EPP-Report-2005 by niusheng11


Placement Programme 2005
Summary of Achievements

         61 students and 55 Scottish businesses benefited from participation in the
          programme in the following locations:

          -   Edinburgh/Lothians
          -   Scottish Borders
          -   Glasgow
          -   Argyll
          -   Fife
          -   Tayside
          -   Grampian
          -   Highlands & Islands

         Over £1,100,000 cost savings identified for Scottish businesses

         14,628 tonnes of waste diverted from landfill

         Reduction of carbon diox ide emissions by 1,794.92 tonnes

         Significant progress towards ISO14001 for 5 companies

         Significant progress towards GTBS for 2 hotels.

         New markets identified for 4 Scottish businesses

         Improved environmental performance amongst all participating companies

  Some of the 61 students who participated in the Environmental Placement Programme 2005
 Summary of Participants

Company        Nature of
                                Student Name      Course             University      Project Type
Name           Activities

Aberdeen City                                     Environmental      Stirling
              Council           Dominic Kehoe                                        Renewable Energy
Council                                           Science            University

Aberdeen City                   Richard                              University of
              Council                             Geography                          Procurement Policy
Council                         Streeter                             Edinburgh

Aberdeen       Environmental                      Technology &     Strathclyde
                                Richard Forrest                                      Composting
For ward       Charity                            Business Studies University

Aberdeen                                          Marine Resource Aberdeen           Business
               Watersports      Guy Gibson
Watersports                                       Management      University         Development

                                                  Marine Resource Aberdeen           Waste
ANM            Auctioneer       Natasha Waleki
                                                  Management      University         Minimisation

                                                                     Aberdeen        Water / Effluent
Aqua Scot      Fish Processor   Adam Porteous Marine Biology
                                                                     University      Management

                                                                     Aberdeen        Waste
Arjo Wiggans   Paper Mill       Roder ick Dav ies Geography
                                                                     University      Minimisation

               Environmental                                         Robert Gordon Waste
BEP- NE                         Bee Ching Gan     Business Studies
               Assistance                                            Univeristy    Management

               Environmental                      Physics &          University of   Business
BEP- NE                         Heather Barry
               Assistance                         Astronomy          Durham          Development

Blinkbonny                      Aimee             Environmental University of        Product
Quarry                          Weatherbur n      Biology       St Andrews           Development

Bonham Hotel Hotel              Jo Brooks         Geography                          GT BS

               Cable                                                 Edinburgh
Brand Rex                       Daniel Ward       Immunology                         Water Minimisation
               Manufacturer                                          University

Buccleuch                                                            Edinburgh
               Printer          James Gould       Geography                          ISO14001
Pr inters                                                            University
Company         Nature of
                                     Student Name      Course         University    Project Type
Name            Activities

                                                                      Edinburgh     Environmental
Industrial      Industrial Estate    Dav id Br uce     Geography
                                                                      University    Review

City of
                                                                      Edinburgh     Sustainability
Edinburgh       Council              Peter Bruce       Geography
                                                                      University    Indicators

                Industrial                             Chemical       Edinburgh     Energy
CoorsTek                             Jamie Duncan
                Ceramics                               Engineering    University    Management

                Paint                                  Mechanical     Edinburgh     Energy and Water
Craig & Rose                         Dav id Anderson
                Manufacturer                           Engineering    University    Management

                Digital Box                                           Edinburgh     Energy
CRC Group                            Alistair Bonar    Geography
                Reconditioning                                        University    Management

                Railway Crossing                       Electronic     Heriot Watt
Edgar Allan                          Callum Mowat                                   Energy Efficiency
                Systems                                Engineering    University

                                                       Electronic     Edinburgh     Process
Emtelle         Pipe Manufacturer Brett Thompson
                                                       Engineering    University    Efficiency

                Seafood              Chr istopher                     Lews Castle
Fjord Seafood                                          Computing                    ISO14001
                Processor            Morr ison                        College

                                     Margaret Ann      Environme ntal Stirling
Fy ne Homes     House Builder                                                       Sustainability
                                     Mackellar         Science        University

                                     Chr ist ianne                    Aberdeen      Waste
Corr ision      Industrial Coating                     Geography
                                     Wotherspoon                      University    Minimisation

                                                       Chemical       Strathclyde   Solvent
Corr ision      Industrial Coating Scott McInnes
                                                       Engineering    University    Management

Genesis                              Chr istopher      Chemical       Edinburgh     Ecological
Faraday                              Crayk             Engineering    University    Footprint
Company           Nature of
                                   Student Name      Course           University      Project Type
Name              Activities

Harveys Ltd       Printer          Emma Corry        Geography        Edinburgh       Waste
                                                                      University      Minimisation

                  Housing                            Environmental    Stirling        Sustainability
Housing                            Mar k Weglarski
                  Association                        Science          University      Review

                  Industrial       Katarzyna                          Wroclawska we
Kanthal                                              Engineering      Wroclawiu,      ISO14001
                  Ceramics         Kapowski

Lauder                                               Energy           Heriot Watt     Structural
                  Education        Lachlan McLean
College                                              Management       University      Engineering

Lightweight                        Lauren                             Glasgow Art
                  Product Design                     Product Design                   Product Design
Medical                            McMullen                           College

Lightweight                                                           Glasgow Art
                  Product Design   Padraig Murphy Product Design                      Product Design
Medical                                                               College

Lochcarron of                                        Business         Heriot Watt     Waste
                  Textiles         Yasmin Ishaq
Scotland                                             Management       University      Minimisation

                                                                      Edinburgh       Environmental
Loretto School Education           Harr iet White    Geography
                                                                      University      Review

                                                     Countryside &
                                                                      Aberdeen        Waste
Mansell           Construction     Lynne Donald      Environmental
                                                                      University      Minimisation

                                                     Ecology &
                                                                      University of   Waste
Mur doch A llan Bakery             Amy Smit h        Conservation
                                                                      Edinburgh       Minimisation

North Br it ish                                      Environmental Strathclyde        COMAH
                  Distillery       Jamie Crawford
Dist illery                                          Studies       University         Assessment

North Br it ish                    Sophie            Environmental Strathclyde        COMAH
Dist illery                        Holroy de         Studies       University         Assessment
Company        Nature of
                                 Student Name      Course              University   Project Type
Name           Activities

Oatr idge      Education         Eimear            Ecological          Edinburgh    Environmental
College                          Gor mally         Science             University   Review

               Sustainable                                             Dundee       Build ing Materials
Octagon Ltd                      Keith Lauder      Civil Engineering
               Building Research                                       University   Testing

               Sustainable                                             Dundee       Build ing Materials
Octagon Ltd                      Yang Yang         Civil Engineering
               Building Research                                       University   Testing

Or kney
               Waste                                                   Edinburgh    Waste
Business                         Er ic Baster      Physics
               Minimisation Club                                       University   Minimisation

Renewable      Renewable                           Mechanical          Edinburgh    Renewable
                                 Stuart Hamilton
Dev ices       Energy                              Engineering         University   Energy

Rodger of                        Ioanna            Environmental Edinburgh
               Civil Engineers                                                      ISO14001
Ear lston                        Papadopoulos      Management    University

                                                   Business            Abertay
Samuel Bruce   Office Fitting    Dav id Pearson                                     ISO14001
                                                   Management          University

St Andrews     Hotel, Spa & Golf                                       Dundee
                                 Aidan Gilroy      Geography                        GT BS
Bay Hotel      Course                                                  University

Stir ling                                          Environmental Stirling           Waste
               Council           Sara Stewart
Council                                            Science       University         Minimisation

                                 Willem            Business       Heriot Watt       Project
SWA G          Waste Awareness
                                 Baart man         Administration University        Development

Taypack                          Kr istopher       Environmental       Dundee
               Potato Packing                                                       ISO14001
Potatoes                         More              Studies             University

               Offshore          Sarah                                 Aberdeen     Waste
Technip                                            Geography
               Engineering       Thompson                              University   Minimisation

                                 Esmond            Ecological          Edinburgh    Project
Third Wave     Consultancy
                                 Tresidder         Science             University   Development
Company        Nature of
                                   Student Name     Course          University     Project Type
Name           Activities

               Manufacture of
TRAK                                                Environmental   Dundee
               Microwave           Ewan Campbell                                   ROHS Directive
Microwave                                           Management      University

Whiteside                                           Sustainable
                                                                    Heriot Watt    Environmental
Industrial     Industrial Estate   Alistair Trail   Process
                                                                    University     Review
Estate                                              Management

               Pressure Control                     Environmental
Wood Group                         Der mott Keith                   Agricultural   ISO14001
               Equipment                            Management

Wr ight &      Fencing                              Product design Napier
                                   Matt Rogers                                     Building Design
McLennan       Manufacturer                         Engineering    University

               Wastewater          Hannah           Chemical        Edinburgh
XM Serv ices                                                                       Waste Water
               Treatment           Cessford         Engineering     University
Case Studies

Aberdeen City Council                                                                      Council

Dominic Kehoe was placed with Aber deen City Council to help set up the Aberdeen Renewables
Club to promote renewable energy to householders, comm unities and small and medium
Dominic‟s first task was to establish the level of demand for renewable products, what type of
renewable pr oducts were the most popular, and w hat services the club could provide w ould be the
most useful. He designed a questionnaire which was sent out to interested householders; he
interviewed local housing associations and sur veyed small and medium enterprises from the area.
The results of these showed that there was a significant demand for renewable products f rom
householders and social landlords, but not as much interest from businesses. Of the 82 returned
questionnaires from individual householders, 62 indicated an interest in joining the renewables
club, and valuable information regarding their knowledge of the products, what type of products
they were interested in and what services the club could provide was gathered. The inter views
with housing associations and social landlords proved similarly successful, all of whom indicated a
strong interest in using renewable energy in their buildings, particularly space and water heating
systems such as ground source heat pumps and solar water heaters. There was not as much
interest from SMEs, this may be due to the lack of incentives for them. The       next  stage    of
Dominic‟s project was to contact the suppliers of renewable products, discuss costs and whether
they would be interested in working with the Renewables Club. Once specific companies had been
approached, potential grant funding was researched.


