TR Also Known as “The Trustbuster” President McKinley Assassinated • In 1901, only a few months after being inaugurated president for a second time, McKinley was fatally shot by an anarchist • His vice President Teddy Roosevelt takes over. • Roosevelt is best known for being a war hero from the Spanish American War Conspiracy Theory You don’t need to write this!!! • 1840 William Henry Harrison (died in office) • 1860 Abe Lincoln (Assassinated) • 1880 James Garfield (assassinated less then 6 months after taking office by someone who wanted a job) • 1900 McKinley (assassinated) • 1920 Warren Harding (died in office) • 1940 Franklin Roosevelt (died in office) • 1960 John F. Kennedy (assassinated) • 1980 Ronald Reagan (assassination attempt – Shot and wounded) • 2000 George W. Bush ?????? TR’s Big Stick Policy • Most famous quote: “Speak softly and carry a big stick” • The “big stick” referred to Roosevelt’s aggressive foreign policy. • TR’s main goal was to build the US into a world power. • He had many supporters, however many critics as well. Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick! Panama Canal • Panama was controlled by Colombia, who refused to let the United States build the Canal. • TR supported a revolt by Panamanians for their independence. This revolt was successful in 1903. • One of the first things the newly independent country of Panama did was grant the United States permission to build the canal. Building the Canal • It began in 1904. It was completed in 1914 • Hundreds of laborers lost their lives in the effort. • Although most Americans approved of TR taking the Canal zone from Columbia, some were angry (especially those living Latin America), so we did agree to pay Columbia $25 million in 1921 for the Canal zone. Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904) The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power . Results of the Corollary • The United States sent gunboats to a Latin American country that was delinquent in paying its debts. U.S. sailors and marines would then occupy the country’s major ports until European debts were satisfied. • We were doing this to “help” the Latin American countries. • The long term result was poor U.S. relations with the entire region of Latin America. TR and Japan • Japan was angry over a California law that required Japanese children living in California to attend segregated schools. • This was considered a national insult to Japan • TR arranges a “gentlemen’s agreement” where the Japanese agree to restrict the emigration of Japanese workers in the US. • In return, TR gets Cal. to repeal its racist laws. The Great White Fleet • TR demonstrated US naval power by sending our navy (the Great White Fleet) on a world tour (1907-1909) including a stop in Japan to show off our naval power. • TR believed showing the world our naval power (his “big stick”) no one would mess with us. The Great White Fleet: 1907 Peace • TR’s main goal with his “big stick” policy was to maintain peace. • He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for working to end many conflicts including a war between Russia and Japan. Constable of the World Bully, Hero, or a little of both? (You need at least three facts to back up your opinion) • TR building the Panama Canal while tossing dirt on Columbia. The Progressive Movement • TR is thought of as the leader of the Progressive Movement. • Main goals of the Progressives: Help the poor Improve the environment TR’s Square Deal • Unlike most presidents before him, TR did not take the side of Big Business (Laissez Faire), but instead wanted a “Square deal” that was fair for both sides. • First crisis came between coal miners on strike in 1902. • Many Americans feared without coal, they would freeze during the winter. TR Gets Involved • He calls the union leader and the coal mine owners to the White House to try and solve the problem. • The owners refuse to compromise, so TR gets annoyed and threatens to take over the mines with federal troops. • The owners finally agree to accept a 10 percent wage increase and a nine hour day to the miners. • Most Americans approved on TR’s handling of the situation. The Trustbuster • TR became the first President who actually tried to enforce the Sherman Anti- Trust Act passed in 1890. • He broke up trusts in the railroad, and oil industry. • He did not think all trusts were bad, just ones he felt harmed the public and did not allow competition. Muckrakers • Writers who wrote about problems in Society. The most famous muckraker book of this time was “The Jungle” which described the horrors of the meat packing industry. Reaction to The Jungle • The Pure Food and Drug Act – Forbade the manufacture, sale, and transportation of mislabeled food and drugs • The Meat Inspection Act – Federal inspectors visit meatpacking plants to ensure that they met minimum standards of sanitation. TR the Environmentalist • Set aside 150 million acres of federal land that could not be sold to private interests • Held the first ever Conservation conference at the White House in 1908. • The teddy bear is named for TR, who is thought of as the first ever environmental president. TR and Race Relations • TR is the first president to invite an African American into the White House in 1901, when Booker T. Washington was invited for a dinner. • The Southern newspapers reacted with anger and racism towards both Washington and TR. • TR is shocked that it is so controversial. Rank the following in order of importance/Justify • The Panama Canal • The Roosevelt Corollary • The Big Stick policy • Nobel Peace Prize • Square Deal • The Impact of the Jungle • TR the Trustbuster • TR the environmentalist • TR inviting Booker T. Washington to the White House.