       3. Drains and vents associated with above systems.
    Group IV
       1. Lubricating oil.
       2. Control oil.
       3. Oil-system drains and vents.
NOTE - Casing connections are discussed in 6.4.

Note to Task Force Chairmen: Select the appropriate services for the specific Standard being addressed.

7.6.1.3 Piping systems shall include piping, tubing where permitted, isolating valves, control
valves, relief valves, pressure reducers, orifices, temperature gauges and thermowells, pressure
gauges, sight flow indicators, and all related vents and drains.

7.6.1.4 The vendor shall furnish all piping systems, including mounted appurtenances, located
within the confines of the main unit’s base area, any oil console base area, or any auxiliary base
area. The piping shall terminate with flanged connections at the edge of the base. When
soleplates are specified for the equipment train, the extent of the piping system at the equipment
train shall be defined by the purchaser. The purchaser shall furnish only interconnecting piping
between equipment groupings and off-base facilities. [7.6.3.2]

7.6.1.5 The design of piping systems shall achieve the following:
a. Proper support and protection to prevent damage from vibration or from shipment, operation
and maintenance.
b. Proper flexibility and adequate accessibility for operation, maintenance and thorough
cleaning.
c. Installation in a neat and orderly arrangement adapted to the contours of the equipment
without obstructing access areas.
d. Elimination of air pockets by the use of valved vents or the use of non-accumulating piping
arrangements.
e. Complete drainage through low points without disassembly of piping.

7.6.1.6 Piping shall preferably be fabricated by bending and welding to minimize the use of
flanges and fittings. Flanges are permitted only at equipment connections, at the edge of any base
and for ease of maintenance. The use of flanges at other points is permitted only with the
purchaser's specific approval. Other than tees and reducers, welded fittings are permitted only to
facilitate pipe layout in congested areas. Threaded connections shall not be used except (with



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the purchaser's approval) where essential for space or access reasons. Pipe bushings shall not
be used.

Discussion: Pipe bushings are not allowed since they can be thin walled and may crack.

SPTF Start here Sept 4 2008

 7.6.1.7 Pipe threads, where permitted, shall be taper threads in accordance with ISO 7-1 or
ASME B.1.20.1 as specified . If ISO 7 Part 1 has been specified, tapered or straight internal
threads shall also be specified. Flanges shall be steel and in accordance with 6.4.11.

Discussion: Refer to 3.37 and 6.4.8 for the discussion of ASME B 1.20.1 and US tapered pipe
threads.

ISO 7-1 specifies the requirements for thread form for joints made pressure-tight by the
mating of the threads. These threads are taper external, parallel internal or taper internal.
Threads are designated by the term Pipe thread ISO 7 followed by a letter(s) symbol
representing the type of thread and then the thread size. The following is provided to illustrate
the nomenclature for a right handed thread size 1 ½ .

                         Internal         Parallel       Pipe thread ISO 7-Rp 1 1/2
                          thread           Taper         Pipe thread ISO 7-Rc 1 1/2
                         External       Always taper     Pipe thread ISO 7-R 1 1/2
                          thread

The thread size is obtained from column 1 table 1 of ISO 7-1

The term ―taper threads‖ in 7.6.1.7 requires that both the external and internal threads be
tapered and eliminates the option for external straight threads as allowed by ISO 7-1. The
reference to ISO 7005-1 was replaced by paragraph 6.4.11 since 6.4.11 covers ANSI and ISO
flanges.
The reference to ISO 7005-1 was replaced by paragraph 6.4.11 since 6.4.11 covers ANSI and
ISO flanges.

7.6.1.8 Connections, piping, valves, and fittings that are 32 mm (11/4 in), 65 mm (21/2 in),
90 mm (31/2 in), 125 mm (5 in), 175 mm (7 in), or 225 mm (9 in) in size shall not be used.

7.6.1.9 Where space does not permit the use of NPS 1/2, 3/4, OR 1 pipe, seamless tubing may be
furnished in accordance with Table 3.

7.6.1.10 The minimum size of any connection shall be NPS ___.




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7.6.1.11 Piping systems furnished by the vendor shall be fabricated, installed in the shop, and
properly supported. Bolt holes for flanged connections shall straddle lines parallel to the main
horizontal or vertical centerline of the equipment.

7.6.1.12 Pipe plugs shall be in accordance with 6.4.5

7.6.2 Oil Piping
7.6.2.1 Gravity return lines shall be sized to run no more than half full when flowing at a
velocity of 0.3 m/s and shall be arranged to ensure good drainage (recognizing the possibility of
foaming conditions). Gravity return lines shall have a downward slope towards the reservoir of
not less than 4%. If possible, lateral branches (not more than one in any transverse plane) should
enter drain headers at approximately 45° angles in the direction of flow.


                Table 3—Minimum Requirements for Piping System Components [API 619]
                                       Steam                             Cooling Water                            Lube Oil
                    ≤75 pounds per         >75 pounds per
                      square inch            square inch         Standard
System                  gauge                  gauge             (≤NPS 1)           Optional          ≤NPS 1                 ≥NPS 11/2
                              a                    a
Pipe                Seamless              Seamless                              ASTM A 53                              ASTM A 312,
                                                                                Type F Schedule                        Type 304 or 316
                                                                                40, galvanized                         stainless steelb
                                                                                to ASTM A 153

Tubing              ASTM A 269,                              ASTM A 269,                          ASTM A 269,
                    seamless Type                            seamless Type                        seamless Type
                    304 or 316                               304 or 316                           304 or 316
                    stainless steelc                         stainless steelc                     stainless steelc

All Valves          Carbon steel,         Carbon steel,      Bronze,            Bronze,           Carbon steel,        Carbon steel,
                    Class 800             Class 800          Class 200          Class 200         Class 800            Class 800

Gate and Globe      Bolted bonnet         Bolted bonnet                                           Bolted bonnet        Bolted bonnet
Valves              and gland             and gland                                               and gland            and gland

Pipe Fittings and   Forged,               Forged,            ASTM A 338         ASTM A 338        Stainless steel      Stainless steel
Unions              Class 3 000           Class 3 000        and A 197,         and A 197,
                                                             Class 150          Class 150
                                                             malleable iron,    malleable iron,
                                                             galvanized to      galvanized to
                                                             ASTM A 153         ASTM A 153

Tube Fittings       Carbon steel,                            Manufacturer’s                       Carbon steel,
                    compression,                             standard                             compression,
                    manufacturer’s                                                                manufacturer’s
                    standard                                                                      standard

Fabricated joints   Threaded              Socket welded      Threaded           Threaded                               Carbon steel
≤11/2 inches                                                                                                           slip-on flange