Aberdeen City Council                                                                      Council

Richard Streeter was placed with Aberdeen City Council to undertake an audit of current timber
purchases and their sources, and look into ways of expanding the procurement from sustainable
sources. The audit sought to find the value and volume of timber purchased, and w here possible
the status of this with regard to the sustainability of the sources. T he results of this were
encouraging. Of the non-building timber purchased, which was almost £1 million in value, 52%
was from acceptable sources, an additional 33% was furniture which should become an acceptable
source when the contract is re-written next year. Generally the knowledge of sustainable
purchasing was high, and contracts had been modified accor dingly. In the ar chitects depar tment
the strategy was less comprehensive. It also proved difficult to get data on the previous amount of
timber used. Richard succeeded in changing this and now w ood is specified in every building
project. This represents a major step forward for the councils sustainable purchasing strategy, as
specifying sustainable timber is the most effective way to make a difference to the environmental
impact of using w ood.
As a result of the project some minor areas where potentially unacceptable timbe r could be
sourced were discovered. It became a priority to find ways in which this could be remedied. One
gap identified was schools – a fact sheet for head teachers on sustainable purchasing and what
they should be doing was produced. Further advice on h ow to specify sustainable timber such as a
basic guide to „good wood‟ and sample tender clauses that could be amended were also produced.
Further general resources on certification were also compiled and made available to officers
Aberdeen Forward                                                            Environmental Charity

Aberdeen Forward has been managing the North East Master Composter Programme (NEMCP)
since August 2003. T he NEMCP is a home composting project, which aims to distribute 17,000
discounted compost units to households across the North East. The programme is ended in August
2005 and Richard Forrest was placed with Aberdeen Forward to produce data for the end repor t
and to evaluate the wor k carried out to date. His main objectives were to analyse da ta on
performance and perception of the thermo compost bin and the green cone food digester; to
assess the contribution of home composting towards waste minimisation and recycling targets and
to assist in the production of a training manual for volunteers and local authority officers.
Richard identified that:
       There has been a reduction in the amount of biodegradable waste going to landfill by
          4,618 tonnes during the two years that the project has been r un.
       The number of people home composting has doubled as a result of this programme.
Aberdeen Forward believe that simply distributing bins to householders is not enough and has thus
set up a support network across the region, consisting of professionals and volunteers - all trained
to offer information, advice and help to anyone or any group interested in home composting which
will continue to function.


Aberdeen Watersports                                                                  Water Sports

Guy Gibson was placed with Aber deen Watersports to carry out a feasibility study of creating a
wreck in the North East with the intention of creating an artificial reef and developing the North
East‟s tourist potential for diving activities and tourism in general. His objectives were to
investigate and collect legal, environmental and planning information regar ding the creation of
wrecks in North Eastern coastal waters; to establish the economic value of scuba diving in the
North East; to gather information from customers and other businesses in the central belt on their
needs and what attracts them to the area for diving and finally to identify a number of different
possible wreck sites.
Guy sent out a questionnaire the results of which confirmed that t here is sufficient interest for
more diving in the North East. Preliminary, there have been two sites identified as possible sites for
creating a wreck, one at Rosehearty and another at Boddam. These are areas that will both require
further investigation in the form of local consultation on the proposed project as well as detailed
environmental impact assessments for the tw o sites. From the research carried out, Guy was able
to conclude that planning and legal aspects of creating a wreck will be the hardest and longest
stage in the process, especially obtaining the necessar y licences from gover ning bodies such as the
Fisheries Research Service.
Guy recommended that the project findings are presented to the local council and local
development agencies such as the East Grampian Coastal Partnership, so that topics such as
funding can be tackled early on in the process towards creating a wreck.
Aberdeen & Norther n Mart                                                            Auctioneer

Natasha Waleki was placed with Aberdeen & Nor thern Mart (ANM) to car ry out a waste
minimisation project. Her initial task was to establish the types of waste being produced by the site
and investigate the potential for recycling. While a large quantity of wood waste is generated, most
of it cannot be recycled as most of it is var nished or painted. The only option would be to chip it.
Natasha then looked at cooking oils produced by the caterers onsite. She researched the possibility
of turning it into bio diesel which can be used in most diesel engines without requiring any
modifications. ANM are still to look into whether or not this would be viable due to their current
use of red diesel on site.
Natasha set up paper, cardboard and can recycling across the site. Electrical goods (anything with
a plug or batter y) is now being separated and stored in a “hazardous waste” skip to comply with
new hazardous waste regulations w hich will come into force early next year.
Problems still exit within the waste management system at ANM, however these are near
impossible to overcome. For example, waste from the Sunday mar ket is so mixed and diverse that
the manpower and time needed to separate it all would not make it financially viable for ANM. T his
waste will therefore continue to be added to the general waste skips. Scrap metal will co ntinue to
be collected by the current scrap merchant.
Even thought no revenue has been made from any of the waste materials mentioned, the volume
of general waste has been reduced dramatically, w hich has therefore reduced disposal costs for


Aquascot Ltd                                                                          Fish Processor

Adam Porteous was placed with Aquascot to wor k on a water minimization project specifically to
save the company money by reducing output cost per kilo of product. As other processing
companies in the area had wor king boreholes, one of Adam‟s tasks was to look into the feasibility
of Aquascot procuring their own borehole. He looked into the legal and planning requirements for
the borehole and then produced a feasibility repor t for the company. Adam established that a
borehole would result in Aquascot reducing their water utility bill by at least half saving the
company between £25,000 and £30,000 annually. During the course of his project, Adam noted
several discrepancies with utility company bills, which resulted in the company receiving
£10,714.47 in rebates and refunds.
Arjo Wiggans                                                                               Paper Mill

Roderick Davies was placed with Arjo Wiggans to identify waste types quantities and disposal costs
and to assist the company with improvements in waste management. Following a full waste audit,
Roderick identified the sources of the waste produced, the majority of which was paper, was reel
ends, excess to order and transit damaged stock. Some of this was re -pulped but a lar ge
proportion was put in the skip and not recycled. In addition, the company had a lot of broken
pallets and cores. Roderick also noted considerable differences between shifts and machines and
between the two sites. By replicating many of the good practices such as stripping reel ends,
baling slab and reel ends and using stages instead of pallets for transport, the amount of paper,
pallets and cores wasted could be reduced. Selling the excess sheeted paper in the mill shop could
save the material and production costs of this paper while reducing disposal costs. In addition, the
development of a mill-wide code of practice has added consistency between shifts and machines.


BEP-NE                                                                    Environmental Assistance

Bee Ching Gan was placed with BEP- NE to explore the current state of the Nor th East Scotland‟s
recycling sector, the regions‟ potential to attain self-sufficiency in waste management and to lay a
useful foundation for fur ther work to improve its economic, environmental and social impacts. The
objectives were:
 To develop a database of recycling companies in North East Scotland.
 To present the geographical distribution of these companies according to the waste
     reprocessing streams;
 To explore opportunities and barriers, which includes an analysis of 3 core ar eas:
          o The sectors‟ existing and potential development;
          o The sectors‟ potential in developing job oppor tunities; and
          o The sectors‟ potential to assist in cost-benefits for all companies in the region.
 To give better insight into the cognition, intention, moti vation and orientation factors
     influencing the star t-up, growth and aspirations, or otherwise of these companies.
Ching‟s wor k identified that there are 37 companies handling 21 material streams. 65% of activities
are mere transfer of materials for reprocessing. Additionally, there are only 4 core material streams
i.e. metal (13%), wood (10%), plastic (9%), paper and cardboard (8%) and aluminium cans (8%).
78% of the sector comprises private companies, and 59% of the total companies are SMEs.
Motivations for starting these companies have been much influenced by (i) the desire to start their
own business, coupled with the recognition of an opportunity in recycling a particular waste
material and the belief that it would generate reasonable financial incentives (ii) the ability to
create a network of business associates from previous industrial experience (iii) unemployment
problems. – This implies the establishment and growth of a recycling sector which is not grounded
in an environmental mission. Barriers in clude- economies of scale, costs of transportation,
competing for customer awareness, employing committed staff, getting the relevant authorities to
understand and support their activities, perceived impracticality of regulations.
BEP-NE                                                                      Environmental Assistance

Heather Barry was placed with the BEP-NE to review the outcomes of the Business WINS
programme that ran in the North East from 2002 – 2004.This project was launched to encourage
business waste minimisation through local demonstration in the Nor th of Scotland. A report was
produced by the environmental consultant responsible for co-ordinating the NE Business WINS
project and Heather was required to develop the report into a series of case studies to be used as
local examples of business waste minimisation in different industry sectors. She developed a case
study template format, carried out a gap analysis for each Business WINS company and created
case study for each company based on the template.

