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					Internet Censorship

          Sri Reddy
Internet and Web Systems 2
• Net censorship:
• e.g.‟s: web filters; censorware; firewalls, to
  some extent
• Reasons: protection of children, national
          Home Censorship
• Protection of children from adult content
  and other materials
         School Censorship
• federal law enacted by Congress:
  – Children‟s Internet Protection Act (CIPA)
       Business Censorship
• To keep employees focused and not
     International Censorship
• Different countries have different views of
  the internet.
• Open Net Initiative studies these issues.
Global Internet Filtering Map
          Asian Censorship
• China, Burma, and Vietnam:
  – Content censored includes human rights,
    opposition parties
• China‟s filtering system also known as the
  Great Firewall of China
China: “9 Ways Beijing Censors the

• Self-censorship: e.g. replace „Hu Jintao‟
  with „Gu Yue Wu Jin Ma Tao ‟
• Filtering: ISPs delete sensitive words on
• Internet police censors
   “9 Ways Beijing Censors the
       Internet” (continued)

• Web master warnings
• Red tape: what can & can‟t be reported
• Mother jury: what one‟s mom would allow
  on the internet
    “9 Ways Beijing Censors the
        Internet” (continued)

• Tea party invitation: posting against
  government and you will drink tea w/
• The Great Firewall
• 50 cent commentators: government pays
  50 cents for each commentator to mold
  public opinion
         China: Net Access

• UltraSurf and FreeGate led the way for
  Chinese net users to freely and openly
  access the internet
    Green Dam Goes Mobile?

• filtering software originally meant for
  Chinese computers
• discussion has shifted to the cell phone
Google thinks about leaving mobile
          search market
• Google and Baidu  over 50% of market
  share in mobile search
• If Google leaves, Baidu and Microsoft gain
  an opportunity.
 Google China‟s outage is blamed
       on Chinese firewall
• At first, claims due to technical reasons
• Later, claims due to China‟s filtering
• Yahoo email accounts hacked due to
  concern over Chinese separatists
         China and Sweden
• Swedish prime minister expressed
  importance of uncensored internet in
  meeting w/ Chinese VP
• dozens of websites blocked under state of
• Government denies it lead cyberattacks
  against opponents of mining project
    Middle Eastern/North African
• Region has a growing market for internet
• Countries in the region censor to help anti-
  terrorism efforts.
• Blackberry chat groups banned
Censorship in Commonwealth of
Independent States (Countries of
    the former Soviet Union)

• Censorship exists, but not as much as
  during the Cold War era.
• Bakiev administration shut down
  opposition media weeks before April 7
  Revolution, this year
       European Censorship
• Goal: to filtering out child pornography,
  racism, hatred, and terrorism
• Some fear Eurofilter will become similar to
• A Thai princess‟s condolence
  – Also a hearing aid ad were found on a Finnish
    list of 1000 supposed child porn websites
• Digital economy bill passes
  – ISPs required to send P2P warning notices to
    copyright infringers
Sub-Saharan Africa Censorship
• African Internet users  less than 5
  percent of world‟s online population

• Kenya introduced law to suppress
  – citizens displeased, worried about privacy
  – Kenyan parliament rejected new law
• Human rights issues, opposition parties
       Australian censorship
• Goal: to filter hate speech
• and handle copyright, defamation, and
  security issues

• school networks, YouTube banned after
  video posted with girl being beaten up
        Australia (continued)
• Communications Minister- supporting a
  internet filter to fight cybercrime
  – U.S. is concerned about net censorship

• Another „Great Firewall‟, Australia‟s
            U.S. censorship
• Issues: child protection, national security,
  intellectual property, and web security
• reportedly after 9/11, Bush administration
  wiretaps on internet interconnect points.
  U.S. Censorship (continued)
• Adults‟ right to access adult content
  compared to youth‟s right to be protected
  from said content

• Communications Decency Act of 1996
  – U.S. law that was created to protect children,
    but found to be unconstitutional
  U.S. Censorship (continued)
• “Internet‟s Last Hope”:
  – FCC vs. Comcast: Comcast kept right to slow
    down BitTorrent
• The OpenNet Initiative:
• Parker, Emily, “Leaping the Great Firewall of