Fabricated joints   Slip-on flange        Socket-weld or     Purchaser shall    Purchaser shall                        Carbon steel
≥2 inches                                 weld-neck          specify            specify                                slip-on flange
                                          flange

Gaskets             Type 304 or 316       Type 304 or 316                                                              Type 304 or 316
                    stainless steel,      stainless steel,                                                             stainless steel,




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                      spiral wound, or     spiral wound, or                                                                 spiral wound
                      iron or soft steel   iron or soft steel

Flange bolting        ASTM A 193,          ASTM A 193,                                                                      ASTM A 193,
                      Grade B7             Grade B7                                                                         Grade B7
                      ASTM A 194,          ASTM A 194,                                                                      ASTM A 194,
                      Grade 2H             Grade 2H                                                                         Grade 2H

NOTE - Carbon steel piping shall conform to ASTM A 106, Grade B; ASTM A 524; or API Specification 5L, Grade A or B. Carbon steel
fittings, valves, and flanged components shall conform to ASTM A 105 and A 181. Stainless steel piping shall conform to ASTM A 312.
a
 Schedule 80 for diameters from 1/2 inch to 11/2 inches; Schedule 40 for diameters 2 inches and larger.
b
 Schedule 40 for a diameter of 11/2 inches; Schedule 10 for diameters of 2 inches and larger.
c1
   /2-inch diameter  0.065-inch wall, 3/4-inch diameter  0.095-inch wall, or 1-inch diameter  0.109-inch wall.


7.6.2.2 Nonconsumable backup rings and sleeve-type joints shall not be used. Pressure piping
downstream of oil filters shall be free from internal obstructions that could accumulate dirt.
Socket-welded fittings shall not be used in pressure piping downstream of oil filters. (Table 3)

7.6.2.3 Unless otherwise specified, oil-supply piping and tubing, including fittings (excluding
slip-on flanges), shall be stainless steel. (Table 3)

Discussion: St Steel eliminates potential for scale build-up in piping

7.6.2.4 Provision shall be made for bypassing the bearings (and seals if applicable) of
equipment during oil system flushing operations.

Discussion: Prevents dirt from accumulating in the bearing.

7.6.3 Instrument Piping
7.6.3.1 The vendor shall supply all necessary piping, valves, and fittings for instruments and
instrument panels (see 7.5.3.2).

7.6.3.2 Initial connections for pressure instruments and test points shall comprise a branch and
isolation valve to the same standard as the system to which it is connected. Beyond the initial
isolation valve, piping or tubing not less than 10 mm outside diameter may be used. Where
convenient, a common connection may be used for remotely mounted instruments that measure
the same pressure. Such common connections shall not be smaller than DN 15 (NPS ½) and
separate secondary isolation valves shall be provided for each instrument. Where a pressure
gauge is to be used for testing pressure alarm or shutdown switches, common connections are
required for the pressure gauge and the associated switches.

7.6.4 Process Piping
7.6.4.1 The extent of and requirements for process piping to be supplied by the vendor will be
specified.

7.6.4.2 The requirements of 7.6.1 shall apply to process piping supplied by the vendor.



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  7.6.4.3 If specified the vendor shall review the design of all piping, appurtenances, and vessels
 (e.g. pulsation suppression devices, intercoolers, aftercoolers, knockouts, air intake filters and
 expansion joints) and supports immediately upstream and downstream of the equipment. The
 purchaser and the vendor shall agree on the scope of this review.

 7.6.5 Intercoolers and Aftercoolers
 7.6.5.1 If specified, the vendor shall furnish a water-cooled shell-and-tube intercooler between
  each compression stage.

 7.6.5.2   Intercoolers shall be air cooled or water cooled as specified.

 7.6.5.3   The purchaser shall specify if aftercoolers are to be furnished by the vendor.

 7.6.5.4 Intercoolers and aftercoolers shall be furnished in accordance with Section VIII,
 Division 1, of the ASME Code or other purchaser specified pressure design code.

 7.6.5.5 Water-cooled shell-and-tube intercoolers and aftercoolers shall be designed and
  constructed in accordance with TEMA Class C or R, as specified. . When TEMA Class R has
  been specified, the heat exchanger shall be in accordance with API Standard 660.
 NOTE - Caution should be exercised regarding the susceptibility of heat exchangers and their supporting structures
 to pulsation-induced vibration.

 7.6.5.6 Unless otherwise approved by the purchaser, intercoolers and aftercoolers shall be
 constructed and arranged to allow removal of tube bundles without dismantling piping or
 compressor components. Water shall be on the tube side.

 7.6.5.7 Fixed-tube-sheet exchangers shall have inspection openings into their gas passages.
 Rupture disks on the shell side (to protect the shell in case of tube failures) shall be used only
 when specifically approved by the purchaser.

 7.6.5.8 When air coolers are specified, they shall be in accordance with API Standard 661.

 7.6.5.9 Unless otherwise specified, air-cooled heat exchangers used for intercoolers shall have
 automatic temperature control. This control may be accomplished by means of louvers,
 variable-speed fans, variable-pitch fans, bypass valves, or any combination of these. Proposed
 control systems shall be approved by the purchaser.

  7.6.5.10 If specified, water-cooled double-pipe intercoolers and aftercoolers shall be
 furnished. A finned double-pipe design may be furnished only when specifically approved by the
 purchaser.[API 614]

  7.6.5.11 Intercoolers shall be either machine mounted or separately mounted, as specified.




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 Discussion: Machine mounted intercoolers are sometimes installed on reciprocating
 compressors.

  7.6.5.12 Materials of construction shall be those specified.

 7.6.5.13 When condensate separation and collection facilities are furnished by the vendor, they
 shall include the following:
 a. An automatic drain trap with a manual bypass.
 b. An armored gauge glass with isolation valves and blowdown valves on the collection pot.
 c. Separate connections and level switches for high-level alarm and trip on the collection pot.
 d. Collection pots sized to provide an agreed-upon holding capacity and a 5-minute time span
 between high-level alarm and trip, based on the expected normal liquid condensate rate.
 e. Separate connections and level switches for the high-level alarm and trip on the collection pot.

 7.6.5.14 If specified, the vendor shall furnish the fabricated piping between the compressor
  stages (or the nozzles of centrifugal compressor bodies) and the intercoolers and aftercoolers.
  Interstage piping shall conform to ASME B31.3.