The Business WINS project resulted in over £2.12 million realised in cost savings, equivalent to
over £500 per employee for all the companies that took par t.


Blinkbonny Quarry                                                                              Quarry

Blinkbonny Quarry currently produces a large quantity of rock dust as a by-product of quarrying
and sand production w hich costs a considerable amount of money each year in disposal costs.
Blinkbonny took Aimee Weather burn on a placement to carr y out a number of tasks including
researching the possible uses for the product, establish a product name, run trials on the product,
research potential legislation that may hinder the mar keting of the product, establish a marketing
plan for the product, and finally to establish the costs involved in setting up the new product.

Aimee established that the best use for the rock dust was as a soil improver and she labelled the
product „Biodust‟. Trials showed that rock dust remineralises soil and also helps the environment
through car bon sequestration. In terms of marketing the product, those on the small-scale end of
the spectrum, e.g. allotment owners/gardeners, are more likely to choose the product because of
its environmentally friendly properties. Since the Scottish Borders is an area abundant in
agricultural practices, it makes sense to use a natural product available to the local area. That way
transpor tation costs and fuel consumption could be reduced.

Now that a use has been found for the dust created through the quarry‟s new sand pr oduction
system, a saving of £4-6,000 a month has been obtained. In addition, a successful business has
been set up in its initial stages, w hich could, over a period of 3 years bring in a profit of £251,000
on the basis of 800 tons of Biodust being sold annually.
Brand Rex                                                                       Cable Manufacturer

Brand Rex design, manufacture and suppl y wiring and communication cables from their site in
Glenrothes. Daniel Ward was placed with Brand Rex to assist the company to reduce water
consumption on site and ensure that the company is compliant with existing and proposed
legislation. Daniel identified a number of potential areas where water savings could me made
including water continuously running when machiner y not in use, leakage from pipe wor k,
evaporation from cooling troughs and faulty valves in the extrusion lines resulting in problems with
the water recycling system.

Daniels recommendations have identified the potential to reduce water consumption by 48%
equating to almost £50,000.


Buccleuch Printers                                                                          Printing

James Gould was placed with Buccleuch Printers to assist the company to progress towards
ISO14001 accreditation. James‟ initial tasks were to carry out an initial environmental review to
establish potential improvements that the company should implement to reduce its environmental
impact. This identified cost savings of £14,000 through improved ener gy, water and waste

James‟ next task was to draw up a register of the company‟s environmental aspects, a register of
environmental legislation applicable to Buccleuch Printers and to assist the company in set ting
objectives and targets to improve.
Bur nhouse Industrial Estate                                                       Industrial Es tate

David Bruce was placed with the Bur nhouse Industrial Estate in Whitburn, West Lothian. The
Estate currently consists of 60 individual units, of whic h 50 are presently in use. They are used for
a range of purposes from storage to bakeries and engineering workshops. The project was a joint
venture between the tenants on the industrial estate and West Lothian Council. The study came
about from the realisation that the units within the industrial estate were using one or a
combination of, electricity, fuel oil and bottled propane gas to heat their units.
The project was based around the collection and collation of a range of data required by Fulcrum
Connections, the gas supply company. Fulcrum connection wanted to know what the peak load for
the industrial estate as a whole could be as well as the possible annual consumption of the estate,
in kW h. These values were estimated through the use of calculations based on actual energy
consumption and also through the use of heat loss calculations. These figures were relatively
accurate for those companies that used fuel oil and bottled propane gas for fuel, but were
inaccurate for those companies that used electricity as their main fuel. T he units that used
electricity as their main fuel were unable to provide information on how much of their ener gy use
was for heating and how much was for process and lighting etc. T his was overcome by the use of
heat loss calculation to provide information for how much energy the buildings would expect to be
using. These calculations were also used for those units that were vacant.
A combination of these figures was presented to Fulcr um Connections for consideration and quotes
for the work. Fulcr um Connections were given several different „scenarios‟ in order for the council
to have options when deciding which, if any, of the project scenario‟s would be suppor ted.
The project outlined the potential for savings of around £18, 000 a year for the current tenants and
up to £41,000 if all the units were occupied. This would be achieved solely through the installation
of mains gas to each unit. Guidelines were given in the report on how to achieve further savings
through more efficient practice. It was also found that savings could be made in the volume of
carbon dioxide emitted by the estate. Savings of 65.26 tonnes could be made with the present
number of tenants (37%) and if all the units were full, savings of up to 230.48 tonnes could be
made (50%).


City of Edinburgh Council                                                                  Council

A new £45 million Head Quarters building is currently being developed for City of Edinburgh
Council (CEC) on a brownfield site in the centre of Edinbur gh. The CEC will not ac tually own the
building but has set 74 Sustainable Development (SD) Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as a
condition of signing a 20-year tenancy agreement. T he aim is to ensure the new HQ becomes a
flagship, exemplar office in the field of sustainable design and constr uction. The S D KPIs cover a
range of issues including biodiversity, energy, waste, water, health and wellbeing, supply chain
management, pollution and many others that need to be met during all the phases of design,
construction, fit-out and occupation. To ensure the SD KPIs for the HQ are met, a monitoring
system is essential. As a result, Peter Bruce was placed with the CEC to establish a monitoring
system and undertake an audit of the KPIs that will aid all the stakeholders in the proje ct.

Peter has established a KPI monitoring database and populated this with a baseline dataset. T he
KPIs ensure that the sustainability goals for the HQ are more than tokenism. However periodic KPI
audits such as this one will be required to ensure continued success in managing sustainability.
With an established continuous monitoring system a range of environmental, social and economic
benefits can be realised.

This project is first large scale sustainable construction project to be undertaken by b oth CEC and
Miller Construction (UK) Ltd. As such the experience and knowledge accumulated over the course
of the HQ project will be very significant for future projects. The KPI monitoring system developed
here will provide a powerful and transferable tool to employ in future pr ojects.
CoorsTek                                                                      Industrial Ceramics

CoorsTek is an American based company manufacturing industrial ceramics. Jamie Duncan was
placed in the Glenrothes site w here basic ceramic substrates are processed into a wide variety of
precision products for the electronics industr y. Jamie‟s project aims were to identify measures to
reduce ener gy consumption and increase the staff awareness on site.
His project identified several recommendations including using the power fac tor equipment which
wasn‟t in use giving savings of over £1000 a month with out any capital investment. This also
reduced the carbon dioxide emissions by almost 20 tonnes per month. Replacing the lighting to
more efficient models would have a pay back time of less than 3 years. Installing voltage reduction
for lighting equipment w ould reduce the cost of lighting by up to 30%.
The company has the oppor tunity to save up to £40,000 per year by implementing the
recommendations. These include increasing staff awareness, purchasing power factor correction
equipment, converting electric water heaters to gas heaters, upgrading of lighting and installing
timer controls on the heating system.


Craig & Rose                                                             Paint Manufacturer

Craig & Rose manufacture paint for a range of clients including Homebase and B&Q from their site
in Dunfermline. David Anderson was placed with the company to look at opportunities for reducing
energy and water costs.

A design advice review was carried out which highlighted areas where savings could be made and
this report was used as the basis for David‟s project. The company has an energy management
system w hich controls the heating but it was not being used effectively and David‟s first task was
to re set the system. He then looked at the options for improving staff practice to reduce heat loss
through doors and windows. Finally, he investigated the options for alternative fuels, looking at
LPG and biomass. Finally, he recommended that the company remo ve one of the boilers in the
office area as heat load calculations show that the larger of the two boilers has the potential to
provide heat for the w hole area. For water conser vation, taps were replaced with percussion
models thus saving 30% on water consumption at sinks.
CRC Group                                                                 Digital Box Reconditioning

Alistair Bonar was placed with CRC Group in Glenrothes - a company that repairs digital set-top
boxes as well as other electronic equipment. The project aims were to reduce CRC‟ s impact on the
environment by improving energy efficiency and waste management. CRC almost exclusively rely
on electricity to provide the company‟s energy needs, and the project aimed to improve efficient
use of electricity as well as investigating the potential to produce electricity on-site from a
renewable energy resource such as wind power. Waste management was undergoing a review at
the time of the project, which provided an opportunity to assist in proposing and implementing
more environmentally frie ndly means of waste disposal.
An energy audit revealed where energy could be saved from both changes in procedure and the
installation of specialist equipment. As a result, three main recommendations emerged fr om the
project regar ding ener gy efficiency: 1) implement power-dow n of equipment during breaks and
weekends, 2) re-activate existing power-factor correction equipment, 3) install voltage control
devices into the lighting circuits.
Waste management was examined by quantifying some waste products such as polythene in order
to assess the potential for segregating and recycling certain types of waste. In addition, case
studies were examined, including visits to businesses that had implemented the sort of waste
management ideas that were being considered for CRC. The recommendations included baling
polythene for recycling, improving the existing recycling programme, and segregating cans and
plastic cups for recycling.
Overall, the project resulted in potential electricity savings of 9%, resulting in the pre vention of
35.2 tonnes of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere. The proposed changes to waste
management would divert material from landfill, including 244 m 3 of polythene per year. Overall,
these are results that both lessen CRC‟s impact on the enviro nment and save money on electricity
and waste disposal bills.


