Nutrition for Ultra Endurance by bestt571


Endurance exercise, also known as aerobic exercise, exercise prescription is the most important and most basic means of reporting sports. In the therapeutic and preventive exercise prescription exercise prescription, mainly for cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine system, rehabilitation and prevention of chronic diseases, to improve and enhance the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine system function. In fitness, fitness exercise prescription, endurance (aerobic) exercise is to maintain the overall health and maintain ideal body weight and effective movement.

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									TrainingTable                                                                                                    Part 1 of 2

Nutrition for Ultra Endurance
Events: Energy and Macronutrient Guidelines
Debra Wein, MS, RD, LDN, NSCA-CPT,*D

H              ave you been running or
               cycling regularly and feel-
               ing ready for a new chal-
lenge? Have you been doing the 10-K
scene and wanting to take your program
                                               needs of a physically demanding train-
                                               ing and competition program. Typically,
                                               recommendations for endurance athletes
                                               are for between 37 – 41 Calories per kg
                                               (5) or 1.5 – 1.7 times resting energy
                                                                                            general recommendation is for athletes
                                                                                            to consume 6 – 10 grams per kg of car-
                                                                                            bohydrate daily with 30 – 60 grams of
                                                                                            carbohydrate during each hour of activ-
                                                                                            ity (5). More specifically, athletes can
to the next level? If so, here is the nutri-   expenditure. The best way to determine       calculate their needs as 0.7 grams per kg
tion plan to help support your train-          calorie needs is to evaluate the kind        of body weight per hour to individually
ing as you plan for an ultra endurance         of exercise performed with regard to         determine their carbohydrate needs dur-
event.                                         frequency, intensity, and duration and       ing exercise (5).
                                               then add this to the daily energy require-
Ultra endurance exercise is classified as       ments.                                       For ultra endurance athletes, some
prolonged exercise lasting longer than                                                      research supports the addition of liq-
four hours in duration and most com-           Women, in particular, need to be sure        uid or solid carbohydrate, at a rate of
monly involves running, skiing, cycling,       that their energy needs are met in order     40 – 80 grams per hour during pro-
or swimming (1). Events such as running        to maintain normal reproductive func-        longed running events, and more than
the South African Comrades Marathon,           tion and prevent amenorrhea, osteo-          90 g/h during prolonged cycling events
swimming the English Channel, cycling          porosis, and the female athlete triad.       (4). In addition, other research suggests
the Tour de France, or the Hawaiian or         The estimated minimal level of body          the use of carbohydrate, in the form
South African Iron Man Races are exam-         fat one should maintain in order to          of glucose, maltose, fructose polymers,
ples of such events (6). The ability to        prevent adverse consequences to health       and branched chain starches with high
maintain performance during prolonged          and performance is 5% for men and            glycemic indices in fluid replacement
endurance exercise is dependent on a           12% for women (5). Note that optimal         beverages at a concentration of 7.5 –
number of factors, including meeting           levels may be higher for individuals and     12%. This provides carbohydrates late
calorie needs, appropriate macronutri-         should be determined on a case by case       in exercise as muscle and liver glycogen
ent intake, adequate water replacement,        basis with the athletes’ physician / RD      stores become depleted and the risk of
and electrolyte intake. In this two part       team.                                        hypoglycemia is increased (4).
series, we will discuss how to best per-
form in endurance activities through           Carbohydrate                                 Post exercise
optimal nutrition.                             Daily Needs and During Exercise              It is well established that the sooner
                                               Recommendations                              and more frequent carbohydrate is con-
Calories                                       Carbohydrate intake during prolonged         sumed after exercise, the greater the
Adequate energy intake is necessary to         exercise has been shown to improve           rate of post-exercise muscle glycogen
maintain an appropriate weight and             time to exhaustion by providing a regu-      resynthesis. Recommendations are for
body composition while meeting the             lar source of exogenous energy (3). The      carbohydrate intakes of 1.2 – 1.5 grams

NSCA’s Performance Training Journal |                                          Vol. 6 No. 4 | Page 17
TrainingTable                                                 Energy and Macronutrient Guidelines

of carbohydrate per kg of body weight        References                                       About the Author
per hour at 30 minutes intervals in order    1. Burke LM, Hawley JA. (2002). Effects           Debra Wein is an adjunct faculty member at
to maximize glycogen resynthesis during      of Short term fat adaptation on metabo-          the University of Massachusetts, Simmons
the first 4 – 5 hours following exercise      lism and performance of prolonged exer-          College and The Boston Conservatory,
(5).                                         cise. Medicine and Science in Sports and         and chairs the Women’s Subcommittee of
                                             Exercise, 1492 – 1498.                           the Massachusetts’ Governor’s Committee
Recent studies have shown that a car-                                                         on Physical Fitness and Sports. She is
bohydrate-protein supplement is even         2. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB),
                                                                                              the President of The Sensible Nutrition
more effective for the rapid replenish-       Institute of Medicine IOM. Dietary
                                                                                              Connection, Inc.(www.sensiblenutrition.
ment of muscle glycogen than a car-          Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate,
bohydrate supplement alone if quicker        Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein,
synthesis is necessary. Use of a protein-    and Amino Acids (Macronutrients).
carbohydrate compound, however, has          Washington, DC: National Academy
not been shown to be as effective in          Press; 2002.
replenishing muscle glycogen stores as       3. Glace BW, Murphy CA, McHugh
very large doses of carbohydrate pro-        MP. (2002). Food intake and electrolyte
vided at more frequent intervals (4).        status of ultramarathoners competing
                                             in extreme heat. Journal of the American
Protein                                      College of Nutrition, 553 – 559.
Protein recommendations for endurance
                                             4. Peters E. (2003). Nutritional aspects
athletes are 1.2 – 1.4 grams per kg of
                                             in ultra-endurance exercise. Clinical
body weight. Note that vegetarian ath-
                                             Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 427 –
letes may need to take in an additional
10% in order to make up for the slightly
lower digestibility of plant proteins (2).   5. Position of the American Dietetic
                                             Association, Dietetitians of Canada, and
Fat                                          the American College of Sports Medicine:
Fat recommendations consistent with          Nutrition and Athletic Performance.
the Institutes of Medicine’s newly           (2000). Journal of American Dietetic
released guidelines of 20 – 35% of total     Association, 1543 – 1556.
calories should meet the needs of endur-     6. Rogers G, Goodman C, Rosen C.
ance athletes (5). Additionally, one gram    (1997). Water budget during ultra-en-
per kg of body weight is another way for     durance exercise. Medicine and Science in
athletes to individualize these recom-       Sports and Exercise, 1477 – 1481.

If ultra endurance is what you are after
these are the sport nutrition guidelines
to follow to maximize your perfor-
mance. Part two of this article will cover
fluid and electrolytes.

NSCA’s Performance Training Journal |                                           Vol. 6 No. 4 | Page 18

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