 Discussion: Because of pressure drop considerations, vendor would have to know exact
 location of equipment

 7.7 SPECIAL TOOLS
 7.7.1 When special tools or fixtures are required to disassemble, assemble or maintain the
 equipment, they shall be included in the quotation and furnished as part of the initial supply of
 the equipment. For multiple-unit installations, the requirements for quantities of special tools and
 fixtures shall be agreed between purchaser and vendor. These special tools shall be used, and
 their use demonstrated, during shop assembly and post test disassembly of the equipment.

 7.7.2 When special tools are provided, they shall be packaged in a separate, rugged metal box
 or boxes and shall be marked ―special tools for (tag/item number).‖ Each tool shall be stamped or
 metal tagged to indicate its intended use.

 7.8 COATINGS, INSULATION, AND JACKETING
 7.9 STARTING EQUIPMENT
 7.10 FUEL SYSTEM


 8 Inspection, Testing and Preparation for Shipment
 8.1 GENERAL
  8.1.1 The Purchaser shall specify the extent of participation in the inspection and testing.[API
 619]




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 8.1.2 If specified, the purchaser’s representative, the vendor’s representative or both shall
  indicate compliance in accordance with the inspector’s checklist (Appendix D) by initialing,
  dating and submitting the completed checklist to the purchaser before shipment.
 Note to task force Chairmen: For an example of the inspector’s checklist, see Standard 610, 8th Edition,
 Appendix N.

 8.1.3. After advance notification to the vendor, the purchaser’s representative shall have entry to
 all vendor and subvendor plants where manufacturing, testing or inspection of the equipment is
 in progress

 8.1.4 The vendor shall notify subvendors of the purchaser’s inspection and testing requirements

 Discussion: Inspection requirements are listed on the inspection check list which is part of
 each standard. Testing includes material, NDE (as required), casing hydrostatic, mechanical
 and performance tests. The purchaser must determine the extent of his participation in these
 tests. Descriptions of the tests follow in this section.

 8.1.5 When shop inspection and testing have been specified , the purchaser and the vendor
 shall coordinate manufacturing hold points and inspectors’ visits.

  8.1.6 The purchaser shall specify the amount of advanced notification required for a witnessed
 or observed inspection or test.

 NOTE - Hydro and running test notification is covered in 8.3.1.3.

 8.1.7 A witnessed mechanical running or performance tests, requires written confirmation of the
 successful completion of a preliminary test.

 Discussion: The definition of witness and observed have been moved to the definitions Section
 3.0.

 8.1.8 Equipment, materials and utilities for the specified inspections and tests shall be provided
 by the vendor.

 8.1.9    The purchaser’s representative shall have access to the vendor’s quality program for review.

 Discussion: ISO/TC 67 standards are not to incorporate requirements for third party –
 certification. They are also not to incorporate Quality System requirements as defined and
 described in the ISO 9 000 series of standards, nor are they to make NORMATIVE reference
 to the ISO 9 000 series of standards. [ISO N 435 Rev 5 Oct 2003 paragraph 4.5]


 8.2 INSPECTION
 8.2.1 General


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8.2.1.1 The vendor shall keep the following data available for at least 20 years:
a. Necessary or specified certification of materials, such as mill test reports.
b. Test data and results to verify that the requirements of the specification have been met.
c. Fully identified records of all heat treatment whether performed in the normal course of
manufacture or as part of a repair procedure.
d. Results of quality control tests and inspections.
e. Details of all repairs.
f. Final assembly maintenance and running clearances.
g. Other data specified by the purchaser or required by applicable codes and regulations.
(Ref paragraphs 5.2 and 9.3.1.1

Discussion: Test data applies to such tests as hydro and running, as well as NDE results.

8.2.1.2 Pressure-containing parts shall not be painted until the specified inspection and testing
of the parts is complete.

• 8.2.1.3 In addition to the requirements of 6.11.4.1, and the ASTM material specifications, the
purchaser shall identify
a. Parts that are to be subjected to surface and subsurface examination.
b. The type of examination required, such as magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, radiographic
and ultrasonic examination.

NOTE 1 - Inspection of pressure containing components is covered in 6.11.4.1.

NOTE 2 - ASTM material specifications contain mandated and supplemental inspections.

NOTE 3 - Review of quality assurance and testing are items on the coordination meeting agenda in 9.1.3.

Note to TF chairmen: Provided room on the data sheet for listing of in-process inspection of
components.

8.2.2 Material Inspection
8.2.2.1 General
8.2.2.1.1 When radiographic, ultrasonic, magnetic particle or liquid penetrant inspection of
welds or materials is required or specified, the recommended practices in 8.2.2.2 through 8.2.2.5
shall apply unless other corresponding procedures and acceptance criteria have been specified.
Cast iron may be inspected only in accordance with 8.2.2.4 and/or 8.2.2.5 Welds, cast steel and
wrought material shall be inspected in accordance with 8.2.2.2 through 8.2.2.55.

NOTE - The material inspection of pressure-containing parts is covered in 6.4.17 ???.

Discussion: Radiographic and ultrasonic inspection are not appropriate for cast iron .




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 8.2.2.1.2 These recommended practices describe examination techniques that are applicable to
 great varieties of sizes and shapes of materials and widely varying examination requirements.
 Since the specification for the actual component being inspected depends on metallurgy,
 component configuration, and method of manufacture, specific procedures and acceptance
 standards for the application shall be covered by written standards, developed by the
 manufacturer for the specific application. [API 617 4.2.2.1]
 8.2.2.1.3 Acceptance standards for 8.2.2.2 through 8.2.2.5 shall be agreed upon between the
 purchaser and vendor. The user may wish to consult and use as a guide API 687 Chapter 1 Section 3
 Table 1.8-1

 ‘Note” moved to the paragraph - [The use of the word ―may‖ is not appropriate for use in a NOTE since it
 implies ―permission‖ to perform a requirement, and requirements are not allowed in a NOTE. The use of the word
 ―can‖ is used to indicate a possibility and is therefore not a requirement and is appropriately used in a NOTE. [ISO
 Directives Part 2 Annex G paragraph G.3].

 8.2.2.2 Radiography
 8.2.2.2.1 Radiography shall be in accordance with ASTM E94

 8.2.2.3 Ultrasonic Inspection
 8.2.2.3.1 Ultrasonic inspection shall be based upon the procedures ASTM A609 (castings),
 ASTM A388 (forgings), or ASTM A578 (plate).