Edgar Allan                                                               Railway Crossing Systems

Callum Mowat was placed with Edgar Allan to assist the company in reducing energy consumption.
Specifically, Callum‟s main objectives were:
      To investigate the misuse of compressed air on site (particularly in the machine shop).
      To identify alternatives to the wasteful use of compressed air where it is used as a cleaning
         medium to remove metal shavings (swarf).

The most suitable alternative to the use of compressed air as a cleaning medium is to replace it
with a low pressure blowing system. Research led to a site visit and a quote followed shortly
afterwards for 6 low pressure blowing units. The air consumption in the machine sho p had to be
calculated, this figure was then turned into an estimated cost and then potential savings could be
estimated. The annual cost of the compressed air in the machine shop was estimated as £3,200.
The running costs of the new system were calculated as £1914 per annum. With the new
equipment costing £7,750, the payback on investment period was therefore 6 years.

The estimated savings are much lower than expected due to the particularly inefficient
compressors. The 25% reduction in compressed air consumption was not yielding benefits as
large as expected. However, if the compressors were to be fitted with Variable Speed Drives and
the low pressure blower system was purchased, savings in the region of £14,000 are expected.
Emtelle                                                                        Cable Manufacture

Brett Thompson was placed with Emtelle to reduce the amount of raw material used to
manufacture the pipe without affecting the quality and durability. Thickness of the piping was the
area with most likely savings and so it was the main focus of the project. Using the appropriate
standards, samples of various thicknesses and sizes were collected. They were then tested by
compression over a period of 10 days and the results were analysed on a spreadsheet. Further
tests were carried out as to what affected the strength and they focused on temperature, outside
diameter, length, time and colour.

The results of the tests showed that all the pipes in the wall specification were too strong and
therefore it was possible for the thickness to be reduced. From the results it was noticed that
many of the pipes that were tested were outside the wall specification and so a way of controlling
the process was investigated. The wall thickness was reduced in different products and these were
then tested and were found to pass. A trial was put together to implement a control chart into the
data collection process. This was very successful as it showed clear patterns and trends.

In conclusion the company can save 10% of its annual profit or 1% of their annual turnover which
equates to £107,000 per annum. In addition, 173 tonnes of raw material will be saved from the
changes and used to make more pipes making the company more efficient in the use of raw


Fjord Seafoods                                                                   Seafood Processor

Christopher Morrison was placed with Fjord Seafood to assist the company to monitor their waste,
energy and hygiene costs to establish if savings had been made as a result of wor king with the
Western Isles Business WINS initiative. His first task was to establish the individual costs. Taking
invoices from 2002 up to the second quarter of 2005 a picture was built up of the costs attached to
the three areas. A total was taken from all three sections to produce a grand total for each year. A
comparison was then produced in graph form to show how the company performed over the

Once all the totals were gathered it gave a clear picture of how the company performed over the
given period of time. The waste costs were dramatically reduced, and less waste was produced on
a year on year basis. This was expected as the company had put in force policies to reduce waste.
However the savings were substantial with a 33% drop in costs from 2002.

The energy total saw a small rise of 0.8%, this is a positive sign as consumption was steadily
decreasing, but cost was rising. As energy is perhaps the most expensive cost to the company, it is
important to monitor it on a regular basis to see where savings and cuts can be made.

Hygiene costs proved to be less predictable. The cost did not decrease year on year, but increased
one year and decreased the next. Although the cost of hygiene has risen 12% from 2002, rising
costs could attribute to this.

The overall picture taken from these invoices paints a healthy picture for the company in terms of
waste management and reducing costs. There are some areas which will be studied closer, mainly
the cost involved in hygiene and whether the energy bill may be reduced further, even with rising
Fyne Homes                                                                                 Builders

Margaret Ann Mackellar was placed with Fyne Homes to establish a sustainable approach to space
heating for community housing in Argyll. Fyne Homes provide a large number of new homes ever y
year in Argyll and have a significant opportunity to improve the quality of the housing stock. The
project was achieved through an assessment of:
     Insulation
     Heating and Ventilation
     Renewable Energy

It is hoped that developing a sustainable approach to space heating will provide significan t
reductions in fuel pover ty that can be experienced by tenants; reduced carbon emissions from
housing; less maintenance required providing potential savings for the housing developer; a
healthier environment for tenants to live in.
The first step in the project was to assess current housing developments by Fyne Homes. T he
company is very active in the development of sustainable housing and has implemented many
different practices. These include solar hot water panels; woodchip burner for heating and hot
water; and super insulation. Further developments using solar hot water are currently being
As well as assessing developments by Fyne Homes other sustainable housing developments
throughout the UK and Sweden were reviewed. The practices used in these different projects were
all considered.
The main insulation, heating and renewable energy methods put forward for use were:
      Super insulation to 350mm using either natural cellulose insulation or standard mineral
      Heating with woodchip boiler and Under floor heating
      Electricity generation through solar PV panels and wind tur bines

The outcome of the pr oject was the generation of three potential house models. These were:
1) The current standard development by Fyne Homes for comparative use
2) A super insulated house
3) A renewable energy house

With the assistance of a local architect and quantity sur veyor, comparative values including U
values, fuel costs and individual unit costs were calculated. T hese results will allow the company to
compare practices and establish the best plan for a specific development. It may not be possible
to follow an exact model due to the site specific nature of developments; however the information
provided will allow reasoned decision making and aid in implementi ng new initiatives.


Gemini Corrosion Services Ltd                                                                Coatings

Gemini Corrosion Services Ltd operates in the metal finishing industry involved in the preparation
and coating of offshore and construction equipment. Christianne Wotherspoon was placed with the
company to improve the environmental performance through implementing a better waste
management structure for their head office in Stonehaven. Christianne‟s initial task was the
identification of possible recyclable waste streams and then reviewed local waste reuse and
recycling services and options. She then provided the company with a series of recommendations
which included the setting up of recycling onsite and opportunities for bulk purchasing and storage
of paints, solvents and other coating materials to ensure that they were managed effectively.
Gemini Corrosion Services Ltd                                                                   Coatings

Scott McInnes was placed with Gemini Corrosion Services Ltd to accurately determine the transfer
efficiencies of paint being achieved by the company and to investigate opportunities for
improvement. The company was also keen to look at reducing the levels of VOC emissions.
Scott‟s first task, of accurately establishing current transfer efficiencies being achieved, was difficult
as much of the informati on needed to calculate the transfer efficiency was not recorded by the
company. To overcome this, Scott produced Transfer Efficiency Monitoring sheets, which the
painters filled out recording all of information required. Gemini is now reviewing their job s heets
and will incor porate transfer efficiency monitoring into them. Scott was then required to investigate
methods of improving transfer efficiency. He researched industry magazines and Inter net articles,
and scientific journals. In addition, he spoke wit h retailers, suppliers and industry spokespersons.
He then carried out a cost benefit analysis using the Net Present Value (NPV) investment appraisal
method. Scott‟s key findings were that:
                  Current transfer efficiencies are around 40%
                  Gemini should continue to monitor transfer efficiency
                  To improve transfer efficiency Gemini should invest in hot spraying equipment and
          air-assisted airless guns
                  To further reduce VOC emissions Gemini should also invest in automatic mixing
          equipment and a solvent recovery system
                  Applicators should be trained how to use all equipment effectively in order to
          maximise savings
                  After implementing recommendations the expected rise in transfer efficiencies is
          around 25%
                  Expected savings are £100,000 per annum with a payback period of 28 weeks
                  Expected reduction in VOC emissions is around 60%


Genesis Faraday                                                                           Biotechnology

Christopher Crayk was placed with Genesis Faraday to carry out a comprehensive literature review
on „The Relationships between the Genetic Variation in Efficiency of Production and the
Environmental footprint of UK Livestock‟ that:
     -   Demonstrates to stakeholders the positive role that animal breeding can have in meeting
         environmental objectives
     -   Encourages Governmental support of greater upta ke of improved breeding stock
     -   Identifies the traits of most relevance to environmental impact
     -   Identifies gaps in the knowledge that might be addressed through appropriate research
A substantial amount of time was spent reviewing relevant scientific literature. Due to a void of
research directly related to the breeding for environmental impact, attentions were directed toward
selection for efficiency with the objective of establishing a link that suggested increased
productivity can be met with positive environmental outcomes. This proved to be a more promising
approach and allowed for a considerable number of recommendations for further study to be put

In order to demonstrate positive environmental outcomes of selective breeding a mathematical
model was constr ucted. It was shown that as a result of a 27% and 43% reduction in the amount
of feed consumed by pigs and poultr y species since the 60‟s, an area equivalent to 142,182 football
pitches of environmental resources has been preserved.

