4th_Grade_6th_Boarding_Schools

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					Indian Boarding School Era




                             1
  Indian Boarding School Era
To the White Society, Native People:
      were heathens and behaved like savages.
      had no written language.
      were unschooled.
      didn’t know how to stay in one place.
      had to be “civilized” or assimilated through education.




                                                          2
       Indian Boarding School Era
 The boarding school era began in the 1800s and
 continued through the 1950’s.
 The federal government forcibly placed tribal children
 in the harsh, military like institutions to:
              assimilate or civilize the children.



                                                    3
              Indian Boarding School Era
1850’s Treaties with Indians included educational support for the
    tribes.
1870’s Boarding schools opened on reservations.
1879 First (off-reservation boarding school) opened at Carlisle, PA.
1890’s Other boarding schools were built across the West.




                                                               4
         Indian Boarding School Era
1900’s Boarding school system grows over the next two
   decades.
1928 Meriam Report commissioned by the Interior
   Department supplied information on boarding schools :
               condemns schools’ deficient diets.
               overcrowded dorms.
               poor medical service.
                overworking of students.

                                                     5
            Indian Boarding School Era
1930’s Meriam Report brought about reforms in boarding schools.
          Teacher training
          Better living conditions
          Better treatment of children
          Boarding schools became open to tribal culture
1934 Some boarding schools closed throughout the U.S.
1950’s Some boarding schools still existed.

* This is considered a dark and unfinished chapter in American
     History.
                                                                 6
       Indian Boarding Schools
 In the beginning, schools were established
  on the reservations.
 Students could go home at the end of the
  school day.
 Parents could visit their children at school.
 They were exposed to both cultures – native
  and whiteman.
 Assimilation process was taking too long.

                                               7
           Indian Boarding Schools
Changes took place:
   Boarding   schools were opened far away from
    reservations.
   Students had no contact with their families and friends.
   Parents were discouraged from visiting.
   Students were only allowed to go home at certain times
    of the year – Christmas and summer.
   Parents who openly resisted giving up their children
    lost food rations or were jailed.
                                                       8
        Indian Students at School
Students at schools were given rules and had no choices:
    started boarding school at age 5.
    left boarding school at age 18.
    could not use their own name.
    were given a whiteman’s name.
    students’ hair was cut short.
    had to wear uniforms.


                                                    9
        Indian Students at School
RULES:

   were forbidden to speak their language.
    students lost the ability to speak their native
    language fluently because of the years in school.
   were forbidden to practice their religion.
   were forced to memorize the Bible and the Lord’s
    Prayer.
                                                    10
           Indian Students at School
RULES:

 boys   and girls lived in separate dormitories.

   boys and girls had no privacy.

   their days were filled with many tasks.
    every task began and ended by bells or “triangles”as
    they were called.
                                                      11
         Indian Students at School

 were taught that they were being civilized or “raised
  up” to a better way of life.
 were told that Indian people who retained their culture
  were stupid, dirty, and backwards.

 “Good  Indians” were those who assimilated quickly.
 “Bad Indians” were those who did not assimilate
  quickly.

                                                     12
          Indian Students at School
PUNISHMENTS
 disobeying the rules meant swift and harsh punishment.
 forms of punishment used:
       strapping – being hit many times with a leather
        strap
       being locked in a closet.
       being made an example of in front of the other
        children.
      For first-person experience, see this site.

                                                    13
             Boarding School System
                 “half and half”
   students spent:
                   “half of the day in the classroom”
                                   and
                  “ half of the day on work
    assignments” or “detail” on the school grounds.

   the work performed by students was essential to
    the operation of the institution.
                                                   14
         Boarding School System
Academic Curriculum    Work Details
- U. S History         - Cooking & Sewing
- Geography            - Laundry & Cleaning
- Language             - Carpentry & Shop
- Arithmetic           - Blacksmithing
- Reading              - Baking
- Spelling & Writing   - Farming

                                              15
             Boarding School Jobs
Boys - carpenters           Girls - sewing
      - gardeners                 - pastry cooks
      - wood choppers             - laundry workers
      - blacksmiths               - cooking
      - wagon makers              - cleaning
      - shoemakers                - nursing
      - animal caretakers         - office workers

                                                      16
              Boarding School Day
5:45 – 5:55 a.m. Reveille - everyone is awakened.
                           - kneel on floor and say prayers.
5:55 – 6:12 a.m. Washing, brushing teeth & getting dressed.
6:12 – 6:45 a.m. Go to morning mass
                           - kneeling in pews (no sitting)
       6:45 a.m Roll call for breakfast


                                                       17
              Boarding School Day
7:00 – 7:30 a.m. Breakfast – gooey mush with powder milk
  and brown sugar.
7:30 – 7:40 a.m. Care of teeth and make beds.
7:40 – 7:55 a.m. Inspection of beds and area.
7:55 – 8:50 a.m. Reading books, music lessons & athletics.
8:50 – 9:00 a.m. Roll call for school.