 8.2.2.4 Magnetic Particle Inspection [6.11.4.2, 8.2.2.1]

 8.2.2.4.1 Both wet and dry methods of magnetic particle inspection shall be in accordance with
 ASTM E 709.

 8.2.2.5 Liquid Penetrant Inspection [8.2.2.1]

 8.2.2.5.1 Liquid penetrant inspection shall be based upon the procedures of ASTM E 165.

 8.2.3. Mechanical Inspection
 8.2.3.1 During assembly of the equipment, each component, (including integrally cast-in
 passages) and all piping and appurtenances shall be inspected to ensure they have been cleaned
 and are free of foreign materials, corrosion products and mill scale.

 8.2.3.2 All oil system components furnished shall meet the cleanliness requirements of API
 Standard 614.

 8.2.3.3 If specified, the equipment and all piping and appurtenances shall be inspected for
  cleanliness before heads are welded onto vessels, openings in vessels or exchangers are closed or
  piping is finally assembled.




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 8.2.3.4 If specified, the hardness of parts, welds and heat affected zones shall be verified as
  being within the allowable values by testing. The method, extent, documentation and witnessing
  of the testing shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

 8.3 TESTING
 8.3.1 General
 8.3.1.1 Equipment shall be tested in accordance with 8.3.2 and 8.3.3. Other tests that may be
 specified are described in 8.3.4.

 8.3.1.2 At least 6 weeks before the first scheduled running test the vendor shall submit to the
 purchaser, for his review and comment, detailed procedures for the mechanical running test and
 all specified running optional tests (8.3.4) including acceptance criteria for all monitored
 parameters.

 8.3.1.3 Notification requirements are covered in 8.1.6 however hydro and running test
 requirements shall not be less than 5 working days before the date the equipment will be ready
 for testing. If the testing is rescheduled, the vendor shall notify the purchaser not less than 5
 working days before the new test date.

 8.3.2 Hydrostatic Test [4.3.1.1.]
 8.3.2.1 Pressure-containing parts (including auxiliaries) shall be tested hydrostatically with
 liquid at a minimum of 11/2 times the maximum allowable working pressure, as defined in 3.20,
 The minimum hydrotest pressure shall not be less than 1.5 bar (20 psi ). The test liquid shall be
 at a higher temperature than the nil-ductility transition temperature of the material being tested.
 Reference ASTM E 1003.
 Note: The nil ductility temperature is the highest temperature at which a material experiences complete brittle
 fracture without appreciable plastic deformation

 Discussion: [API 614] B 31.3 requires 1.5 times the MAWP unless limited by the hydro test
 pressure of a component, which for the new ASME code is 1.3. In this case the system would
 be tested to 1.3 times MAWP. Frequently the system design pressure is less than a vessel
 design ressure. In this case the system may be hydrotested to 1.5 times its MAWP.


 8.3.2.2 If the part tested is to operate at a temperature at which the strength of a material is
 below the strength of that material at the testing temperature, the hydrostatic test pressure shall be
 multiplied by a factor obtained by dividing the allowable working stress for the material at the
 testing temperature by that at the rated operating temperature. The stress values used shall
 conform to those given in ASME B 31.3 for piping or in section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME
 Code for vessels. The pressure thus obtained shall then be the minimum pressure at which the
 hydrostatic test shall be performed. The data sheets shall list actual hydrostatic test pressures.




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NOTE - Applicability of this requirement to the material being tested should be verified before hydrotest, as the
properties of many grades of steel do not change appreciably at temperatures up to 200 °C (400 °F).

Note to T/F chairmen: Procedures for hydrotesting of low pressure high temperature equipment must be reviewed
closely to avoid unexpected damage such as distortion due to the weight of water contained in the vessel.

8.3.2.3 Where applicable, tests shall be in accordance with the code or standard to which the
part has been designed. In the event that a discrepancy exists between the code test pressure and
the test pressure in this standard, the higher pressure shall govern.

8.3.2.4 The chloride content of liquids used to test austenitic stainless steel materials shall not
exceed 50 parts per million. To prevent deposition of chlorides on austenitic stainless steel as a
result of evaporative drying, all residual liquid shall be removed from tested parts at the
conclusion of the test.
NOTE - Chloride content is limited in order to prevent stress corrosion cracking.
8.3.2.5 Tests shall be maintained for a sufficient period of time to permit complete examination
of parts under pressure. The hydrostatic test shall be considered satisfactory when neither leaks
nor seepage through the pressure containing parts or joints is observed for a minimum of 30
minutes. Large, heavy pressure containing parts or complex systems may require a longer testing
period to be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor. Seepage past internal closures required
for testing of segmented cases and operation of a test pump to maintain pressure are acceptable.

Gaskets used during hydrotest of an assembled casing shall be of the same design as supplied
with the casing.
NOTE - Hydrotesting requirements of special purpose steam turbines can require special consideration for high
temperature-high pressure applications.
8.3.2.6 Where testing of sections of a casing at different pressures is approved each section
shall be tested independently at the appropriate pressure. In addition, a combined test shall be
conducted with the appropriate pressure simultaneously in each section.

Discussion; Testing per the two methods described above is necessary to assure each section is
tested under the correct conditions. Caution is necessary to verify no leakage occurs from the
higher pressure section to the lower pressure section. Testing only one section at a time does
not yield correct results as the pressurized joint can be strengthened by the non-pressurized
joint during single pressure level testing.

8.3.3 Mechanical Running Test [6.8.3.1., 8.3.1.1]
8.3.3.1 The requirements of 8.3.3.1.1 through 8.3.3.1.12 shall be met before the mechanical
running test is performed.

8.3.3.1.1 The contract shaft seals and bearings shall be used in the machine for the mechanical
running test.




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8.3.3.1.2 All oil pressures, viscosities and temperatures shall be within the range of operating
values recommended in the vendor’s operating instructions for the specific unit being tested. For
pressure lubrication systems, oil flow rates for each bearing housing shall be measured.

8.3.3.1.3 Test stand oil filtration shall not exceed 10 microns nominal . Oil system components
downstream of the filters shall meet the cleanliness requirements of ISO 10443 (API Standard
614) before any test is started.

Discussion: For test stand applications references are nominal values and do not conflict with
par. 6.10.7.7 note requirements.

8.3.3.1.4 Bearings intended to be lubricated by an oil mist systems shall be pre-lubricated.

8.3.3.1.5 All joints and connections shall be checked for tightness and any leaks shall be
corrected.

8.3.3.1.6 All warning, protective and control devices used during the test shall be checked and
adjusted as required.

8.3.3.1.7 Facilities shall be installed to prevent the entrance of oil into the compressor during
the mechanical running test. These facilities shall be in operation throughout the test.

8.3.3.1.8 Testing with the contract coupling or couplings is preferred. If this is not possible,
mass shall be added to the shaft end or ends, [using moment simulators in accordance with ISO
10441 (API 671)] such that the effective overhanging moment is not more than 10% e greater
than the effective moment with the contract coupling.