It was concluded that the livestock industr y requires greater focus from an environmental
perspective. Sustainable livestock production is a challenge facing animal production systems
worldwide. It will be achievable by combining a number of diverse technologies one of which could
be selective breeding. More information is needed however on the potential role of genetic
improvement in addressing the environmental impact of livestock production.
Harveys Ltd                                                                                  Printer

Emma Corry was placed with Har veys Ltd to establish how current waste management practices
could be improved to realise cost savings and environmental benefits.          A detailed waste
minimisation review to identify where most waste occurs during the manufacturing process and the
costs associa ted with this waste was also carried out.

Presently all office and factor y waste (approximately 230 tonnes/year) goes to landfill and
following recent landfill tax increases is now costing about £13,000 to dispose of per year.
Proposals from 4 waste management companies (Eden, Shanks, Snowie and Hannay) w ho could
recycle plastics, cardboard, wooden pallets and dispose of general waste were appraised through
their cost, flexibility, image and practicalities. If material is to be recycled, waste management
companies require it to be segregated. T his would require a change in current w orking practices at
the site as waste is presently disposed of in mixed bins. Therefore during the project a trial
segregation of factory wastes was introduced.

As Har veys is a bespoke manufacture they produce a wide range of products and each is specific
to the customer therefore making it difficult to have a standard measurement of the amount of
waste produced. T herefore for the principle product types waste produced at each stage of
production was weighed and quantified to enable percentage losses to be calculated. The real
cost of waste (incorporating raw material, electricity, labour and material costs) was also

A number of recommendations emerged from t he waste audit which, if implemented, will result in
cost savings of approximately £16,500 per annum.


Hillcrest Housing Association                                                  Housing Association

Mark Weglarski was placed with Hillcrest Housing Association in Dundee to help implement
corporate and departmental sustainability action plans developed in 2004/2005. His first task was
to establish paper and cardboard recycling schemes at the offices. This has resulted in 3 of the 6
offices now recycling paper and car dboard. His next task was to review the procurement policy &
identify opportunities to increase the sustainability of procurement. A sustainable procurement
policy has now been drafted and approved; sustainable procurement checklist drafted; Fair Trade
beverages are now policy in all offices; plastic water cooler cups replaced with washable beakers;
recycled copier paper to be trialled; recycled stationar y and cleaning products being investigated.
Mark went on to review the transport policy to encourage more sustainable transport use. This has
resulted in Hillcrest reviewing staff mileage during wor k and considering it being applied as a KPI.
Staff travel sur veys have also been proposed. Mark‟s next task was to research the feasibility of
procuring 100% green electricity across the Hillcrest Group and he prepared a report for the
Assistant Director of Finance. This also looked at the possibility of piloting mini wind turbines to
power communal lighting in tenement blocks. This project also examined ways to reduce energy
costs to tenants and Mar k suggested providing a „sustainability advice column‟ in the tenant
newsletter focusing on issues such as ener gy efficiency. Mar k‟s last task was to promote staff
awareness of sustainability issues by writing articles for the staff newsletter, regular emails on
sustainability issues and presenting updates at management meetings.
Kanthal                                                               Heating Element Manufacturer

Katarzyna Kapowski was placed with Kanthal in Perth. The company manufacturers heating
elements and currently has accreditation to ISO9001 Quality Standard, ISO14001 Environmental
Management Standard and has a Health & Safety system compliant with ISO18001 standar d.
Katarzyna‟s project was to assist the company with integrating the three management syste ms
using the Q-Pulse programme. This required Katarzyna to learn how to operate the Q-Pulse
programme and then transfer all the documents and records relating to the 3 management
systems on to the programme and rationalise the procedures.

The integration of the three systems will reduce the level of administration in the updating and
auditing of the three systems.


Lauder College                                                                             Education

Lachlan MacLean was placed with Lauder College to analyse energy consumption to identify
potential cost savings through improved energy management.

Lachlan‟s first task was to carry out an energy audit of the college and gather bench mar king data.
He then carried out a survey of the whole college to gather details on the electrical equipment
within each of the rooms and the period of time that the equipment was left on. This information
then enabled him to calculate the current consumption and ensure that this was a fair
representation of the bills that the college had received. After establishing this information he then
calculated the percentage consumption of IT equipment, Lighting, Catering equipment, Air
conditioning and Vending machines to identify the major consumers. Due to the site infrastructure,
the electricity consumption is a large porti on of the College utility bills with most depar tments
containing IT equipment which accounts for approximately 45% of the bill with lighting at 22%.
Lachlan was then able to identify potential cost savings within these areas. In particular, he
investigated equipment that was left on over night and examined the feasibility of switching some
of it off, to reduce base rate costs.
Lightweight Medical                                                           Product Designers

Lauren McMullen was placed with Lightweight Medical to complete the first three stages of the
design process for a specified medical pr oduct. These three stages are;
[1] -Planning and Clarifying the Task
[2] -Research and DNA Capture
[3] -Conceptual Design
Although the details of the project cannot be discussed to protect the „Intellectual Proper ty‟, the
generic design process was employed and can be described in detail.
The first stage involved extensive projection and planning. Once the details of the project were
conveyed and documented, the placement was broken down, day by day, and week by week. At
this stage reviews and clinician meetings were scheduled to optimise the output of the project.
Once the strategic plans were in place, the project moved onto stage two. This is the research
body of the project. This stage involved book and web research, and more importantly first hand
interaction with the client, and actual obser vation of the problem. This allowed me to work through
the Standard Lightweight Medical Templates and in doing so confounded my knowledge and
understanding of the pr oblem and its peripherals. This study equipped me with a br oad enough
knowledge to move onto the third stage; conceptual design.
This is the par t of the project where all of the knowledge gained to date was used to brainstorm
possible solutions against the list of specific requirements and functions drawn up in the previous
phase. The successful concepts were then developed and wor ked into a presentation. T his was
communicated at a design evaluation session, w here feedback was given fr om colleagues to both
the presentation style, and its content.
A period of reflection followed, where small scale concept development and experimentation took
place in order to solidify each of the concepts and satisfy the queries and issues which were r aised
in the evaluation. These changes and updates were then reflected in the final presentation
This document will be used to present to the company w ho will potentially back the project. Its
main purpose is to prove that there are several viable solutions, which are both financially and
commercially possible and worthwhile.


Lightweight Medical                                                           Product Designers

Padraig Murphy was placed with Lightweight Medical to wor k on the development of a new product
for the neonatal care market. The product, called Neonatal Positioning Assist (NPA), has been
designed to address the problems surrounding the position change of critically ill premature
infants. Padraig‟s work focused on 4 main objectives:
     1. To establish the environmental impact of the design of the NPA
     2. To establish the clinical viability of the pr oduct
     3. To plan ahead for the commercialisation of the product
     4. To produce a functional prototype of the idea for further testing
The environmental impact of the product assessed using lifecycle analysis and Edwin Datecshefski‟s
„Ugly Points‟ method. The strengths and weaknesses of the product were investigated under the
following criteria:
Solar – the use of solar energy during manufacture and use
Cyclic – the degree t w hich the lifecycle of the product represents a closed loop system
Safety – of the product for the environment and the user
Efficient – whether the use of materials minimised waste and reduced power consumption during
manufacture, use and disposal
Social – the impact of the product on the people who interact with it, from those w ho source the
raw materials to those who are responsible for its disposal or recycling.
Using the results of this analysis, Padraig was able to produce a set of concepts w hich took a fresh
look at the design of the NPA and which incorporated significant improvements in terms of the
product‟s environmental sustainability.
Lochcarron of Scotland                                                                    Textiles

Lochcarron of Scotland is a leading textile weaver based in Galashiels. Yasmin Ishaq was placed
with the company to work on a project aimed at increasing the production efficiency of the factor y.
Yasmin collected a large quantity of data on each of the looms to establish the reason for the high
levels of dow ntime.

Yasmin highlighted four main sources of downtime while waiting for wor k: absenteeism, lack of
labour, wor k practice and weft collection. Each source was considered in turn and a solution to
each of them was proposed. T hese solutions included:
     training labour to be multi-skilled
     changing shifts
     implementing a Data Monitoring System
     alterations to the plant layout

These solutions, if implemented, should reduce the downtime while waiting for work and increase
the company‟s pr ofit level by approximately ₤6000 per week, ₤288,000 per annum.


