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A Snapshot of Prostate Cancer

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					                                     A Snapshot of                           Prostate Cancer
                                                                                                                             U.S. Prostate Cancer Incidence
Incidence and Mortality                                                                                   350

Rate Trends                                                                                               300




                                                                             Incidence per 100,000 Men
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, other than                                                     250

non-melanoma skin cancer, and the second leading                                                          200
cause of cancer-related death in men in the United
                                                                                                          150
States. African American men have higher incidence
and at least double the mortality rates compared with                                                     100
men of other racial and ethnic groups.                                                                     50
Prostate cancer incidence rates rose dramatically                                                           0
in the late 1980s when screening with the prostate-                                                             1987           1991          1995            1999         2003           2007
specific antigen (PSA) test, which received initial U.S.
Food and Drug Administration approval in 1986,                                                                               U.S. Prostate Cancer Mortality
                                                                                                         100
came into wide use. Since the early 1990s, prostate                          Mortality per 100,000 Men
cancer incidence has been declining. Mortality rates
                                                                                                          80
for prostate cancer have also declined since the early
1990s.                                                                                                     60

It is estimated that approximately $9.9 billion is                  1
                                                                                                           40
spent each year in the United States on prostate
cancer treatment.
                                                                                                          20
Source for incidence and mortality data: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and
End Results (SEER) Program and the National Center for Health Statistics.
Additional statistics and charts are available at http://seer.cancer.gov/.                                  0
                                                                                                                1987          1991           1995           1999          2003           2007
1
 Cancer Trends Progress Report (http://progressreport.cancer.gov), in
2006 dollars.                                                                                                          Whites             Hispanics*            African Americans
                                                                                                                       Asians/Pacific Islanders*           American Indians/Alaskan Natives*
                                                                                                            * Incidence and mortality data not available before 1992.




                                                                                                                NCI Prostate Cancer Research Investment
Trends in NCI Funding for                                                                                                                                      $4.83B      $4.97B
                                                                                                                   $4.79B                       $4.79B
                                                                                                                                                                                     5
Prostate Cancer Research
                                                                                                                                  $4.75B
                                                                                                         350
                                                                                                                  $309.0M
The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) investment2 in                                                     300                     $293.2M      $296.1M
                                                                                                                                                             $285.4M
                                                                                                                                                                         $293.9M
                                                                                                                                                                                     4
prostate cancer research decreased from $309 million
                                                                                                                                                                                          Billions of Dollars
                                                                               Millions of Dollars




                                                                                                         250
in fiscal year (FY) 2005 to $293.9 million in FY 2009.                                                                                                                               3
In addition, NCI supported $47 million in prostate                                                       200
cancer research in FY 2009 using funding from the
                                                                                                         150                                                                         2
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).3
Source: NCI Office of Budget and Finance (http://obf.cancer.gov).                                        100
                                                                                                                                                                                     1
2
 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with                                         50
a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For additional
information on research planning and budgeting at the National Institutes                                   0                                                                        0
of Health (NIH), see http://www.nih.gov/about/.                                                                    2005           2006         2007            2008       2009
                                                                                                                                           Fiscal Year
3
 For more information regarding ARRA funding at NCI, see http://www.
cancer.gov/recoveryfunding.                                                                                             Prostate Cancer Funding                Total NCI Budget



