UMHS CurriculumJan08 by nuhman10

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									                           January 2008

Initial Syllabi – University of Medicine and Health Sciences, St. Kitts


Semester I

      Physiology I (5 hrs)
      Embryology (3 hrs)
      Histology & Cell Biology (5 hrs)
      Biochemistry (6 hrs)                        [subtotal]   19


Semester II

      Anatomy (9 hrs)
      Physiology II (5 hrs)
      Genetics/Molecular Biology (5 hrs)                       19


Semester III

      Pathology I (5 hrs)
      Neuroscience/Neuroanatomy (4 hrs)
      Immunology/Microbiology (5 hrs)
      Behavioral Sciences (5 hrs)                              19


Semester IV

      Pathology II (8 hrs)
      Pharmacology & Therapeutics (5 hrs)
      Biostatistics & Epidemiology (2 hrs)
      Introduction to Clinical Medicine (3 hrs)
      Medical Ethics (2 hrs)                                   20


Semester V

      Clinical Correlations/Clinical Medicine (7 hrs)
      Biological Basis of Clinical Medicine/USMLE Review (10 hrs)

                                                               17


                                  TOTAL                        94 hrs
               Course Descriptions for Basic Sciences – January 2008 term

University of Medicine and Health Sciences, St. Kitts

Semester I

       Physiology I (5 hrs)

Physiology I concentrates on how various organ systems comprise the human body
function. The major objective of this course is to enable the student to acquire a sound
understanding of the mechanisms upon which life depends through an integrated study
of the body’s many control systems; emphasis is placed on the mechanisms that
maintain a constancy of conditions in the body under a variety of stresses. The course
begins with a study of basic physiological principles, such as the transport of ions,
osmosis, membranes and their electrical properties. The somatic and visceral systems
are discussed not only as single entities but are also viewed for their contributions to the
body’s complete functions. This is followed by lectures on nerve and muscle physiology,
and concludes with a study of the cardiovascular system.

       Embryology (3 hrs)

After a brief review of principles of development, the course provides a systematic study
of human development from gametogenesis to birth. Mechanisms of teratogenesis are
discussed briefly and congenital malformations are presented where they illustrate
mechanisms of normal development. Basic principles of embryogenesis used in
diagnosis, care and prevention of birth defects are stressed and clinical case studies are
introduced throughout the course. Ultrastructure of major tissues and organs is
presented didactically.

       Histology & Cell Biology (5 hrs)

Major topics of this course include biochemical structures and relations, cell structure,
the mechanisms of gene expression, and cellular signaling cascades. The principles of
metabolism are introduced. This course also provides a comprehensive review of
human microscopic anatomy, and laboratory analysis using the microscope to
supplement the classroom presentations. While formal instruction of the human body’s
regional macroscopic and microscopic composition is presented, clinical applications are
stressed.

       Biochemistry (6 hrs)

This course focuses on the major metabolic pathways and their malfunction in a variety
of diseases. Major topics of the course include biochemical structures and reactions,
with an emphasis on metabolic principles. Throughout, emphasis is placed on a
comparison of the normal state with the abnormal one. For this reason, whenever
instructive, the core material is accompanied by pertinent clinical correlations that use
common, classical conditions; clinical case studies are an important didactic tool in this
course.
                                                                     [subtotal]      19
Semester II

       Anatomy (9 hrs)

Anatomy focuses on the anatomical basis of clinical medicine; the gross structure of all
organs and systems of the human body is studied. Students participated in supervised
laboratory sessions during which the entire human body is dissected. To enhance the
understanding of this subject, an Anatomical Learning Resource Center has been
established, incorporating the use of computer-based instruction, including both
anatomical detail and radiographic material in an integrated format, supplemented by the
use of anatomical models. Clinical relationships as well as traditional anatomical
relationships are presented, and laboratory work includes both prosection and dissection
of cadavers

       Physiology II (5 hrs)

In Physiology II, students examine the gastrointestinal, endocrine, respiratory and renal
systems. Most disease conditions of the body result from abnormal functioning of one or
more of the basic control systems, and the application of this fundamental medical
science depends on the future physician’s knowledge of these regulatory mechanisms
more than any other aspect of this subject. After completing the course, students will
have a clear understanding of how the major systems of the body operate in an
integrated fashion necessary to maintain a homeostatic state.

       Genetics/Molecular Biology (5 hrs)

An understanding of the fundamental molecular processes that define human
development and homeostasis is a necessary foundation for all students of medical
science; both basic and clinical genetics are covered. This course is an introduction the
basics of human genetics, protein structure, nucleic acid biochemistry, cellular structure
and metabolism. Didactic lectures develop upon the themes presented in Cell Biology
with exploration of the cell’s nitrogen economy, details of the lipid metabolism and major
concepts of nutrition.

                                                                    [subtotal]     19


Semester III

       Pathology I (5 hrs)

Pathology I introduces students to the cellular system of each organ and traces the
morphological changes in a cell that are responsible for disease in an organ. As cells
undergo alteration, their change in function is studies in respect to its deviation from
“normal” state. Course presentation includes the response of cells, tissues and organs
to disease and injury; the normal and adapted cell; degeneration and necrosis,
inflammation, fluid and hemodynamic derangements; neoplasia; immunopathology;
systemic, environmental and nutritional diseases. Lecture discussions are
supplemented by a study of gross and microscopic specimens.
       Neuroscience/Neuroanatomy (4 hrs)

Neuroscience begins with an overview of the entire nervous system. As the course
progresses, the focus is on comprehending the basic structure and function of each level
of the nervous system, integrating both the anatomy and physiology of the nervous
system. The principles that underlie the anatomical structure of each system of the brain
are correlated with its physiology; correlations between the functional deficits and the
pathological anatomy in several neurological diseases which require working knowledge
of anatomy and physiology are stressed. Special attention is given to integrating current
understandings of human neurological and psychiatric diseases, and each topic is
supplemented by relevant lab exercises which include detailed brain dissection and
exposure to angiograms, CT scans, MRI, etc.