Loretto School                                                                            School

Harriet White was placed with Loretto School in Musselburgh. The key objective of her project was
to study water use within the school, developing a Water Balance, and identify potential cost
savings. The project‟s scope was flexible so as to include any other key areas which could be
identified for improved efficiency.
Familiarisation of the site was the first and vital step as Loretto covers such a la r ge area. Water
and waste bills were analysed, as was a Car bon Trust energy audit. Annual water, waste and
energy expenditures were calculated. Research was conducted on how to decrease water use and
waste production using the internet, case studies of schools ( Eco Schools website), Carbon Trust
publications and advice from LEEP (Lothian & Edinbur gh Environmental Partnership). East Lothian
Council was contacted about recycling services. Companies were contacted for products which had
been recommended through this research, such as urinal sensors and percussion taps.
Specific first hand research was carried out around the school, measuring water consumption in
specific areas, such as urinals. Annual expenditures, potential cost savings (if recommendati ons,
such as installing urinal sensors, were implemented) and payback periods were then calculated in
these areas. Potential cost savings on waste disposal costs was estimated, and from this payback
periods were calculated.
The school‟s energy audit highli ghted that the swimming pool is a key energy consumer. Energy
being lost through evaporative losses was calculated (as the pool does not have a cover).
Numerous pool cover companies were contacted for quotes on pool covers and a payback period
was calculated on this potential investment.
Identified cost savings amounted to £27,300 (this included a potential reduction in annual water
bills of 19%, annual energy bills of around 4%, and annual waste bills of 18%). These savings
could all be made through implementing quite simple measures, such as installing urinal sensors
(potential annual cost savings of £5,500), redirecting „tested‟ water in the pool back into the
swimming pool (potential annual cost savings of £1800, with an initial investment of <£100!) ,
recycling school paper and installing a pool cover.
The following environmental benefits could be realised if the recommendations from this placement
are implemented: an annual reduction in water consumption of 5,777m 3; an annual reduction in
CO2 emissions of 67-80 tonnes/year; a marked reduction in waste going to landfill (estimated at
300 1100 easibins/year); and increased environmental awareness leading to further environmental
benefits both at Loretto and in pupils‟ and staff‟s individual lives.
Mansell                                                                               Construction

Mansell is one of UK‟s principal construction companies; providing refur bishment, fit-out, design
and build, joinery and contract decorating services. Lynne Donald was placed with the company to
review the waste management practice at their Aberdeen sites. The aim was to determine the
specific types, quantities, disposal destination and estimated costs of the different construction
waste materials arising in the region. This was achieved by analysing waste contracts, invoices,
consignment records and final disposal repor ts. This desktop review was suppor ted by a series of
on-site waste audits. The findings were brought together and compared with published industr y
standards and best practice statistics.
The review revealed that high levels of recyclable materials were being sent directly to landfill. It
was found from the waste auditing that significant quantities of packaging, scrap metal and wood
wastes were generated but disposed of in mixed skips as general waste. As a result, disposal was
being char ged at a substantially higher price than sorted wastes, which was set to escalate with
increasing landfill taxation. The potential for segregating these waste streams was determined and
will result in cost savings, reduced environmental impact and suppor t Mansell‟s commitment to ISO


Murdoch-Allan                                                                            Bakery

Murdoch Allan & Son is a family run bakery located in Hatton. Amy Smith was placed with the
company to carry out a waste minimisation project. The key aims were to identify and quantify the
main sources of waste materials; quantify the tr ue costs associated with the main waste streams;
supply the company with an accurate and detailed view of their waste streams and to identify and
implement opportunities for waste prevention/reduction.
An important goal was to identify where waste could be reduced as close to the source as possible.
There was a large volume of food waste arising through the manufacturing process and a large
volume of supplier packaging material all of which was disposed to landfill. It was calculated that
60 tonnes of general mixed waste was produced annually. A monitoring system was set up to
determine the quantities and types of wastes generated at the site over a period of 4 weeks. Food
wastes were separated from the main waste stream and weighed twice per day. Volume and
percentage content of general mixed waste was recorded twice per day for each general waste bin,
as well as the two onsite skips. Amy‟s recommendations were:
     1. Segregate and recycle cardboard and paper flour sacks from their general waste stream.
         By doing so 5.28 tonnes of cardboar d would be diverted from landfill per year.
     2. Segregate and recycle all plastics and metals from their general waste stream.
     3. Source quotes from commercial waste contractors w hen current waste contract is up for
     4. Look into the possibility of leasing 1100 litre bins from Aber deenshire Council, rather than
         onsite skips. It was calculated that nine 1100 litre bins can be rented and collected per
         week at an annual cost of £4,389.75. This results in a total annual saving of around
         £1000 per year if waste disposal is provided by Aber deenshire council.
North British Distiller y                                                              Distillery

North British Distiller y distils grain w hisky and malt whisky at their warehousing site in West
Lothian. Sophie Holroyde was placed with the company to provide additional environmental
information to SEPA required under the COMAH (Control of Major Accident Hazard) Regulations.
This primarily focused on the biological impacts of ethanol on the watercourses surrounding the
site if a major spillage of ethanol occurred due to a major accident scenario. The scenarios agreed
by SEPA were: a single cell fire, a single warehouse fire and multiple warehouse fires due to an
aircraft crash. All these scenarios would lead to a major release of whisky and therefore ethanol
from the casks which could potentially reach the watercourses.

The impacts on indicator species were assessed by looking at the effects of reduced dissolved
oxygen within a watercourse (due to the biodegradation of ethanol by micro-organisms utilising
oxygen). It was found that organisms such as fish and invertebrates could be adversely affected by
a fall in dissolved oxygen within the watercourses. If the levels fell below 5mg/l of dissolved
oxygen for a prolonged period of time, the fish may become more susceptible to other
environmental stresses. If the levels fall below 2mg/l for a prolonged period of time, it is likely to
cause some fish and inver tebrates to die.


North British Distiller y                                                              Distillery

Jamie Crawford was placed with North British Distillery to help the company achieve compliance to
the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH) Regulations. Specifically, he was required to
assess the impacts of a spillage of whisky (ethanol) into the surrounding aquatic environment. T his
involved a Source-Pathway-Receptor linkage assessment, an ecological modelling phase and the
identification of the predicted impacts on the water courses. In addition, to determine whether a
pollution incident would constitute a Major Accident to the Environment (MATTE).

Jamie proposed a model for use by SEPA that predicts impacts which are deemed as unrealistic.
The model showed that or ganic pollution with ethanol would result in lowered Dissolved Oxygen
content of the watercourse. The likely impacts would include significant fish kill over a 10km area
of the Brox Bur n and the River Almond. However, the impacts are unlikely to last beyond 3 years
as affected habitats would quickly be recolonised by or ganisms from upstream. As a result, any
major spillage would be unlikely to cause a MATTE.
Oatridge College                                                                           College

Eimear Gormally was placed with Oatridge College to provide a detailed breakdown of all energy
consumption throughout the college and calculation of costs for individual buildings and
equipment; identification of equipment /changes in practice or controls that will save energy costs ;
quantification of costs/ benefits of improvement; a written and communicated Ener gy Strategy with
targets, tasks and a time-scale agreed with management and staff

Key recommendations were:
    Replacement of 60W tungsten lamps (530) in the residences with 11W compact
       fluorescent lamps- the annual cost savings approximately £3,050, an installation cost of
       £2,630 with a payback of approx 0.84 years
    Replacement of all oil-fired space heaters in the workshops with gas-fired radiant heaters-
       the annual savings of £16,700, an installation cost of £39,000 with a payback of approx.
       2.4 years.
    Replacement of the electric kitchen fryer with a gas fryer: annual savings of £490, an
       installation cost of £1,600 and payback of approx. 3.3 years.


Octagon (Scotland) Ltd                                             Sustainable Building Research

Octagon (Scotland) Ltd creates innovative product systems for the building industr y. The company
is currently under taking a Feasibility Study of an innovative modular construction system (ReBUS)
that may be manufactured from sustainable sources of second-grade timber or reclaimed wood to
provide a technologically advanced yet inexpensive construction medium. The system is designed
to comply with the requirements of the local authorities and with the recommendations of
organisations such as the Forestry Stewardship Council. Yang Yang was placed with the company
to study the structural behaviour of the building elements of ReBUS. This will help to obtain the
required certification, so that the system can be used for engineered applications for domestic and
other buildings under the new building legislation.
In or der to determine the material property and confirm the structure behaviour, a series of lab
tests were conducted using the INSTRON 100 in the Geotechnical Laborator y at the University of
The structure‟s behaviour of the building elements of ReBUS was studied starting from a simple
200x200 OSB block unit. The deflection, elastic/plastic strain and stresses corresponding to the first
and third direction of the top surface of the particular 200x200 block unit under the load were
recorded. T he material proper ties were calculated and compared to the numerical model. After the
numerical model was identified, the OSB block units were expanded and the stress and strain of
the expanded model were numerically estimated using ABAQUS 6.1.
This study helps to determine the structural qualities of the modular constr uction system. This
means that ReBUS elements can be improved and used for engineered applications and that they
will comply with the requirements for domestic and other buildings under the new building
Octagon (Scotland) Ltd                                            Sustainable Building Research

Keith Lauder was also placed with Octagon (Scotland) Ltd. The aim of his project was to create
generic tools which could be used in place of hand calculations to find the snow and wind loading
that w ould be placed upon a building and the moisture vapour flow across the walls of a building
made using the ReBUS system.