                                                     18
              Boarding School Day
 9:00 – 11:30 a.m.   School
11:30 – 11:55 a.m.   Free time – students at liberty.
        11:55 a.m.   Assembly and Roll Call.
12:00 – 12:30 p.m.   Lunch – soup and milk.
12:30 – 12:50 p.m.   Recreation
        12:50 p.m.   Roll call for student’s jobs.


                                                        19
              Boarding School Day
1:00 - 4:30 p.m. Work duty – students’ jobs.
4:30 – 5:25 p.m. Drill and Gymnasium classes.
      5:25 p.m   Roll Call for dinner.
5:30 – 6:00 p.m. Dinner – cabbage stew, bread with butter
  and wrinkled apples for dessert.



                                                     20
               Boarding School Day
6:00 – 6:10 p.m. Care of teeth
6:10 – 7:15 p.m. Recreation – outside playing of choice
7:15 – 7:25 p.m. Roll Call and Inspection
7:25 – 8:15 p.m. Lecture – people in education talk to
  students.



                                                         21
               Boarding School Day
8:15 – 8:45 p.m. Call to quarters
                 * get ready for the next day.
       8:45 p.m. Students retire to bed.
8:55 – 9:00 p.m. Bed check.
       9:00 p.m. Taps played
                 * students expected to go to sleep.


                                                       22
                 Today’s School Day
7:00 – 7:45 a.m Students are awakened by parents or an
  alarm clock.
                   Get dressed, eat breakfast, get ready to
  leave for school.
7:45 – 8:10 a.m Students ride the school bus or are driven
  to school by parents.
8:10 – 8:25 a.m. Students play outside or have breakfast at
  school.
       8:25 a.m. Bell rings, students line up according
  grade level.
                                                       23
                Today’s School Day
       8:30 a.m. Students are greeted by their teacher and
  enter the school building.
8:30 – 8:45 a.m. Attendance is taken, lunch count and
  pledge is recited.
8:45 – 10:30 a.m. Reading
10:30 – 11:30 a.m Art/ Music/Physical Education
  (depending on the day of the week).
11:30 – 11:55 p.m. English
11:55 – 12:00 p.m. Get ready to go to lunch.
                                                      24
                 Today’s School Day
12:00 – 12:20 p.m. Lunch - students may buy lunch at
  school or eat whatever was sent from home.
12:20 – 12:30 p.m. Recess – outdoor play.
        12:30 p.m Students line up; are greeted by teacher;
  enter the building.
12:35 – 1:30 p.m. Math
 1:30 - 2:10p.m. Science
 2:10 - 2:50 p.m. Social Studies

                                                      25
                 Today’s School Day
2:50 - 3:00 p.m. Get ready to leave for the day and go
  home.
  Students walk out with teachers to their parents or bus.
3:00 - 9:00 p.m. Students are free to be involved in sports,
  dance or other activities.
     Students eat dinner with family members at different
  times of the evening and have many choices of food.
     Bedtime is decided by parents and varies in times. Once
  in bed, students might listen to music or read a book.
                                                       26
           Indian Boarding Schools
Negatives                Positives
  - runaways               - friendships
  - harsh punishments      - playing of games
  - crowded conditions     - running water
                           - showers
  - illnesses
                           - clean clothes
  - basic medical care
                           - decent food
  - deaths of students

                                                27
               Pro/Con Debate Activity
   Divide class into three groups
         PRO
         CON
         TIMER
   PRO & CON sit back to back in pairs with a timer for each pair.
   Timer gives 30 seconds for PRO to give their side of how Boarding
    Schools were positive for Native American Children.
   Timer gives 30 seconds for CON to give their side of how Boarding
    Schools were negative for Native American Children.
   Repeat activity until all three roles – PRO, CON & TIMER – have
    been done by each group member.
                                                               28
      Boarding School Photo Gallery
Boarding School photos:
http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/a_f/erdrich/
  boarding/gallery.htm




                                               29
                Review Questions
1.  How were the students expected to dress and wear their
   hair?
2. How long did they stay at the boarding school and how
   often did they go home?
3. What name did they use at boarding school?
4. What were they expected to learn besides work skills?
5. What kind of jobs were assigned to boys?