8.3.3.1.9 All purchased vibration probes, cables, oscillator-demodulators and accelerometers
shall be in use during the test. If vibration probes are not furnished by the equipment vendor or if
the purchased probes are not compatible with shop readout facilities, then shop probes and
readouts that meet the accuracy requirements of API Standard 670 shall be used.

8.3.3.1.10 Shop test facilities shall include instrumentation with the capability of continuously
monitoring and plotting revolutions per minute, peak-to-peak displacement and phase angle
(x-y-y’). Presentation of vibration displacement and phase marker shall also be by oscilloscope.

8.3.3.1.11 The vibration characteristics determined by the use of the instrumentation specified
in 8.3.3.1.9 and 8.3.3.1.10 shall serve as the basis for acceptance or rejection of the machine.
(see 6.8.5.5)

8.3.3.1.12 When seismic test values are specified, vibration data (minimum and maximum
values) shall be recorded and located (clock angle) in a radial plane transverse to each bearing
centerline (if possible), using shop instrumentation during the test.



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8.3.3.2 Unless otherwise specified, the control systems shall be demonstrated and the
mechanical running test of the equipment shall be conducted as specified in 8.3.3.2.1 through
8.3.3.2.6.

8.3.3.2.1 The equipment shall be operated at speed increments of approximately 10% of
maximum continuous speed from zero to the maximum continuos speed and run at the maximum
continuous speed until bearings, lube-oil temperatures and shaft vibrations have stabilized.

8.3.3.2.2 The speed shall be increased to trip speed and the equipment shall be run for a
minimum of 15 minutes.

8.3.3.2.3 Overspeed trip devices shall be checked and adjusted until values within 1% of the
nominal trip setting are attained. Mechanical overspeed devices shall attain three consecutive
nontrending trip values that meet this criterion.

8.3.3.2.4 The speed governor and any other speed-regulating devices shall be tested for smooth
performance over the operating speed range. No-load stability and response to the control signal
shall be checked.

8.3.3.2.5 The speed shall be reduced to the maximum continuous speed and the equipment
shall be run continuously for 4 hours. [API 619]

8.3.3.3 The requirements of 8.3.3.3.1 through 8.3.3.3.8 shall be met during the mechanical
running test.

8.3.3.3.1 During the mechanical running test, the mechanical operation of all equipment being
tested and the operation of the test instrumentation shall be satisfactory. The measured unfiltered
vibration shall not exceed the limits of 6.8.5.5. and shall be recorded throughout the operating
speed range.

8.3.3.3.2 While the equipment is operating at maximum continuous speed and at any other
speed and/or load that may have been specified in the test agenda, vibration data shall be
acquired to determine amplitudes at frequencies other than synchronous. As a minimum this data
shall cover a frequency range from 0.05 to 8 times the maximum continuous speed . If the
amplitude of any discrete, nonsynchronous vibration exceeds 20% of the allowable vibration as
defined in 6.8.5.5, the purchaser and the vendor shall agree on requirements for further
investigation which may include additional testing and on the equipment’s acceptability.

8.3.3.3.3 The mechanical running test shall verify that lateral critical speeds conform to the
requirements of 6.8.2.6. Any non-critically- damped critical speed below the trip speed shall be
determined during the mechanical running test and stamped on the nameplate followed by the
word ―test‖.




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 8.3.3.3.4 Synchronous vibration amplitude and phase angle versus speed for deceleration shall
be plotted before and after the 4 hour run. Both the filtered (one per revolution) and the unfiltered
vibration levels shall also be plotted. If specified, these data shall also be furnished in polar form.
The speed range covered by these plots shall be 400 r/min to the specified driver trip speed.

8.3.3.3.5 Shop verification of the unbalanced response analysis shall be performed in
accordance with 6.8.3.

 8.3.3.3.6 If specified, all real-time vibration data as agreed by the purchaser and vendor shall be
recorded and a copy provided to the purchaser.

8.3.3.3.7 Lube-oil and seal-oil inlet pressures and temperatures shall be varied through the
range permitted in the operating manual. This shall be done during the 4-hour test.

8.3.3.4 Unless otherwise specified, the requirements of 8.3.3.4.1 through 8.3.3.4.4 shall be met
after the mechanical running test is completed.

8.3.3.4.1 Hydrodynamic bearings shall be removed, inspected and reassembled after the
mechanical running test is completed.
Note to T/F Chair: The need to inspect shaft end process side seals should be determined on a T/F by T/F basis.

8.3.3.4.2 If replacement or modification of bearings or seals or dismantling of the case to
replace or modify other parts or assembly is required to correct mechanical or performance
deficiencies, the initial test will not be acceptable and the final shop tests shall be run after these
deficiencies are corrected.[TI 617-03-04]

8.3.3.4.3 When spare rotors are ordered to permit concurrent manufacture, each spare rotor
shall also be given a mechanical running test in accordance with the requirements of this
standard.

8.3.3.4.4 After the mechanical running test is completed, each completely assembled
compressor casing intended for toxic, hazardous, flammable or hydrogen-rich service as
identified in 6.1.20 shall be tested as specified in 8.3.3.4,4.1 through 8.3.3.4.4.3. [8.3.4.8]

8.3.3.4.4.1 The casing(including end seals) shall be pressurized with an inert gas to the
maximum sealing pressure or the maximum seal design pressure, as agreed upon by the
purchaser and the vendor; held at this pressure for a minimum of 30 minutes; and subjected to a
soap-bubble test or another approved test to check for gas leaks. The test shall be considered
satisfactory when no casing or casing joint leaks are observed.
NOTE - Test gas mol weight should approximate contract gas mol weight. Helium for low mol weight contract gas
and nitrogen or R22 refrigerant gas for high mol weight should be considered.

8.3.3.4.4.2 The casing (with or without end seals installed) shall be pressurized to the rated
discharge pressure, held at this pressure for a minimum of 30 minutes and subjected to a soap-


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  bubble test or another approved method to check for gas leaks. The test shall be considered
  satisfactory when no casing or casing joint leaks are observed.
  NOTE - The requirements of 8.3.3.4.4.1 and 8.3.3.4.4.2 can necessitate two separate tests.

 8.3.4     Optional Tests [8.3.1.1]
  If specified, the shop tests described in 8.3.4.1 through 8.3.4.12 shall be performed. Test details
  shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

 8.3.4.1    Performance Test
      The machine shall be tested in accordance with the applicable ASME power test code, as
  specified. Vibration levels shall be measured and recorded during this test as specified in
  8.3.3.1.9, 8.3.3.1.10 and 8.3.3.1.12.