His objectives were to:
     To understand EN1991-1-3 Snow loads and EN1991-1-4 Wind loads from which the snow
        and wind loading calculations are derived
     Use excel to write spreadsheets which would cover as wide a selection of building
        dimensions as possible for which loadings on the buildings could be calculated
     Gather information of material thermal and moisture transfer proper ties to be used in the
        moisture transfer spreadsheet. Understand EN ISO 13788:2001
     Write spreadsheets w hich will calculate the expected transfer of moisture through the
        layers of a building wall


Orkney Business WINS                                                           Waste Minimisation Club

Following on from the work of an EPP student in 2004, Eric Baster worked with 3 Orkney based
businesses via the Business WINS programme: Crantit Dairy, Or kney Aggregates and Orkney Meat.
The results were:
Crant it Dairy
1. Compliance to regulations:
      The next step towards installing the treatment system for effluent has been initiated, and
         the remaining steps identified.
      The form to register the spreading to land of dair y effluent is complete, and the application
         will be ready for processing by SEPA as soon as sample analysis results are received.
2. The potential savings from re-using cooling water will be highlighted to the company.

Or kney Aggregates
1. The disposal of potentially harmful waste materials.
     The company has used Eric‟s research to arrange the disposal of its waste oil
     Eric identified and costed ways of disposing of asbestos and contaminated soil, helping the
         company to put in an accurate bid for a demolition contract
2. Eric highlighted minimum requirements for insulation used in the alternative building method the
company intends to push, and identified an environmental benefit the company could use to
promote it.
3. Potential savings from installing a rainwater collection system were calculated, and some
surrounding issues uncovered.

Or kney Meat
1. The application to register the spreading of Orkney Meat‟s low risk waste to land has been
completed and is being considered by SEPA.
2. The data I gathered showed a significant reduction in water usage, electricity usage, and waste
costs throughout the company‟s participation in the Business WINS initiative. The data is being
used by the company to consider an alternative disposal route for par t of their waste.
3. Potential savings from rainwater collection system were calculated.
Renewable Devices                                                              Renewable Energy

Renewable Devices is a technology company based in Midlothian w hich develops and manufactures
small scale wind turbines. The company has developed the Swift Rooftop Wind Energy System™,
the world‟s first silent, building-mountable wind turbine. The rooftop Wind Energy System has been
designed to be environmentally sustainable and the product produces more energy in its lifetime
than is incorporated in the materials and processes used to manufacture it - it is therefore “harm
neutral”. On average, a single rooftop system installed in the UK will save 1.6 Tonnes of CO2 per
annum which contributes to emissions reduction in line with recent government energy policy
stating that UK car bon dioxide emissions be reduced by 60% by 2050.

Stuart Hamilton was placed with the company to reduce the physical and environmental impacts of
the components used in the turbine‟s manufacture. Specifically, Stuart examined the potential for
reducing aluminium costs in the product without affecting the overall performance of the turbine.


Rodger of Earlston                                                            Civil Engineering

Ioanna Papadopoulos was placed with Rodger of Earlsto n to assist the company in developing an
Environmental Management System to ISO14001 standard.

Her first objectives were to carr y out the initial environmental review and write the Environmental
Policy. An assessment of the significant environmental aspects and impacts of the company‟s
activities, products and services was then carried out and the information recorded. Once these
had been prioritised, objectives and targets were drawn up based on the strength of the issues
identified in the initial environmental review. Ioanna then drew up a register of legislation
containing all environmental legislation that currently applies to the company.
Samuel Bruce Ltd                                                                       Office Furniture

Samuel Bruce Ltd is a manufacturer and supplier of quality office furnitur e and fittings. The
company is currently developing an Environmental Management System to comply with the
ISO14001 standard.

David Pearson was placed with the company to assist in the development of the ISO14001 System
with specific responsibility for the development and delivery of staff training. Due to the diversity of
staff from office based to tradesman, David was required to tailor the training materials to suit all
levels. In addition, David assisted with the identification of objectives and tar gets.


St Andrews Bay Hotel                                                                 Hotel & Spa

Aidan Gilroy was placed with the St Andrews Bay Hotel to assist the hotel in achieving an
accreditation to the Green Tourism Business Scheme (GT BS). Aidan‟s initial task was to carry out a
GT BS gap analysis of the hotel to establish areas that needed to be improved upon to gain
accreditation. Aidan then developed and delivered training to all the hotel staff and for set up a
„Green Team‟ to steer the GTBS development. Aidan also under took a waste audit to identify areas
for further improvement in the hotel‟s waste management. He recommended that the hotel star t
using re-fillable bottles throughout the hotel to reduce the amount of waste glass generated by the
hotel. T his initiative would save the hotel approximately £17,000 per year.

In addition, Aidan arranged for a Carbon Trust energy audit to be carried out. This recommended
installing a pool cover in the spa and installing doors to separate the swimming pool from the gym
to control the temperatures adequately in each area. The final recommendation was to install a
CHP unit which the hotel intends to implement.

Aidan‟s project resulted in the Hotel achieving a Silver GT BS award. Total identified savings were
£117,000 and 657 tonnes of carbon dioxide.
Stirling Council                                                                            Council

Sara Stewart was placed with Stirling Council to find out the reasons for people putting non green
waste in their domestic brown bins. Her keys tasks were therefore to sur vey residents to find out
reasons for contamination; draw conclusions from the sur vey results and to make
recommendations as to how to improve the situation.
The following conclusions were drawn:
     People‟s knowledge of what exactly can go in their Brown Bin is low
     Public knowledge of the overall composting scheme is fairly low
     The publications produced on the topic have not reached enough people, or they are not
     People do claim to care about recycling
     People don‟t feel the scheme is too much bother
     The majority of people felt that they did not have enough room in their Grey bins,
         especially those with more than 3 in their household.
     People admitted that when they had now here to put their household waste they
         sometimes hid it in the Brown bin.
     The majority of people feel that a suitable response to the contamination issue would be to
         have more Grey bin collections,
     Many respondents also felt that it would be beneficial to have someone visiting houses to
         explain to people how and why to use the scheme

Because of the qualitative nature of this study there is no single answer to the issue however I felt
the following recommendations may be of assistance in overcoming the contamination issue:
 Create Target Groups to make home visits and offer advice on the Scheme (within this improve
    peoples knowledge of what should go in the brown bin)
 Make the importance of the scheme public knowledge
 Carry out a more wide scale survey to confirm whether families up to 6 can really manage the


SWAG                                                                                Waste Awareness

The Scottish Waste Awareness Group (SWAG) was set up in 2000, with the remit of changing
public attitudes and behaviour towards domestic waste. The aim of this group is to develop and
suppor t a national campaigning programme called Waste Aware Scotland to raise awareness of,
and change attitudes and behaviour to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle in parallel with the
implementation phase of the National Waste Plan for Scotland.

Willem Baar tman was placed with SWAG to:
 Evaluate the current web site for ease of use and information content;
 Add new information that could be used on the updated version;
 Develop new ideas that could be integrated into the web site.

The project involved a critique of the www.wasteawarescotland.org.uk web site and the Sort It
tool. T he web site in its current state contained a large amount of information, but the deliver y and
quality of information were not as efficient and effective as planned. The projects primar y focus
was the further development of the Sort It Tool and the data contained therein.
The design of the web site and Sort It tool were evaluated and examples of successful web sites
were used to determine the most effective combinations that would assist the
www.wasteawarescotland.org.uk site. Information had to be delivered in a consistent way, linking
the different levels, but without confusing the reader.
A group of Respondents were as ked to evaluate the Sort It tool, in relation to its design, ease of
use and the relevance of information contained and their views were used to determine the validity
of the findings. The findings of this investigation were summarised within the project r eport and a
series of recommendations were developed.
Taypack Potatoes Ltd                                                                Potato Packing

Taypack Potatoes Ltd is based in Inchture in Per thshire. The company packs and supplies fresh
potatoes for the UK, Scandinavian and European markets. The company achieved ISO14001
certification in March 2005.

Kristopher More was placed with the company to assist with the objectives and targets for
2005/06. One of the objectives set by the company was to reduce energy consumption at the site.
Kristopher carried out a full ener gy review of the site and established that the compressor was
inefficient and the company could reduce energy and save money by replacing it with a more
efficient model. Kristopher gathered quotes and arranged for the compressor to be replaced. T he
new compressor will save the company £3,500 in energy per year.


