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05 Skeletal System Packet 08-09

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05 Skeletal System Packet 08-09 Powered By Docstoc
					Sonoma Valley High School
                                                  Name: ___________________




     SKELETAL SYSTEM
   STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




        Microscopic structure of bone showing the Haversian canals (HC) which once contained
        a blood vessel and nerves which run lengthwise through this bone. The small black holes
      (Lucunae) once contained the bone forming cells called osteoblasts which then became bone
                                  maintaining cells called osteocytes.




                            SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY
                           ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
                                    UNIT #5
                             FALL SEMESTER 2008-09
SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY

                       UNIT #5: SKELETAL SYSTEM
READING:                   Human Body by Tortora        Pages 113-171.


UNIT OUTCOMES:
A) Diagram a whole bone and use the proper terminology to describe areas of the bone or       structures of the bone.
                                                                                                  (Page 115)

B) Contrast spongy bone with compact bone as to structure, function, location, and the process by which it was
formed.                                                                                       (Pages 116-118)

C) Contrast intramembranous and endochondral ossification and then describe in detail the process of ossification
using the endochondral process as the example.                                 (Pages 118-120)

D) Describe how bone remodeling maintains the bones of the skeletal system; bone homeostasis.
                                                                                           (Pages 121-122)
E) Contrast the three major classifications of joints based on structure and then on function… List an
example of each type.                                                                               (Page 157)

F) Contrast the movements of the various synovial joint types f ound in the human body.   (Pages 160-163)

G) Using one of the synovial joints found in the human body be able to describe the bones and other structures that
make up that particular joint. Be able to give the functions of each individual structure f ound in that joint.
                                                                                         (Pages 164-165)


Monday 10/27:              Discussion:       Structure of whole and microscopic bone.
                           Lab:              Work on homework & Lab Packet.
                           Homework:         Read pages 114-117. Complete tables in Parts A & B of lab packet.
                                             Read pages 118-124
Tuesday 10/28:             Discussion:       Ossification and homeostasis of bone. (Pages 118-124)
                           Lab:              Skeletal system lab. I.D. part C
                           Homework:         Complete “C” in the lab packet. Read pages 146-147.
Thursday 10/30:            Quiz:             Exhibit 6.1
                           Discussion:       Human skeleton, male and female differences, aging. Pages 146-147.
                           Lab:              Skeletal system lab part D.
                                         Homework: Read pages 157-159.
Monday 11/3                Discussion:       Classification of joints found in the human body. (Pages 157-159)
                           Lab:              Bone Presentations (Groups 1-2). Skeletal system lab.
                           Homework:         Work on lab packet. Read 160-165
Tuesday 11/4:          Discussion:       Structures of a synovial joint, joint movement terms (160-165).
                           Lab:              Bone Presentations (Groups 3-6). Skeletal System Lab
                           Homework:         Prepare for test
Thursday 11/6:             Quiz:             terms of movement in Figure 7-4
                           Lab:              Bone Presentations (Remaining Groups). FINISH ALL LABWORK.
                           Homework:         Prepare for test


Thursday 11/13:            Unit #5 Test: Skeletal System
SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY                                                      ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY


                        BONE STRUCTURE LAB
PART "A" WHOLE BONE STRUCTURE:          Fill in the function portion of the table using your textbook.
                                        Diagram the whole bone (cow) found in class. Because the sample
                                        bone is dead, some of the structures will not be present. Label your
                                        diagram as if they are still present and observable.
   Name of              Function of Structure
   Structure


    Distal
   Epiphysis


   Proximal
   Epiphysis


   Diaphysis



   Epiphysis



  Metaphysis



  Spongy Bone



 Compact Bone



Medullary Cavity


   Articular
   cartilage


  Endosteum



  Periosteum



Nutrient Artery
PART "B" MICROSCOPIC BONE STRUCTURE:                                 Using the slides of "Ground Bone" view a cross section that
has be cut from the diaphysis of a bone. Identify the structures listed in the chart. Fill in the appropriate information
concerning the function of the structure. Be sure to label all structures in your diagrams


    Name of                                            Function of Structure
    Structure


    Haversian
     System
     (Osteon)


 Haversian Canal



     Lucunae




     Canaliculi




    Osteocyte




     Lamellae




 Volkman's Canal


                                                                  Use YOUR diagram to identify and label as many of the
                                                                  structures as possible in your diagram. Do not label
                                                                  structures you cannot see.




    Microscopic Bone (100X)
                                             The picture to the left shows a growing bone with a bone
                                             forming cell (osteoblast) still in the open space (lucuna)
                                             The canaliculi are the long areas occupied by the long
                                             arms (processes) of the osteoblast.

                                             The second diagram shows bone after it is dead. The cell
                                             is gone but the lucuna and the canaliculi remain.




                                             In the space below diagram two or three lucunae and
                                             their canaliculi. Show how they are positioned next to the
                                             Haversian canal. Label all structures in your diagram.
                                             Label structures in the picture.




                                                            Microscopic Bone (400X)




Contrast the cells of the skeletal system:



Osteoprogenitor:



Osteoblast:



Osteocyte:



Osteoclast:
 PART "C" BONE I.D. LAB: Using the articulated skeleton, your textbook, and the plastic bones found in class be
able to identify each bone numbered with the green Ink. Place the name and then describe its relationship in the skeleton by using
the correct terms for position.