 8.3.4.2    Complete Unit Test
      Such components as compressors, gears, drivers and auxiliaries that make up a complete unit
  shall be tested together during the mechanical running test. If specified, torsional vibration
  measurements shall be made to verify the vendor’s analysis. The complete-unit test may be
  performed in place of or in addition to separate tests of individual components specified .

 8.3.4.3    Tandem Test
      Machines arranged for tandem drive shall be tested as a unit during the mechanical running
  test, using the shop driver and oil systems.

 8.3.4.4    Gear Test
      The gear shall be tested with the machine unit during the mechanical running test.

 8.3.4.5    Helium Test
      Pressure containing parts, such as compressor casings and cylinders, shall be tested for gas
  leakage with helium at the maximum allowable working pressure. The test shall be conducted
  with the casing submerged in water. The water shall be at a higher temperature than the nil
  ductility transition temperature for the material of which the part is made. The maximum
  allowable working pressure shall be maintained for a minimum of 30 minutes, with no bubbles
  permitted. As an alternative, a nonsubmerged soap-bubble test or other approved method to
  check for gas leakage may be performed if approved by the purchaser. Ref. ASTM E-1003
  Standard Test Method for Hydrostatic Leak Testing.
  NOTE - A helium test shall be specified when the molar mass of the gas to be handled is less than 12 or when the gas
  contains more than 0.1 mole percent hydrogen sulphide.




 8.3.4.6    Sound-Level Test



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     The sound-level test shall be performed in accordance with ISO 3744 or other agreed
 standard.

 8.3.4.7   Auxiliary-Equipment Test
    Auxiliary equipment such as oil systems, gears and control systems shall be tested in the
 vendor’s shop. Details of the auxiliary-equipment tests shall be developed jointly by the
 purchaser and the vendor.

 8.3.4.8   Post-Test Inspection
     The driven machine, gear and the driver shall be dismantled, inspected and reassembled after
 satisfactory completion of the mechanical running test. The purchaser shall specify whether the
 gas test required by 8.3.3.4.4. shall be performed before or after the post-test inspection.
 Representatives of the gear and drive manufacturers shall be present during the post-test
 inspection.

 8.3.4.9   Full-Pressure/Full-Load/Full-Speed Test
     The objectives and details of the full-pressure/full-load/full-speed test shall be developed jointly
 by the purchaser and the vendor. This test may be substituted for the mechanical running test.

 8.3.4.10 Inspection of Hub/Shaft Fit for Hydraulically Mounted Couplings
     After the running tests, the shrink fit of hydraulically mounted couplings shall be inspected
 by comparing hub/shaft match marks to ensure that the coupling hub has not moved on the shaft
 during the tests.

 8.3.4.11 Governor Response and Emergency Overspeed Trip Systems Test
 8.3.4.11.1 The response time of speed governing systems shall be continuously recorded to
 confirm compliance with the requirements for maximum speed rise of Table 1 and the NEMA
 class of the specified governor.

 8.3.4.11.2 The response time of the emergency overspeed trip system shall be recorded to
 confirm compliance with the requirements of Table 1 and the (NEMA) class of the specified
 governor.
 NOTE - This test is typically run by manually initiating a trip while the machine is at max. cont. speed while
 recording the response time of the system: i.e. time required for the governor and T&T valve to close.

  8.3.4.12 Spare-Parts Test
 Spare parts such as couplings, gears, diaphragms, bearings and seals shall be tested as specified.
 NOTE - A mechanical test of the spare rotor is mandated in 8.3.3.4.3


 8.4 PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT



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8.4.1 Equipment shall be prepared for the type of shipment specified, including blocking of the
rotor when necessary. Blocked rotors shall be identified by means of corrosion - resistant tags
attached with stainless steel wire. The preparation shall make the equipment suitable for 6
months of outdoor storage from the time of shipment, with no disassembly required before
operation, except for inspection of bearings and seals. If storage for a longer period is
contemplated, the purchaser shall consult with the vendor regarding the recommended
procedures to be followed.

8.4.2 The vendor shall provide the purchaser with the instructions necessary to preserve the
integrity of the storage preparation after the equipment arrives at the job site and before start-up,
as described in Chapter #3 of API 686 ―Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and
Installation Design.‖

8.4.3 The equipment shall be prepared for shipment after all testing and inspection have been
completed and the equipment has been released by the purchaser. The preparation shall include
that specified in 8.4.3.1 through 8.4.3.11.

8.4.3.1 Except for machined surfaces, all exterior surfaces that may corrode during shipment,
storage or in service, shall be given at least one coat of the manufacturer’s standard paint. The
paint shall not contain lead or chromates.
NOTE - Austenitic stainless steels are typically not painted.
8.4.3.2 Exterior machined surfaces except for corrosion-resistant material shall be coated with
a rust preventive.

8.4.3.3 The interior of the equipment shall be clean; free from scale, welding spatter and
foreign objects; and sprayed or flushed with a rust preventive that can be removed with solvent.
The rust preventive shall be applied through all openings while the rotor is rotated.

8.4.3.4 Internal surfaces of bearing housings and carbon steel oil systems’ components shall be
coated with an oil-soluble rust preventive that is compatible with the lubricating oil.

8.4.3.5 Flanged openings shall be provided with metal closures at least 5 mm (3/16 in) thick
with elastomer gaskets and at least four full-diameter bolts. For studded openings, all nuts needed
for the intended service shall be used to secure closures. Each opening shall be car sealed so that
the protective cover cannot be removed without the seal being broken.

8.4.3.6 Threaded openings shall be provided with steel caps or round-head steel plugs. In no
case shall non-metallic (such as plastic) caps or plugs be used.
NOTE - These are shipping plugs; permanent plugs are covered in 6.4.5

8.4.3.7 Lifting points and lifting lugs shall be clearly identified on the equipment or equipment
package. The recommended lifting arrangement shall be as described in Par. 9.3.6.2 in the
installation manual.



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 8.4.3.8 The equipment shall be identified with item and serial numbers. Material shipped
 separately shall be identified with securely affixed, corrosion-resistant metal tags indicating the
 item and serial number of the equipment for which it is intended. Crated equipment shall be
 shipped with duplicate packing lists, one inside and one on the outside of the shipping container.