                     Snapshots can be found online at: http://www.cancer.gov/aboutnci/servingpeople/cancer-statistics/snapshots
Examples of NCI Activities                                         NCI Prostate Cancer Research Portfolio
Relevant to Prostate Cancer                                             Cancer Control,
                                                                                             Scientific Model
                                                                                                 Systems
• The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer                   Survivorship, and
                                                                      Outcomes Research                                  Biology
  Screening Trial (PLCO), a large-scale clinical trial, is                                        4%
  determining whether certain cancer screening tests                                   11%                        20%
  reduce deaths from these cancers including digital
  rectal examination plus the PSA test for prostate cancer
  screening. http://dcp.cancer.gov/plco
• NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics                                                                                       Etiology
  (DCEG) investigates potential risk factors for prostate                                                                    13%           (Causes
                                                                                                                                          of Cancer)
  cancer, including levels of insulin-like growth factor,
  inflammation, sex steroids, and circadian rhythm.                            27%
  http://dceg.cancer.gov/iib/research/prostate
                                                                   Treatment
                                                                                                                       9%
• The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility
  (CGEMS) project is identifying genetic alterations that                                            16%
                                                                                                                                   Prevention

  are associated with susceptibility to several cancers,                   Early Detection,
  including prostate cancer. Scientists are scanning the               Diagnosis, and Prognosis

  DNA of participants in a large number of collaborative             Percentage of Total Dollars by Scientific Area
  studies to identify common genetic differences between                           Fiscal Year 2009
  individuals who developed one of these cancers and              Data sources: NCI’s Division of Extramural Activities and the NCI Funded Research
  those who did not. http://cgems.cancer.gov/                     Portfolio. Only projects with assigned scientific area codes are included. A
                                                                  description of relevant research projects can be found on the NCI Funded Research
                                                                  Portfolio website at http://fundedresearch.cancer.gov
• The Prostate Cancer Modeling project, conducted by
  the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling
  Network (CISNET), is exploring the natural history            the laboratory to the clinical setting. http://trp.cancer.
  of prostate cancer, screening efficacy, diagnosis,            gov/spores/prostate.htm
  biomarkers, outcomes of care, and health disparities
                                                             • The What You Need to Know About™ Prostate
  in screening and treatment. http://cisnet.cancer.gov/
                                                               Cancer booklet provides information about prostate
  prostate/
                                                               cancer diagnosis and staging, treatment options,
• Researchers from NCI’s Medical Oncology, Radiation           follow-up care, and participation in research studies.
  Oncology, and Urologic Oncology branches are                 Information specialists can also answer questions about
  contributing their clinical training, research, and          cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. http://www.cancer.gov/
  care within the Prostate Cancer Program to improve           cancertopics/wyntk/prostate/
  management of patients with prostate cancer. http://
                                                             • The Prostate Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date
  bethesdatrials.cancer.gov/clinical-programs/prostate_
                                                               information on prostate cancer treatment, prevention,
  cancer_program/default.aspx
                                                               genetics, causes, screening, testing, and other topics.
• Nine prostate-cancer-specific Specialized Programs of        http://www.cancer.gov/prostate
  Research Excellence (SPOREs) are moving results from




Selected Advances in Prostate Cancer Research
• Researchers found that a common genetic variant            • A recent study estimated prostate cancer overdiagnosis
  associated with prostate cancer risk reduces the             in the 30 years since the PSA test was introduced. http://
  expression of a gene that had previously been                www.cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/090809/page2
  implicated in prostate cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm.        • Scientists discovered that prostate tumors in mice
  nih.gov/pubmed/19383797                                      can suppress the immune response to the cancer by
• A gene fusion that is common in prostate cancer may          modulating the function of immune cells called killer T
  arise via a two-step process that involves androgen          cells. http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/
  signaling and DNA-damaging agents. http://www.               CD8suppressorcells
  cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/110309/page5



                                                                                                                       Last updated September 2010

				
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Description: Prostate in the pelvic cavity at the bottom, the top of the bladder, below is the urethra, in front of the pubis, the rear is the rectum. It's about a lot of ligaments and fascia fixed, determine its location hidden and relatively fixed. When running, the pelvic floor muscle relaxation laws and rhythmically, as if the prostate on the "trampoline" on the prostate and surrounding organs and tissues of the blood active. Meanwhile, the abdominal internal organs especially the bowel and omentum, there will be regular, efforts to impact on the prostate, played a "massage " the role of the prostate.