 I.D.#         Name of Bone                            Position in Skeleton Using Terms of Position

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
     26
     27
     28
     29
     30
     31
     32
     33
     34
     35


PART "D" X-RAY I.D. LAB:   Using the X-Rays found in class answer each of the questions found on the X-
                       Ray or MRI


1)                                              13)

2)                                              14)

3)                                              15)

4)                                              16)

5)                                              17)

6)                                              18)

7)                                              19)

8)                                              20)

9)                                              21)

10)                                             22)

11)                                             23)
12)   24)
SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY                                                                            2008-2009




                               BONE PROJECT HOMEWORK
SKULL                                                       HIP
   TEMPORAL                                                       ILIUM
   MANDIBLE                                                       ISCHIUM
   ZYGOMATIC                                                      PUBIS

SKULL/NECK                                                  KNEE
   OCCIPITAL                                                   FEMUR
   ATLAS (1st Cervical)                                        TIBIA
   AXIS (2nd Cervical)                                         FIBIA

SHOULDER                                                    POINTER FINGER
   SCAPULA                                                    PHALANGE (1ST ROW)
   HUMERUS                                                    PHALANGE (2ND ROW)

ELBOW                                                       ANKLE
   HUMERUS                                                     TIBIA
   RADIUS                                                      CALCANEOUS
   ULNA                                                        TALUS

THUMB                                                       HIP
   SCAPHOID                                                       FEMUR
   TRAPEZIUM                                                      ILIUM
   1st METACARPAL                                                 PUBIS

WRIST                                                       LOWER BACK
  RADIUS                                                       ILIUM
  SCAPHOID                                                     SACRUM
  LUNATE                                                       LUMBAR #5 VERTEBRAE




Work in groups of three.
Each person in the group is responsible for a single bone and at least 2 Ppt slides.
Each bone will need a diagram that is labeled and a picture that can be an X-Ray or MRI.
Describe any bone surface markings. (Page 107-108, Tortora, 4th edition)
Name and describe a muscle that attaches to the bone. (Pages 189-217)
Describe the type of motion the joint formed of the three bones (gliding, pivot, etc).
Describe the movement the joint is capable of. (Pages 161-163)


Powerpoint requirements:
   Each person needs 2 or more slides. Slides will be combined into a single file.
   Each Ppt must use a slide transition.
   Each slide must be animated.
   Each bullet can have only 4 words.



SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY                                                                 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
     UNIT #5 SELF STUDY GUIDE – THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
1)  From pages 114-116 be able to;
       A) List and explain 6 functions of the human skeleton.
       B) Name, describe, and give an example of the four categories of bones found in the human body.
       C) Name and describe the 7 major areas of a human bone.
2) From pages 116-117 titled “Microscopic Structure of Bone” be able to;
       A) Give another name for bone tissue.
       B) Explain what makes the matrix “hard bone”.
       C) Explain the term calcification.
       D) List and give a function for the four different types of cells in bone or osseous tissue.
       E) Describe the structure of compact bone as seen through the microscope. (Figu re 6.2)
       F) Explain how spongy bone is different from compact bone.
3) From pages 118-121 titled “Bone Formation” be able to;
       A) Name and briefly describe where the two major types of ossification occurs.
       B) Describe the four steps of intramembranous ossification.
       C) Summarize the six steps in endochondral ossification.
       D) Explain how the epiphyseal line relates to ossification.
4) From pages 121-124 titled “Bone Remodeling” be able to;
       A) Explain the process of “remodeling”.
       B) Explain how osteoclasts and osteoblasts must “balance” their functions.
       C) Name minerals, hormones, and vitamins that effect remodeling (Table 6.1).
       D) Explain how exercise effects remodeling of bones.
5) From pages 146-147 titled “Comparison of Female and Male Skeletons” be able to;
       A) Describe three general ways in which the male skeleton is different than the female skeleton.
       B) Describe how the pubic arch, greater pelvis, and lateral view of the female pelvis are different from the
           male pelvis.
6) From page 147 titled “Aging and the Skeletal System”;
       A) Explain the effects of aging on the bones of the body.
7) From pages 157-159 titled “Joints” be able to;
       A) Describe three factors that determine joint movement.
       B) Explain how a hormone called relaxin effects joint movement toward the end of pregnancy.
       C) Name and describe three classifications of joints based on structure.
       D) Name and describe three classifications of joints based on movement.
       E) Describe the typical structures of a freely movable joint. (Synovial or Diarthrosis)
       F) Give a function for each of the structures listed above.
8) From pages 160-162 titled “types of movements at synovial joints” be able to;
       A) Contrast the following terms: flexion, extension, and hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and
           circumduction, medial and lateral rotation.
9) From pages 162-163 titled “special movements” be able to;
       A) Contrast the following terms; elevation and depression, protraction and retraction, Inversion and
           eversion, Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, Supination and pronation
10) From pages 164-165 titled “ types of synovial joints” be able to;
           G) Name and describe the movement of 6 types of synovial joints.