 8.4.3.9 A spare rotor, when purchased, shall be prepared for unheated indoor storage for a
  period of at least 5 years. It shall be treated with a rust preventive and shall be housed in a vapor-
  barrier envelope with a slow-release volatile-corrosion inhibitor. The rotor shall be crated for
  domestic or export shipment as specified. A purchaser-approved resilient material 3 mm (1/8 in)
  thick [not tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)] shall be used between
  the rotor and the cradle at the support areas. The rotor shall not be supported on journals. Mark
  the probe target area barriers with the words ―Probe Area—Do Not Cut‖. If specified, the rotor
  shall be prepared for vertical storage. It shall be supported from its coupling end with a fixture
  designed to support 1.5 times the rotor’s weight without damaging the shaft. Instructions on the
  use of the fixture shall be included in the installation, operation and maintenance manuals.
 NOTE - TFE and PTFE are not recommended as cradle support liners since they cold flow and impregnate into the
 surface.

 8.4.3.1.10 Critical shaft areas such as journals, end seal areas, probe target areas, and coupling
 fit areas shall be protected with a corrosion barrier followed by a separate barrier material to
 protect against incidental mechanical damage.

 8.4.3.1.11 Loose components shall be dipped in wax or placed in plastic bags and contained by
 cardboard boxes. Loose boxes are to be securely blocked in the shipping container.

 8.4.4 Auxiliary piping connections furnished on the purchased equipment shall be impression
 stamped or permanently tagged to agree with the vendor’s connection table or general
 arrangement drawing. Service and connection designations shall be indicated.

 8.4.5 Bearing assemblies shall be fully protected from the entry of moisture and dirt. If vapor-
 phase-inhibitor crystals in bags are installed in large cavities to absorb moisture, the bags must be
 attached in an accessible area for ease of removal. Where applicable, bags shall be installed in
 wire cages attached to flanged covers and bag locations shall be indicated by corrosion-resistant
 tags attached with stainless steel wire.

 8.4.6 One copy of the manufacturer’s installation instructions shall be packed and shipped with
 the equipment.

 8.4.7 Connections on auxiliary piping, removed for shipment, shall be matchmarked for ease of
 reassembly.

 8.4.8 If specified, the fit-up and assembly of machine-mounted piping, intercoolers etc. shall be
  completed in the vendor’s shop prior to shipment.


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8.4.9 Wood used in export shipping shall comply with the requirements of ISPM Pub. No.15-
March 2002, FAO, Rome.

Discussion: This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction
and/or
spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage),
made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade.

The U.S. Federal Register of Sept 16, 2005 states;
SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations for the importation of
unmanufactured wood articles to adopt an international standard
entitled ``Guidelines for Regulating Wood Packaging Material in
International Trade'' that was approved by the Interim Commission on
Phytosanitary Measures of the International Plant Protection Convention
on March 15, 2002. The standard calls for wood packaging material to be
either heat treated or fumigated with methyl bromide, in accordance
with the Guidelines, and marked with an approved international mark
certifying treatment. This change will affect all persons using wood
packaging material in connection with importing goods into the United
States.

EFFECTIVE DATE: September 16, 2005.



9 Vendor’s Data
9.1 GENERAL
9.1.1 The information to be furnished by the vendor is specified in 9.2 and 9.3.

9.1.2 The data shall be identified on transmittal (cover) letters, title pages and in title blocks or
other prominent position on drawings, with the following information: (9.2.1, 9.3.1.1, 9.3.5.1,
9.3.6.1)
a. The purchaser’s/owner’s corporate name.
b. The job/project number.
c. The equipment item number and service name
d. The inquiry or purchase order number.
e. Any other identification specified in the inquiry or purchase order.
f. The vendor’s identifying proposal number, shop order number, serial number, or other
reference required to completely identify return correspondence.

9.1.3 A coordination meeting shall be held, preferably at the vendor’s plant, within 4-6 weeks
after order commitment. Unless otherwise specified, the vendor shall prepare and distribute an
agenda prior to this meeting, which as a minimum shall include a review of the following items:
a. The purchase order, scope of supply, unit responsibility, subvendor items and lines of
communications.


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b. The data sheets.
c. Applicable specifications and previously agreed exceptions.
d. Schedules for the transmittal of data, production and testing.
e. The quality assurance program and procedures.
f. Inspection, expediting and testing.
g. Schematics and bills of materials for auxiliary systems.
h. The physical orientation of the equipment, piping and auxiliary systems, including access for
operation and maintenance.
i. Coupling selection and rating.
j. Thrust and journal bearing sizing, estimated loadings and specific configurations.
k. Seal operation and controls
l. Rotor dynamic analyses (lateral, torsional and transient torsional, as required).
m. Equipment performance, alternate operating conditions, startup, shutdown and any operating
limitations.
n. Scope and details of any pulsation or vibration analysis.
o. Instrumentation and controls.
p. Identification of items design reviews.
q. Inspection, related acceptance criteria, and testing.
r. Expediting
s. Other technical items.

9.2 PROPOSALS
9.2.1 General
     The vendor shall forward the original proposal, with the specified number of copies, to the
addressee specified in the inquiry documents. The proposal shall include, as a minimum, the data
specified in 9.2.2 through 9.2.4, and a specific statement that the equipment and all its
components and auxiliaries are in strict accordance with this standard. If the equipment or any of
its components or auxiliaries is not in strict accordance , the vendor shall include a list that
details and explains each deviation. The vendor shall provide sufficient detail to enable the
purchaser to evaluate any proposed alternative designs. All correspondence shall be clearly
identified in accordance with 9.1.2.

9.2.2 Drawings
9.2.2.1 The drawings indicated on the Vendor Drawing and Data Requirements or (VDDR
form see Annex C) shall be included in the proposal. As a minimum, the following shall be
included:
a. A general arrangement or outline drawing for each machine train or skid-mounted package,
showing overall dimensions, maintenance clearance dimensions, overall weights, erection
weights, and the largest maintenance weight for each item. The direction of rotation and the size
and location of major purchaser connections shall also be indicated.
b. Cross-sectional drawings showing the details of the proposed equipment.
c. Schematics of all auxiliary systems including fuel, lube oil, control, and electrical systems.
Bills of material shall be included.


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d. Sketches that show methods of lifting the assembled machine or machines, packages, and
major components and auxiliaries. (This information may be included on the drawings specified
in item a above.)

9.2.2.2 If ―typical‖ drawings, schematics and bills of material are used , they shall be marked
up to show the weight and dimension data to reflect the actual equipment and scope pro-posed.

