Introduction to Cells unit Name___________________ Across 1.unicellular organism lacking membrane bound nucleus and organelles. Bacteria are Prokaryotes. 3. membrane continuous with the nuclear envelope, responsible for the modification of proteins. The rough RR has Ribosomes attached that synthesize the proteins to be modified. The smooth ER has no ribosomes attached and is responsible for making phospholipids, steroids and helps in detoxification of the cell. 5. – a membrane bound organelle that can function to remove unwanted structural debris, isolate materials that might be harmful to the cell, contain waste products, maintain an internal pH, storage or large molecules such as starch, export unwanted substances from the cell, allow the cell to change shape. In plants it is important in maintaining cell shape by increasing the cells internal pressure. 8. - a double membrane bound organelle that is responsible for cellular respiration. Mitochondria contain their own DNA. 12. –hollow tube like structures, made of protein, in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, providing structural support and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport. 13. – The largest of the membrane-bounded organelles which characterize eukaryotic cells; it is thought of as the control center since it contains the bulk of the cell's genetic information in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). 15. – membrane bound sacs of digestive enzymes, they break down materials taken into the cell from the outside, as well as break down parts of the cell that are no longer functioning or needed. 16. – a group of tissues that together perform closely related functions. 21. -A complex carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, that is composed of glucose units, forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants, and is important in the manufacture of numerous products, such as paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. 24. – A differentiated structure within a eukaryotic cell, such as a mitochondrion, vacuole, or chloroplast, that performs a specific function. 27. – A group of cells that together perform a function, and are similar in shape. There are four basic types of tissue: muscle, nerve, epidermal, and connective. 28. -green pigments that are found in the chloroplasts of plants and in other photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria. (C55H72MgN4O5) 30. -The semi permeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell. Also called plasma membrane. Made up of a phospholipid bi-layer and proteins. Down 2. - A device for forming greatly magnified images of objects by means of electrons. Electron Microscopes allow the visual examination of structures too small to be resolved with ordinary compound or light microscopes. 4. – an organism made up of more than one cell. 6. – an organism made up of a single cell. 7. –Material visible within the nucleus; made up of nucleic acids and proteins. Stains readily with basic dyes and condenses to form chromosomes during cell division. 9. -Short, hair like structures that are found on the outside of some cells. Capable of beating in unison, cilia perform a variety of functions, including providing the means of locomotion for some protozoans, moving mammalian ova (eggs) through oviducts, generating water currents to carry food and oxygen past the gills of clams, and cleaning debris from mammalian respiratory systems. 10. – area of the nucleus responsible for making ribosomes. Appears as a dark staining dot within the nucleus of a cell. 11. - The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a cell. Also called nuclear membrane. 14. - Tiny particle, the site of protein synthesis, that is present in large numbers in living cells. They can be found free in the cytoplasm and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. They are made up of protein and RNA. 17. – membrane bound organelle that sorts, modifies and packages macromolecules such as proteins for delivery to other parts of the cell. 18. - The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane. 19. – a double organelle with a double membrane found in green plants and algae. The site of Photosynthesis. Has a green color due to the pigment chlorophyll. Chloroplasts have their own DNA. Cytoskeleton -A system of filaments found in the cytoplasm of cells and responsible for the maintenance of and changes in cell shape, cell locomotion, movement of various elements in the cytoplasm, cell division, chromosome organization and movement, and the adhesion of a cell to a surface or to other cells. 20. -a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function. 22. -a barrel shaped microtubule structure found in most animal cells and algae. Centrioles are very important in the cell division process. 23. -The rigid outer covering of a typical plant cell, composed mainly of cellulose and lying outside the cell membrane. Animal cells do not have cell walls. It is the cell walls that give plant stems and wood their stiffness. 25. – Ring of DNA found in prokaryotes. 26. - Scientific theory that states: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the most basic unit for function and structure of all organisms. All cells come from cells that already exist. 29. –whip-like structure used for locomotion in single celled organisms and sex cells.