                                                     30
                Review Questions
6.   What kind of jobs were assigned to girls?
7.   What kind of punishment was given for disobeying
  rules?
8. What was a “good Indian”?
9. What was a “bad Indian”?
10. List some “positives and negatives” of boarding
  schools.

                                                    31
            Assimilation Lesson ( for teacher)
Title: The Price of Assimilation – What It Costs a Society When Everyone is the
    Same.
Lesson: Students will identify ways that a society promotes assimilation and
    examine areas where it still occurs in our present culture. Students will also
    assess the value of assimilation.
• Why do we feel people should be the same or do the same things?
• What do we lose as a society if everyone conforms to the same image or idea?
• Why did the early “Americans” fee assimilation was best?
• What did this policy cost our nation?
• How did attempts at assimilation affect the people involved? (psychological,
    social, governmental, physical effects)

                                                                              32
            Assimilation Lesson (for teacher)
1.   This lesson is best limited to one day or class period with younger students. It
     has been done with students as young as first grade, but is somewhat
     controversial because sometimes very young children do not have the
     reasoning skills necessary to understand the purpose of the lesson. Fourth
     grade and above should understand without issue.
2.   Divide the class into groups by eye color. Give each group a colored armband
     or other group signifier. Construct a strict set of social rules:
     (i.e. The blue group always goes to lunch first.
           The brown group cleans up after every project.
           The blue group gets all the pens and pencils they need.
           The green group can only use one crayon. Etc.

                                                                              33
          Assimilation Lesson (for teacher)
3.   Change it all around. Invite the principal, who has blue eyes, to
     reestablish a new social order. Continue making changes until all
     the children have had a chance to participate as the group at the
     tope of the social ladder and the group at the bottom.
4.   To make the game a further challenge, add rules that can lead to
     demotion. For instance, if a person of high rank is seen hanging
     out with a person/people of low rank too often, he/she will be
     demoted one class because he/she obviously has no concern for
     reputation in associating with people of poor character.


                                                                34
           Assessment of Lesson(for students)
1.   After finishing the game ask students to journal their answer to questions like
      these:
      How did you feel as a person of highest rank?
      How did you feel as a person of lower rank?
      Were there times when you felt like you couldn’t control your own life?
      Were there times when you felt like you were treated unfairly?
      What makes treatment unfair?
      Did you feel like you changed the way you acted when your social position
      changed?
      Did you ever feel limited in what you could achieve?
      Who made the rules of your society?
      Were they just or unjust rules?

                                                                                35
       Assessment of Lesson(for students)
What purpose did the rules serve?
Does a society need rules to function? If yes, what kinds of rules are
   necessary.
If no, how does a society function without rules?
In American society, what rules do we live by?
Who made these rules? Are these rules just or unjust?
What do our rules reflect about our society?



                                                                36
        Compare and Contrast Activity

Read the following books together, as a class:
         Walking in Beauty by Susan Kent
            (partner read)
         Shi-shi-etko by Nicola I. Campbell
            (teacher reads to class)
Do the Compare and Contrast Activity that follows:
List 5 facts on each part of the diagram.
                                               37
          Compare and Contrast:
    Shi-shi-etko and Walking in Beauty

       Shi-shi-etko                 Walking in Beauty

                       Both books        1_____________
     1______________
     2______________   1_____________    2_____________
     3______________   2_____________    3_____________
     4______________   3_____________    4_____________
     5______________   4_____________    5_____________
                       5_____________


                                                        38
                Shi-shi-etko               Walking in Beauty
• Click on the image of the activity
  shown at right.                                    Shi-shi-etko and Walking in Beauty

• The activity will load as a Microsoft       Talks about worries        Always Running
  Word page (stored on the web).              about going to school

  Please give it time to load fully.          Loves to Play in Water    Talks about her
                                                                        problems at school

• When the activity is fully loaded, you      She needs to remember
                                              the ways of the poeple
                                                                        She runs away back to her
                                                                        homeland

  will be able to see a 4-way arrow on        Geography was her best    Yayah gives her a sinew
                                              subject
  the borders of the colored boxes as         Her new name is Alice
                                                                        bage
                                                                       She sets off to go to school
  click on each box and scroll over its
                                              Shi-shi-etko             Walking in Beauty
  borders. When the 4-way arrow is
  visible, have a student drag and drop
  each colored box to its correct
  column.
• After finishing the activity, click on
  the close box (the “x” in the right-
  hand corner) to return to this slide
  and DO NOT SAVE when prompted.                                                                      39

				
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