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Endurance exercise, also known as aerobic exercise, exercise prescription is the most important and most basic means of reporting sports. In the therapeutic and preventive exercise prescription exercise prescription, mainly for cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine system, rehabilitation and prevention of chronic diseases, to improve and enhance the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine system function. In fitness, fitness exercise prescription, endurance (aerobic) exercise is to maintain the overall health and maintain ideal body weight and effective movement.
TrainingTable Part 1 of 2 Nutrition for Ultra Endurance Events: Energy and Macronutrient Guidelines Debra Wein, MS, RD, LDN, NSCA-CPT,*D H ave you been running or cycling regularly and feel- ing ready for a new chal- lenge? Have you been doing the 10-K scene and wanting to take your program needs of a physically demanding train- ing and competition program. Typically, recommendations for endurance athletes are for between 37 – 41 Calories per kg (5) or 1.5 – 1.7 times resting energy general recommendation is for athletes to consume 6 – 10 grams per kg of car- bohydrate daily with 30 – 60 grams of carbohydrate during each hour of activ- ity (5). More speciﬁcally, athletes can to the next level? If so, here is the nutri- expenditure. The best way to determine calculate their needs as 0.7 grams per kg tion plan to help support your train- calorie needs is to evaluate the kind of body weight per hour to individually ing as you plan for an ultra endurance of exercise performed with regard to determine their carbohydrate needs dur- event. frequency, intensity, and duration and ing exercise (5). then add this to the daily energy require- Ultra endurance exercise is classiﬁed as ments. For ultra endurance athletes, some prolonged exercise lasting longer than research supports the addition of liq- four hours in duration and most com- Women, in particular, need to be sure uid or solid carbohydrate, at a rate of monly involves running, skiing, cycling, that their energy needs are met in order 40 – 80 grams per hour during pro- or swimming (1). Events such as running to maintain normal reproductive func- longed running events, and more than the South African Comrades Marathon, tion and prevent amenorrhea, osteo- 90 g/h during prolonged cycling events swimming the English Channel, cycling porosis, and the female athlete triad. (4). In addition, other research suggests the Tour de France, or the Hawaiian or The estimated minimal level of body the use of carbohydrate, in the form South African Iron Man Races are exam- fat one should maintain in order to of glucose, maltose, fructose polymers, ples of such events (6). The ability to prevent adverse consequences to health and branched chain starches with high maintain performance during prolonged and performance is 5% for men and glycemic indices in ﬂuid replacement endurance exercise is dependent on a 12% for women (5). Note that optimal beverages at a concentration of 7.5 – number of factors, including meeting levels may be higher for individuals and 12%. This provides carbohydrates late calorie needs, appropriate macronutri- should be determined on a case by case in exercise as muscle and liver glycogen ent intake, adequate water replacement, basis with the athletes’ physician / RD stores become depleted and the risk of and electrolyte intake. In this two part team. hypoglycemia is increased (4). series, we will discuss how to best per- form in endurance activities through Carbohydrate Post exercise optimal nutrition. Daily Needs and During Exercise It is well established that the sooner Recommendations and more frequent carbohydrate is con- Calories Carbohydrate intake during prolonged sumed after exercise, the greater the Adequate energy intake is necessary to exercise has been shown to improve rate of post-exercise muscle glycogen maintain an appropriate weight and time to exhaustion by providing a regu- resynthesis. Recommendations are for body composition while meeting the lar source of exogenous energy (3). The carbohydrate intakes of 1.2 – 1.5 grams NSCA’s Performance Training Journal | www.nsca-lift.org/perform Vol. 6 No. 4 | Page 17 TrainingTable Energy and Macronutrient Guidelines of carbohydrate per kg of body weight References About the Author per hour at 30 minutes intervals in order 1. Burke LM, Hawley JA. (2002). Eﬀects Debra Wein is an adjunct faculty member at to maximize glycogen resynthesis during of Short term fat adaptation on metabo- the University of Massachusetts, Simmons the ﬁrst 4 – 5 hours following exercise lism and performance of prolonged exer- College and The Boston Conservatory, (5). cise. Medicine and Science in Sports and and chairs the Women’s Subcommittee of Exercise, 1492 – 1498. the Massachusetts’ Governor’s Committee Recent studies have shown that a car- on Physical Fitness and Sports. She is bohydrate-protein supplement is even 2. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), the President of The Sensible Nutrition more eﬀective for the rapid replenish- Institute of Medicine IOM. Dietary Connection, Inc.(www.sensiblenutrition. ment of muscle glycogen than a car- Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, com). bohydrate supplement alone if quicker Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, ▲ synthesis is necessary. Use of a protein- and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). carbohydrate compound, however, has Washington, DC: National Academy not been shown to be as eﬀective in Press; 2002. replenishing muscle glycogen stores as 3. Glace BW, Murphy CA, McHugh very large doses of carbohydrate pro- MP. (2002). Food intake and electrolyte vided at more frequent intervals (4). status of ultramarathoners competing in extreme heat. Journal of the American Protein College of Nutrition, 553 – 559. Protein recommendations for endurance 4. Peters E. (2003). Nutritional aspects athletes are 1.2 – 1.4 grams per kg of in ultra-endurance exercise. Clinical body weight. Note that vegetarian ath- Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 427 – letes may need to take in an additional 434. 10% in order to make up for the slightly lower digestibility of plant proteins (2). 5. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietetitians of Canada, and Fat the American College of Sports Medicine: Fat recommendations consistent with Nutrition and Athletic Performance. the Institutes of Medicine’s newly (2000). Journal of American Dietetic released guidelines of 20 – 35% of total Association, 1543 – 1556. calories should meet the needs of endur- 6. Rogers G, Goodman C, Rosen C. ance athletes (5). Additionally, one gram (1997). Water budget during ultra-en- per kg of body weight is another way for durance exercise. Medicine and Science in athletes to individualize these recom- Sports and Exercise, 1477 – 1481. mendations. Summary If ultra endurance is what you are after these are the sport nutrition guidelines to follow to maximize your perfor- mance. Part two of this article will cover ﬂuid and electrolytes. NSCA’s Performance Training Journal | www.nsca-lift.org/perform Vol. 6 No. 4 | Page 18
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