Technip Offshore UK                                                         Offshore Engineering

Sarah Thompson was placed with Technip to review the progress of the company‟s Waste
Management Strategy 2005. This involved reviewing monthly waste disposal statistics and
identifying major waste streams from both the office and the yar d with regard to significant costs
and tonnage. Additionally the project sought to investigate the curren t contractual arrangements to
highlight any problems and recommend oppor tunities for improvement. Sarah made the following
recommendations at the end of her placement:
     Review of the company‟s contract with the waste contractor resulted in the removal of
         poorly used oily waste bins cost savings £400 per month annual saving of £7,200.
     An amendment of the recycling centre to accommodate more plastics and paper cups and
         less materials such as printer cartridges resulting in fewer pick ups and corresponding
         labour costs, cost savings approximately £140 per month annual saving of £1,680. Total
     Confidential awareness campaign, stricter confidential material rules. Potential removal of
         the industrial shredding facility replaced by heavy duty depar tment shre dders estimated
         cost saving in year one £9,800 thereafter £18,000 per annum.
     Paper reduction initiatives –
             o refillable cartridges £10,000 cost saving per annum
             o double sided printing / copying as default to all print stations £14,000
             o total potential cost / savings on „true‟ paper costs £42,000 per annum.
The total potential cost savings resulting from Sarah‟s project were £50,016 per annum.
The Bonham Hotel                                                                           Hotel

Jo Brooks was placed with The Bonham Hotel to assess the current environmental per formance of
the hotel in relation to the criteria laid out by the Green Tourism Business Scheme in order to raise
their award level from silver to gold.

She established that there are substantial environmental and cost savings that can be implemented
in the hotel. Specifically, savings of:
      1000m³ of water & £1700/yr through flush volume reduction and tap flow restrictors
      10,000kWh energy & £450/yr by changing to more efficient fluorescent light tubes.
      Diversion 40tonnes of waste from landfill/yr through a new recycling scheme, this should
         be started back of house but rolled out to the guest rooms as soon as possible to maximise
         recycling potential.
Jo has also designed and delivered environmental training documentation for staff training and
recommends that the hotel give some of this training as part of the new staff induction. This will
be extended into a company green team that regularly meets to discuss environmental issues in
the hotel.


TRAK Microwave                                                             Microwave Components

Trak Microwave Ltd is a manufacturing company producing microwave, RF and sub system
components for a number of commercial and gover nment uses. Ewan Campbell was placed with
the company to assist them to gain compliance with the Restriction of the Use of Certain
Hazardous Substances in Electronic and Electrical Equipment Directive (RoHS), which comes into
force on the 1st of July 2006. This directive requires that specific levels of hazardous materials are
adhered to within all electric and electronic equipment. TRAK has identified these lead within its
products and Ewan‟s task was to help find suitable alter natives to lead solder to ensure they
remain compliant. T his meant a new solder, w hich has comparable or better characteristics to the
current solders used in the company‟s processes. The new solders must also be compatible with
current processes on the production line and not change these processes to an overtly high
degree. In order to establish a suitable alter native, Ewan was required to test alternative so lders.
External research on the possible replacement of the current solder was evaluated and results from
this were to be compared with TRAK‟s findings. Due to the difference in solder characteristics and
how alternative solders interacted with products, some new production processes had to be
implemented and tested for viability.
Through a process of testing it has been identified that the company can achieve the same
standards and similar products as before, w hile using the alternate soldering systems. There is
some compatibility issues that will need to be addressed before the process can be fully
implemented on the production line but TRAK are a step closer to achieving full compliance before
the deadline.
Whiteside Industrial Estate                                                        Industrial Estate

Alistair Trail was placed with West Lothian Council's Economic Development Service to conduct a
project at Whiteside Industrial Estate. The Estate is located near Bathgate, West Lothian and has
40 small business units housing a wide variety of small and medium sized businesses. During the
project 28 businesses were occupying the estate with 21 co-operating with the project.

The main purpose of the project was to assist companies realise the business benefits that can be
achieved through improved waste management. T his involved auditing individual businesses to
establish raw material inputs / outputs and wastes and the results were then compiled for the
whole site. Oppor tunities to minimise waste production, increase waste recycling and possibly
exchange resources for re-use was investigated. The feasibility of establishing a communal waste
segregation site for collection of different materials for recycling was also investigated.

The 21 businesses that co-operated with the project were contacted to find out what wastes they
produce. Waste was quantified and current waste management methods investigated. It was
estimated that annual waste production on the site was 142 Tonnes, costing the companies
£17,500 per year. Waste comprises mainly cardboar d, synthetic material, timber and wooden doors
although there were smaller quantities of paper, pallets and plastic packaging. The average annual
cost was £875 per business.

During the project it was possible to arrange collection of cardboard, paper, synthetic material, oil,
doors, wood shavings and plastic packaging for recycling. After implementing this waste
minimisation procedure a large proportion of waste has been diver ted from Landfill. Prior to the
project, Whiteside Industrial Estate were disposing of approximately 112 tonnes per year of waste
to Landfill. After the project that amount has reduced to approximately 14.5 tonnes per year. This
means that 97.5 tonnes per year has been diver ted from Landfill. The total savings for Whiteside
Industrial Es tate is £5,300 per year, which represents a 30% reduction in waste costs.


Wood Group                                                             Pressure Control Equipment

Wood Group manufactures equipment w hich controls pressure when drilling for oil and gas. The
company is keen to gain accreditation to ISO14001 and Dermott Keith was placed with the
company to carry out the initial stages of the development of an Environmental Management
System to ISO14001 standar d. His first objective was to carry out an environmental review of both
sites. An assessment of the significant environmental aspects and impacts of the company‟s
activities, products and services was then carried out and the information recor ded. Dermott then
drew up a register of legislation containing all environmental legislation that currently applies and
further legislation that may apply should changes occur on site.

In addition, Dermott identified areas of potential improvement in waste management. Specifically
he identified opportunities for the segregation of paper, cardboard and wood for recycling. He also
identified potential savings in gas and electricity use on site which will result in reduced carbon
dioxide emissions.
 Wright & McLennan                                                           Fencing Manufacturer

 Matt Rogers was placed with Wright & McLennan to assist the company with the designs of a new
 build w orkshop on the existing site. The main project objectives were:
       To take the management ideas and formulate them into a tangible design for the overall
          site and the new building
       To find cost efficient ways of achieving the new build
       Source all energy efficient services for the new building
       Make contact with ser vice suppliers and locate best cost option
       List all actions and contacts to keep project momentum, and to provide the directors with a
          clear route to keep the new build on schedule following this project.


 XM Services                                                                 Waste Water Treatment

Xm Services Ltd is a wholly ow ned subsidiar y of Michelin Tyres Plc, based in Dundee, providing turn
key wastewater solutions and standalone equipment to the manufacturing sector. Hannah Cessford
was placed with the company to construct a sales agent manual and create a company website with
the purpose of increasing Xm Services‟ market share in wastewater treatmen ts. Creating the manual
involved the pooling of product and process information in a cohesive and eloquent manner. The
manual is intended for the education of sales agents; who come from varying backgrounds and do
not necessarily have comprehensive knowledge of the wastewater mar ket. The manual guides them
through the options available at each stage of the treatment processes and also the equipment
which Xm Services can supply. The manual is readily updateable as new technologies come to the
fore and Xm Services extends its capability. For companies looking to treat their effluent the web is
routinely the first resort. Consequently, it is vital that the Xm Services‟ website attracts customers
from their first foyer into the market. In conj unction with the above activities and with the assistance
of local designers the content available to interested parties via the company literature was
expanded. Additionally, the process of budgeting contract proposals was streamlined by the
generation of an estimating database from previous tenders.
Participants Comments

Host companies

“Very competent in prioritising his work, expectations were exceeded and in fact further tasks were
carried out.”
Margaret Lessels, CRC Group

“Jamie was industrious and disciplined in his approach to this survey and I would recommend him
as a person and as a student for further employment.”
Leo McCormick, CoorsTek

“She has shown intellect as well as proving she can be self motivated and would not hesitate to
give her a reference for any job should she require it.”.
Paul Allan, Mur doch Allan

“Although our first time in welcoming a STEP student and Natasha demonstrated that the
contribution of STEP students can be significant regardless of inexperience of the industry to begin
William Wyness, Aberdeen & Nor thern Marts

“Mark was an excellent student and made a huge difference in implementing Hillcrest‟s
sustainability policies. His performance was excellent throughout the placement.”
Sandra Lanni, Hillcrest Housing Association

“Ewan has worked hard to complete a challenging project. He has done well to understand new
processes and concepts and has been able to complete all the tasks set. His work will now be used
to move the company forward to full compliance with RoHS.”
Margaret Dobson, TRAK Microwave


“I feel this placement has perfectly bridged the gap between university and the workplace. It has
allowed me to develop many skills and attributes which I can now bring forward into any job.”
Aidan Gilroy, St Andrews Bay Hotel

“Throughout the placement I have not only gained a valuable insight into the day to day running of
a business, but I have worked on my communication and social skills by communicating daily with
personnel and gathering information from various different sources.”
Amy Smith, Murdoch Allan

“My placement was such a valuable tool in helping towards my career choice, it has given me
hands on industry experience which no amount of university teaching can provide.”
Natasha Waleki, Aber deen & Nor thern Marts

“This placement afforded me the opportunity to experience practical environmental management in
a multi-disciplinary setting.”
Sarah Thompson, Technip Offshore UK

“Working at Hillcrest increased my appreciation of the practical constraints and opportunities
inherent in operationalising sustainability policies within an organisation.”
Mark Weglarski, Hillcrest Housing Association

“I gained a great deal from this placement; I have seen how a manufacturing company deals with
impending legislation and have seen the effects of environmental legislation from a new
Ewan Campbell, TRAK Microwave

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