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					   ASAS TN2 Final Seminar



RUNWAY INCURSIONS
        &
    ATSA-SURF
               by
          Phil Hogge
  Chairman ASAS-TN2 Seminar




        Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
          ASAS TN2 Final Seminar



               OUTLINE

•   Runway Incursions in the USA
•   Runway Incursions in Europe
•   Background to the TCAS Mandate
•   ATSA-SURF
•   Safety - a Political Question?

              Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
               ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

      Flight Safety Foundation
• 1995-2007 A Total of 1,332 accidents.
• Runway Safety Issues can be considered under 3
  categories:-
      Category           Total        Fatal
  Runway Incursions      10           5
  Runway Excursions      379          31
  Runway Confusion       4            2

• Even though the number of Incursion and Confusion
  accidents is low, the rate of incidents is too high.
                     Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
                      ASAS TN2 Final Seminar


Definitions of Incident Severity (ESARR2)
      Severity           Definition

                         ICAO Annex 13: “An incident involving circumstances indicating that an
           Serious       accident nearly occurred.
  A        Incident      Note: The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only
                         in the result.”

                         An incident associated with the operation of an aircraft, in which safety of
                         aircraft may have been compromised, having led to a near collision
  B     Major Incident
                         between aircraft, with ground or obstacles (i.e., safety margins not
                         respected which is not the result of an ATC instruction).

                         An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident, a serious
         Significant
  C       Incident
                         or major incident could have occurred, if the risk had not been managed
                         within safety margins, or if another aircraft had been in the vicinity.

          No safety
  D        effect
                         An incident which has no safety significance.

             Not         Insufficient information was available to determine the risk involved or
  E      determined      inconclusive or conflicting evidence precluded such determination


                               Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
                ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

Runway Incursion Incidents in Europe
         Number of high-risk RWY incursions for all
            reporting States (severity A and B)
80

     A      B
60


40


20


 0
     2002          2003         2004            2005   2006




                    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
                             ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

   Runway Incursion Incidents in the USA
• FAA Definition of a Runway Incursion:
   – Any Occurrence in the Airport Runway Environment Involving Aircraft, Vehicle,
     Person, or Object on the Ground that Creates a Collision Hazard or Results in a
     Loss of Required Separation with an Aircraft Taking Off, Intending to Take Off,
     Landing, or Intending to Land.
   – In USA: 49 Million Movements Per Year, Increasing at a Rate of 3% Per Year
      407     Flight International & http://www.faa.gov/runwaysafety/



             339                                          341
                       323        326          330




                                                                        Teneriffe, 27 March 1977, 582 Fatalities




      2001   2002     2003        2004         2005       2006

     In US, with Almost 1 Incursion per day, Incursion Prevention is
     the most       desired NTSB Safety Improvement
                                            Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
ASAS TN2 Final Seminar




    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
              ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

TCAS Mandate Evolution USA
•   1956 - Grand Canyon, 128 dead
•   1978 - San Diego, 144 dead
•   1984 - San Luis Obispo, 17 dead
•   1986 - Cerritos, 82 dead
•   1987 - Salt Lake City, 10 dead
    – 1987, US Public Law 100-223
    – 1989, SICASP/4 - world-wide evaluation
• 1990 - first operational TCAS
• 1993 - 100% equipage in the USA

                    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
              ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

TCAS Mandate Evolution Global
• 1995 - ICAO standards published
• 1996 - Delhi, 349 dead
    – India mandates TCAS II by 1999
    – ICAO consult about world-wide mandate
• 1997 - Namibia, 33 dead
    – USA mandate TCAS for military
•   Current design finalised on 4 Nov 1997
•   2000 - European mandate
•   2002 - Uberlingen, 71 dead
•   2003 - ICAO mandate
                    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
               ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

          List of RW accidents
•   33 serious RW accidents since 1970
•   3 aircraft destroyed
•   16 damaged
•   1210 people dead

• 22 March 1997, Tenerife - B747/B747, 583 dead
• 8 March 2001, Linate - MD80/Citation ,118 dead
• 30 March 2007, Bucharest - B737/vehicle, 0 dead