       Immunology/Microbiology (5 hrs)

This course is the study of the etiologic agents and host resistance mechanisms of
infectious disease, presented through didactics and laboratory exercises, including
identification methods, classification systems and detailed case studies.
Immunology/Microbiology is designed to help students gain a working knowledge of the
immune system, the development of immune responses, and methodologies used to
measure parameters of the immune response. Medical microbiology highlights the
aspects of microorganisms that are important to the causation of disease. Basic
microbiology covers general structures, growth and genetics of bacteria, viruses, fungi
and parasites, and the antimicrobial antibiotics and chemotherapeutics agents.


       Behavioral Sciences (5 hrs)

Behavioral Science stresses the complex relationship between psychological make-up
and experience, by providing a knowledge base for normative and non-normative human
development throughout the life cycle. The course also introduces the student to the
behavioral basis of clinical medicine by focusing on common behavioral problems and
the circumstances that evoke important behavioral/emotional responses. The concept of
culturally competent care will be defined, and the basics of recognizing organic and
functional psychological disturbances are described. Workshops on realistic clinical
problems are an integral part of this course: sexual dysfunction, bereavement, suicide
and sociological disorders received detailed attention. Additionally, the student should
develop increased insight into personal functioning and feelings and develop the skills
needed to act as an empathetic and effective interviewer and behavioral change agent.

                                                                  [subtotal]     19

Semester IV

       Pathology II (8 hrs)

Pathology II applies the basic concepts learned in Pathology I to continue the study of
pathologic basis of disease using a physiologic system, or organ-based approach. This
course covers red and white cell diseases, male and female genital tracts, and kidney
and liver systems. Course presentations include etiology, pathogenesis and
morphologic changes in diseases according to organ system. Appropriate use of the
laboratory is stressed in the diagnosis of disease while case presentations further
emphasize the clinical aspects of the pathologic processes.


       Pharmacology & Therapeutics (5 hrs)

This course concentrates on how chemical agents (drugs) regulate or modify
physiological functions of the body, demonstrating how interactions of drugs with living
organisms contribute to diagnosis, prevention, treatment or cure of diseases. Biologic
responses, physiological alterations and correction of disorder or disease are discussed
for each drug class highlighting receptor interaction, which defines the agent’s
boundaries of efficacy. Because pharmacology and therapeutics is an integrated
science, a strong attempt is made to maintain this integrated approach in lectures,
tutorials and case studies. Major emphasis will be on principles of pharmacogenetics
(pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug reactions, teratogenicity, etc.) as
well as therapeutics of drugs used in infectious diseases, in malignant diseases, and in
endocrinal disorders.

       Biostatistics & Epidemiology (2 hrs)

The principles of biostatistics are introduced in this course, emphasizing both the
practice of interviewing and data collection. The epidemiology of disease and concepts
of Public Health and Industrial Medicine are also covered in this course. Finally, the
course will end on discussions of broad issues related to healthcare delivery, healthcare
legislation and costs, and a comparative discussion of healthcare systems.

       Introduction to Clinical Medicine (3 hrs)

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic skills they will need to function
as effective clinicians. History taking and physical examination skills are taught in
practical classes using the latest technological media, including Laerdal patient
simulators (adult, pediatric and adolescent). ICM addresses a range of early clinical
skills necessary for the future development as a physician, to include assessment and
plan for the care of patients and library and computer search of relevant information for
patient care. Didactics are blended with laboratory data interpretation, radiology and
other imaging techniques, and electrocardiography, introducing core medical information
necessary for the third and fourth years of clinical training. Critical emphasis is on the
development of ethical standards, specialization, as well as education and licensing
requirements in the various states. Class size is small-group, so that free discussion
and pertinent technique demonstrations are facilitated.

       Medical Ethics (2 hrs)

Medical Ethics is designed to introduce ethical, professional and legal issues that arise
in the practice of medicine. This course provides an overview of the salient issues for
students as well as tools used to recognize ethical, professional and legal conflicts in
clinical settings, as well as resources used to critically examine and address questions
and concerns these conflicts present in patient care.
                                                               [subtotal]   20
Semester V

       Clinical Correlations/Clinical Medicine (7 hrs)

Introduction is made to core medical information necessary to begin the third year of
medical training, building on advances made in the fourth semester of ICM. Didactics are
blended with laboratory data interpretation, radiology and other imaging techniques, and
electrocardiography, introducing core medical information necessary for the third and
fourth years of clinical training. This will be done in a problem-based learning format
stressing a review of the basic sciences, the development of case-centered learning
goals and emphasis is placed on the introduction of a series of core medical conditions,
integrating behavioral medicine. Critical emphasis is also placed on the development of
ethical standards, specialization, as well as education and licensing requirements in the
various states.

       Biological Basis of Clinical Medicine/USMLE Review (10 hrs)

This course, in the final semester of the basic sciences curriculum, is designed to fully
integrate the knowledge acquired in the various basic medical sciences and pre-clinical
sciences during the first four semesters of study into a useful body of information that
can be utilized to prepare the student to sit for licensure examinations (USMLE I).
USMLE review also provides a solid framework upon which the clinical sciences can be
constructed. Primary teaching will utilize a variety of visiting professors and medical
professionals recruited from U.S. medical schools, in collaboration with UMHS faculty on
St. Kitts, in order to provide an ongoing, fruitful review of the entire basic sciences
curriculum.
                                                                [subtotal]      17


                                     TOTAL                                94 hrs
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