Prostate in the pelvic cavity at the bottom, the top of the bladder, below is the urethra, in front of the pubis, the rear is the rectum. It's about a lot of ligaments and fascia fixed, determine its location hidden and relatively fixed. When running, the pelvic floor muscle relaxation laws and rhythmically, as if the prostate on the "trampoline" on the prostate and surrounding organs and tissues of the blood active. Meanwhile, the abdominal internal organs especially the bowel and omentum, there will be regular, efforts to impact on the prostate, played a "massage " the role of the prostate.
A Snapshot of Prostate Cancer U.S. Prostate Cancer Incidence Incidence and Mortality 350 Rate Trends 300 Incidence per 100,000 Men Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, other than 250 non-melanoma skin cancer, and the second leading 200 cause of cancer-related death in men in the United 150 States. African American men have higher incidence and at least double the mortality rates compared with 100 men of other racial and ethnic groups. 50 Prostate cancer incidence rates rose dramatically 0 in the late 1980s when screening with the prostate- 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 specific antigen (PSA) test, which received initial U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in 1986, U.S. Prostate Cancer Mortality 100 came into wide use. Since the early 1990s, prostate Mortality per 100,000 Men cancer incidence has been declining. Mortality rates 80 for prostate cancer have also declined since the early 1990s. 60 It is estimated that approximately $9.9 billion is 1 40 spent each year in the United States on prostate cancer treatment. 20 Source for incidence and mortality data: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the National Center for Health Statistics. Additional statistics and charts are available at http://seer.cancer.gov/. 0 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 1 Cancer Trends Progress Report (http://progressreport.cancer.gov), in 2006 dollars. Whites Hispanics* African Americans Asians/Pacific Islanders* American Indians/Alaskan Natives* * Incidence and mortality data not available before 1992. NCI Prostate Cancer Research Investment Trends in NCI Funding for $4.83B $4.97B $4.79B $4.79B 5 Prostate Cancer Research $4.75B 350 $309.0M The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) investment2 in 300 $293.2M $296.1M $285.4M $293.9M 4 prostate cancer research decreased from $309 million Billions of Dollars Millions of Dollars 250 in fiscal year (FY) 2005 to $293.9 million in FY 2009. 3 In addition, NCI supported $47 million in prostate 200 cancer research in FY 2009 using funding from the 150 2 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).3 Source: NCI Office of Budget and Finance (http://obf.cancer.gov). 100 1 2 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with 50 a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For additional information on research planning and budgeting at the National Institutes 0 0 of Health (NIH), see http://www.nih.gov/about/. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Fiscal Year 3 For more information regarding ARRA funding at NCI, see http://www. cancer.gov/recoveryfunding. Prostate Cancer Funding Total NCI Budget Snapshots can be found online at: http://www.cancer.gov/aboutnci/servingpeople/cancer-statistics/snapshots Examples of NCI Activities NCI Prostate Cancer Research Portfolio Relevant to Prostate Cancer Cancer Control, Scientific Model Systems • The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Survivorship, and Outcomes Research Biology Screening Trial (PLCO), a large-scale clinical trial, is 4% determining whether certain cancer screening tests 11% 20% reduce deaths from these cancers including digital rectal examination plus the PSA test for prostate cancer screening. http://dcp.cancer.gov/plco • NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics Etiology (DCEG) investigates potential risk factors for prostate 13% (Causes of Cancer) cancer, including levels of insulin-like growth factor, inflammation, sex steroids, and circadian rhythm. 27% http://dceg.cancer.gov/iib/research/prostate Treatment 9% • The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project is identifying genetic alterations that 16% Prevention are associated with susceptibility to several cancers, Early Detection, including prostate cancer. Scientists are scanning the Diagnosis, and Prognosis DNA of participants in a large number of collaborative Percentage of Total Dollars by Scientific Area studies to identify common genetic differences between Fiscal Year 2009 individuals who developed one of these cancers and Data sources: NCI’s Division of Extramural Activities and the NCI Funded Research those who did not. http://cgems.cancer.gov/ Portfolio. Only projects with assigned scientific area codes are included. A description of relevant research projects can be found on the NCI Funded Research Portfolio website at http://fundedresearch.cancer.gov • The Prostate Cancer Modeling project, conducted by the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET), is exploring the natural history the laboratory to the clinical setting. http://trp.cancer. of prostate cancer, screening efficacy, diagnosis, gov/spores/prostate.htm biomarkers, outcomes of care, and health disparities • The What You Need to Know About™ Prostate in screening and treatment. http://cisnet.cancer.gov/ Cancer booklet provides information about prostate prostate/ cancer diagnosis and staging, treatment options, • Researchers from NCI’s Medical Oncology, Radiation follow-up care, and participation in research studies. Oncology, and Urologic Oncology branches are Information specialists can also answer questions about contributing their clinical training, research, and cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. http://www.cancer.gov/ care within the Prostate Cancer Program to improve cancertopics/wyntk/prostate/ management of patients with prostate cancer. http:// • The Prostate Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date bethesdatrials.cancer.gov/clinical-programs/prostate_ information on prostate cancer treatment, prevention, cancer_program/default.aspx genetics, causes, screening, testing, and other topics. • Nine prostate-cancer-specific Specialized Programs of http://www.cancer.gov/prostate Research Excellence (SPOREs) are moving results from Selected Advances in Prostate Cancer Research • Researchers found that a common genetic variant • A recent study estimated prostate cancer overdiagnosis associated with prostate cancer risk reduces the in the 30 years since the PSA test was introduced. http:// expression of a gene that had previously been www.cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/090809/page2 implicated in prostate cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm. • Scientists discovered that prostate tumors in mice nih.gov/pubmed/19383797 can suppress the immune response to the cancer by • A gene fusion that is common in prostate cancer may modulating the function of immune cells called killer T arise via a two-step process that involves androgen cells. http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/ signaling and DNA-damaging agents. http://www. CD8suppressorcells cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/110309/page5 Last updated September 2010
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