                    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
          ASAS TN2 Final Seminar


ASAS Surface Traffic Application
        (ATSA-SURF)
 This application provides the flight
 crews with information on surface
 traffic that supplements out-the-
 window observations and see-and-
 be-seen procedures for aircraft on or
 near the airport surface.
              Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

 A380 Moving Map




    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
                                   ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

         ACSS Solution: SafeRoute SAMM
•   SAMM or Surface Area Movement Management
     –   Safety function to increase airport surface Situational Awareness to Reduce Airport Surface
         and Terminal Area Incursion Issues
     –   Efficiency - increased airport surface movement efficiency by providing flight crew situational
         awareness of the airport surface relative to own aircraft.
•   SAMM relies on
     –   GPS positioning to display OWNSHIP
     –   Database to provide Airport Moving Map
     –   Cockpit Display of Traffic Information using ADS-B/TIS-B JSIT
         Recommendation 2)
•   SAMM provides
     –   Displays Own Ship Relative to:
           •   Terminal Area, Airport Surface (JSIT recommendation 1)
           •   On Ground Traffic (JSIT recommendation 2)
           •   Airborne Traffic (JSIT recommendation 2)
     –   In the near future Visual & Aural Alerts and Clearances
           •   Automatic Runway Occupancy Alerting (JSIT recommendation 3)
           •   Positive Runway Selection & Identification (JSIT Recommendation 4)
•   SAMM can be displayed on
     –   EFB Class II OR III
     –   EFIS
     –   Other Display Solutions




                                                 Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
      ASAS TN2 Final Seminar
Position Awareness (FLYSAFE Consortium)
                                   Moving Map technology is
                                        mature (A380, EFB)
                                   Recommended by NTSB
                                        after Comair accident
                                        (Recommendation A-07-45)
                                   Pure Airport Moving Map
                                        may not sufficient to address
                                        all hazardous situations
                                          Natural interface on
                                           which to build advanced
                                           functions

            Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

Traffic awareness

               Traffic awareness by displaying other
                   aircraft and vehicles in relation to the
                   moving map
               Supporting services/formats:
                   ADS-B, TIS-B, ACAS (hybrid
                   surveillance)




    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

  Active Runway
                  Runway labels used to indicate
                     active runway:
                        Dimmed label indicates
                          non-active runway
                        Two full labels indicate absence
                          of active runway information
                        Disadvantage: Pilot might need
                          to change range to access
                          information


    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

 Closed Runways
                 Complete Runway Closure:
                      RED

                 Closure for Takeoff/Landing:
                       WHITE

                 Closed Taxiways:
                       AMBER

                 Rationale: Use red/amber for
                 no-go areas


    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
     ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

Traffic alerting during taxiing
                     Alerts for conflicting traffic on the
                         taxiways
                     Conditions: spatial proximity, closure
                         rates
                     Not as critical as runway incursion,
                         therefore limited to Level 2




          Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
       ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

Visualisation of taxi instructions

                      Clearance awareness by display of
                          assigned taxi route, runway
                          clearances (line-up, takeoff)
                      Supporting services/formats: CPDLC
                      Issue: might not be available
                          everywhere initially




           Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
   ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

Runway Incursion alerting
                  Level 2 (Master Caution) and Level 3
                      (Master Warning) Alerting is
                      provided if the crew is at risk of or
                      causing a Runway Incursion
                  Conditions: e.g. entering a completely
                      closed runway
                  Similar to takeoff configuration
                      warning (unsafe external condition)




       Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
              ASAS TN2 Final Seminar

             A matter of Safety
• Business Case or Mandate?
• The Mandates for TCAS and GPWS both followed
  rising public and political concern over accidents.
• Both systems were relatively immature at the time the
  mandates were decided.
• Let us be ready with ATSA-SURF in two stages
   (1) - Develop „basic‟ ATSA-SURF as quickly as
       possible.
   (2) - Continue to work on „enhanced‟ ATSA-SURF.


                    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008
ASAS TN2 Final Seminar




Thank you


    Paris, 14 - 15 April 2008

				
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