9.2.3 Technical Data [9.2.1]
     The following data shall be included in the proposal.
a. The purchaser’s data sheets with complete vendor’s information entered thereon and
literature to fully describe details of the offering.
b. The predicted noise data (6.1.5).
c. The Vendor Drawing and Data Requirements form (see Annex C) indicating the schedule
according to which the vendor agrees to transmit all the data specified.
d. A schedule for shipment of the equipment, in weeks after receipt of an order.
e. A list of major wearing components, showing any interchangeability with the owner’s
existing machines.
f. A list of spare parts recommended for start-up and normal maintenance purposes.
g. A list of the special tools furnished for maintenance
h. A description of any special weather protection and winterization required for start-up,
operation, and periods of idleness, under the site conditions specified on the data sheets. This
description shall clearly indicate the protection to be furnished by the purchaser as well as that
included in the vendor’s scope of supply.
i. A complete tabulation of utility requirements, e.g. steam, water, electricity, air, gas, lube oil
(including the quantity and supply pressure of the oil required, and the heat load to be removed
by the oil), and the nameplate power rating and operating power requirements of auxiliary
drivers. Approximate data shall be clearly indicated as such.
j. A description of any optional or additional tests and inspection procedures for materials as
required by 6.11.1.4.
k. A description of any special requirements, whether specified in the purchaser’s inquiry or as
outlined in 6.10.2, 6.10.7.5.1, and 6.11 1 2.
l. A list of machines, similar to the proposed machine(s), that have been installed and operating
under conditions analogous to those specified in the inquiry.
m. Any start-up, shutdown, or operating restrictions required to protect the integrity of the
equipment.
n. A list of any components that can be construed as being of alternative design, hence requiring
purchaser’s acceptance (5.3)

9.2.4 Curves
   The vendor shall provide complete performance curves to encompass the map of operations,
with any limitations indicated thereon
Note to task force Chairman: This paragraph may be expanded to include curves specific to the type of equipment
covered.



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    9.2.5 Optional Tests
        The vendor shall furnish an outline of the procedures to be used for each of the special or
    optional tests that have been specified by the purchaser or proposed by the vendor.

    9.3 CONTRACT DATA
    9.3.1 General
    9.3.1.1 Contract data shall be furnished by the vendor in accordance with the agreed VDDR
    form.
    NOTE - Typical VDDR form must be modified by T/F for each API Standard, and again by the purchaser to match
    the specific inquiry requirements.

    TFChair Note: A template in Word format for the VDDR form can be obtained from SP Annex # 13.
    9.3.1.2 Each drawing shall have a title block in the lower right-hand corner with the date of
    certification, identification data specified in 9.1.2, revision number and date and title. Similar
    information shall be provided on all other documents including subvendor items.

    9.3.1.3 The purchaser shall promptly review the vendor’s data upon receipt; however, this
    review shall not constitute permission to deviate from any requirements in the order unless
    specifically agreed upon in writing. After the data have been reviewed and accepted, the vendor
    shall furnish certified copies in the quantities specified

    9.3.1.4 A complete list of vendor data shall be included with the first issue of major drawings.
    This list shall contain titles, drawing numbers, and a schedule for transmittal of each item listed.
    This list shall cross-reference data with respect to the VDDR form in Annex C.

    9.3.2 Drawings And Technical Data
    The drawings and data furnished by the vendor shall contain sufficient information so that
    together with the manuals specified in 9.3.6, the purchaser can properly install, operate, and
    maintain the equipment covered by the purchase order. All contract drawings and data shall be
    clearly legible (8-point minimum font size even if reduced from a larger size drawing), shall
    cover the scope of the agreed VDDR form, and shall satisfy the applicable detailed descriptions
    in Annex C.

    9.3.3 Progress Reports
       The vendor shall submit progress reports to the purchaser at intervals specified.
    NOTE - Refer to the description of item 44 in Annex C for content of these reports.

    9.3.4 Parts Lists and Recommended Spares
    9.3.4.1 The vendor shall submit complete parts lists for all equipment and accessories
    supplied. These lists shall include part names, manufacturers’ unique part numbers, materials of
    construction (identified by applicable international standards). Each part shall be completely


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 identified and shown on appropriate cross-sectional, assembly-type cutaway or exploded-view
 isometric drawings. Interchangeable parts shall be identified as such. Parts that have been
 modified from standard dimensions or finish to satisfy specific performance requirements shall
 be uniquely identified by part number. Standard purchased items shall be identified by the
 original manufacturer’s name and part number.

 9.3.4.2 The vendor shall indicate on each of these complete parts lists all those parts that are
 recommended as start-up or maintenance spares, and the recommended stocking quantities of
 each. These should include spare parts recommendations of subsuppliers that were not available
 for inclusion in the vendor’s original proposal.
 Note to T/F Chairmen: See API Std 610, 8th Edition, Paragraph 6.3.5 and Table 6-1 for possible treatment of this
 requirement.

 9.3.6 Installation, Operation, Maintenance, and Technical Data Manuals
 9.3.6.1 General
      The vendor shall provide sufficient written instructions and all necessary drawings to enable
 the purchaser to install, operate, and maintain all of the equipment covered by the purchase
 order. This information shall be compiled in a manual or manuals with a cover sheet showing
 the information listed in 9.1.2, an index sheet, and a complete list of the enclosed drawings by
 title and drawing number. The manual or manuals shall be prepared specifically for the
 equipment covered by the purchase order. ―Typical‖ manuals are unacceptable.

 9.3.6.2 Installation Manual
     All information required for the proper installation of the equipment shall be compiled in a
 manual that shall be issued no later than the time of issue of final certified drawings. For this
 reason, it may be separate from the operating and maintenance instructions. This manual shall
 contain information on alignment and grouting procedures, normal and maximum utility
 requirements, centers of mass, rigging provisions and procedures, and all other installation data.
 All drawings and data specified in 9.2.2 and 9.2.3 that are pertinent to proper installation shall be
 included as part of this manual (see also description of line item 41 in Annex C).

 9.3.6.3 Operating and Maintenance Manual
     A manual containing all required operating and maintenance instructions shall be supplied
 not later than 2 weeks after all specified tests have been successfully completed. In addition to
 covering operation at all specified process conditions, this manual shall also contain separate
 sections covering operation under any specified extreme environmental conditions (see also
 description of line item 42 in Annex C).
     Note to TF Chairs: Include the requirement that bolt torque values be identified as dry or with
 lubricant.

 9.3.6.4   Technical Data Manual




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   If specified, the vendor shall provide the purchaser with a technical data manual within 30
days of completion of shop testing. (See description of line item 48 in Annex C for minimum
requirements of this manual.)
NOTE -Task force must decide whether such a manual is appropriate for their particular standard, and if so, whether
its content (see description of line item 48 in Annex C) needs to be modified.




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