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					• The people of the Mi'kmaq people have lived in
  what is now Nova Scotia and the Maritimes for
  hundreds of years.

• They have generally expressed their culture and
  worldviews in stories and traditions.

• We are able to experience and understand
  aspects of Mi'kmaq traditions and culture
  through these stories and through the art they
  have created.
• The Mi'kmaq people for hundreds of years have
  created enduring art.

• Some of this art has been carved into the rocks of
  the province.

• These rock pictures, or petroglyphs, record their
  lives and the things they saw around them.
 Petroglyphs are sacred to the Mi'kmaq
 people. They are seen as traces from the
 past; the carvings have stories to tell new
  generations , which offers insights and
                 inspiration.

Petroglyphs are found along shores of soft,
smooth slate and on places like the Bedford
  Barrens, an outcropping of rock along a
      ledge above the Bedford Basin.
• Many petroglyphs can be found along the
  rocky shores of the lakes and rivers of
  Kejimkujik National Park, the Medway
  River and McGowan Lake, in southwest
  Nova Scotia.
 Mi'kmaq Petroglyphs
Kejimkujik National Park




 Maitland Bridge,
 Annapolis County
• Petroglyphs have also been created at
  several other locations around the
  province.

• However, the smooth, fine-grained slates
  found in the Kejimkujik area are the best
  known, and have made an excellent
  surface for recording images.

• The lines were cut, scratched, or pecked
  using stone or metal tools.
• The Mi'kmaq recorded images of
  people, animals, hunting, fishing,
  and the decorative motifs women
  sewed or painted on clothing.

• With the arrival of the Europeans, the lives
  of the Mi'kmaq changed in new ways.
  Evidence of this change includes images of
  sailing ships, men hunting with muskets,
  soldiers, Christian altars and churches, and
  small items like coins and jack-knives.
• George Creed, the postmaster at South
  Rawdon in central Nova Scotia, made a
  series of tracings of the Mi'kmaq
  petroglyphs at Kejimkujik and McGowan
  Lake in 1887 and 1888.

• Creed's tracings form the earliest attempt
  to document the rock art in the province is
  an important record of this culture.
• George Creed grouped his
petroglyph tracings into broad
                                                      Couple in
 categories depending on the
                                                     ceremonial
 subject: ships, people, canoes,
                                                        dress
          animals, etc.

  • In doing this he broke up
  groupings and made separate
 tracings of individual images. It
 is impossible to tell from Creed's
  tracings what the context was,      Hand with
                                        Peaked
     or the relationships of the
                                       Cap and
individual images to each other.      European-
                                      style felted
                                      Beaver fur
                                        hat on
                                        palm
• Through the discovery of
     the the petroglyphs
  throughout the province,
    one thing is quite clear,
       that it is almost
   impossible to accurately
       date most of the
         petroglyphs.

• Images of sailing ships,
  hunters with guns and
 European-style dwellings
 are clearly more recent.
• A few petroglyphs have the year of
  their creation carved into the rock
 next to them, either from the 1800s or
            the early 1900s.
• Constantly exposed to weather, many
  petroglyphs have become worn over time.

• In numerous cases, vandals have defaced
  the images. In some cases, Creed's tracings
  are now the only record that the image
  ever existed.
   Bedrock with Petroglyphs
  The soft bedrock here is being
  slowly washed away, thus the
 petroglyph images will some day
   be no longer visible. Vandals
   have scrawled graffiti on the
rocks, but the original petroglyphs
 still remain. Rangers now patrol
   these areas to protect these
          fragile drawings.
• It is very difficult to
   accurately record        • Most recordings have
       petroglyphs.           been done with either
                                    tracing the
                                 petroglyphs onto
• The shallow cuts and            paper or other
   lines that make up            materials, or by
    the image - in the         taking photographs.
   quartzite and slate
 stone favoured by the
     artists - are often    • Often some technique
   eroded by years of         was used to prepare
      water, ice and           the petroglyphs to
  weather wearing the         make the lines more
     edges down and               distinct before
   making the images                recording.
        less distinct.
• Tracings have the advantage that they are
  exactly the same size as the petroglyphs.

• Photographs of petroglyphs can be misleading if
  a scale is not included in the photo so that the
  size can be accurately shown.

• Casting, the third method, is the most accurate
  way to record rock carvings.
• Originally, blue aniline
  pencil was used to trace
  the petroglyphs.

• Then, dampened paper         • This technique creates
  was pressed over the           an image on the back
  tracing.                       of the paper that is a
                                  mirror image of the
                                    original, but are
• The moisture in the paper          reversed when
  transferred the pencil dye       compared to the
  to the paper.                     original carving.
• Modern tracings are       • Ruth Holmes
   typically done on a         Whitehead,
  transparent material      Ethnologist at the
     such as mylar.       Nova Scotia Museum,
                           made this tracing of
                          an early petroglyph in
• The mylar sheet is      Bedford, NS, that was
     placed over the        made with stone
   petroglyph and the              tools.
  lines are traced with
 an ink pen, creating a
 correct image tracing
    of the petroglyph.
Mi'kmaq Petroglyphs - It is necessary to wet
many of the drawings to even begin to see
them. Here you see a drawing of a missionary
along with the outline of a hand in the left
area of the picture.
• The Bedford Barren petroglyphs are very
  unique examples of Mi'kmaq carvings.

• They were discovered by Michael Ross in
  the hills above Bedford, N.S., in l983 as he
  walked along a flat ridge of quartz like
  rock.

• He took pictures and his mother brought
  them to the N.S. Museum to the attention
  of Ruth Whitehead. It was determined that
  they were of Mi’kmaq origin.
• They were photographed, studied by Brian
  Molyneaux, a Research Associate in Archaeology
  at the Royal Ontario Museum.

• Molyneaux determined that the that the
  petroglyphs had been cut and drilled into the
  rock using stone tools. It appeared to date the
  petroglyphs back to a period before the arrival
  from Europe of metal tools (1500).

• Thus, the petroglyphs predate any other known
  petroglyph site in Atlantic Canada.
Bedford Petroglyphs,
  Halifax County
• The Mi'kmaq people were not notified
  of their existence until 1989 by a local
  group of residents who wanted to
  save the Bedford Barrens from being
  destroyed by developers.

• To this date only a portion of the land
  has been preserved. Of the 90 acres of
  land that is to be/has been developed,
  only 4 acres have been set aside.
• The Mi'kmaq people feel that this is
  not enough and that the whole area
  should be preserved and protected.

• The petroglyphs are found along a
  ledge above the Bedford Basin

				
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