Sonoma Valley High School Name: ___________________ SKELETAL SYSTEM STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Microscopic structure of bone showing the Haversian canals (HC) which once contained a blood vessel and nerves which run lengthwise through this bone. The small black holes (Lucunae) once contained the bone forming cells called osteoblasts which then became bone maintaining cells called osteocytes. SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UNIT #5 FALL SEMESTER 2008-09 SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY UNIT #5: SKELETAL SYSTEM READING: Human Body by Tortora Pages 113-171. UNIT OUTCOMES: A) Diagram a whole bone and use the proper terminology to describe areas of the bone or structures of the bone. (Page 115) B) Contrast spongy bone with compact bone as to structure, function, location, and the process by which it was formed. (Pages 116-118) C) Contrast intramembranous and endochondral ossification and then describe in detail the process of ossification using the endochondral process as the example. (Pages 118-120) D) Describe how bone remodeling maintains the bones of the skeletal system; bone homeostasis. (Pages 121-122) E) Contrast the three major classifications of joints based on structure and then on function… List an example of each type. (Page 157) F) Contrast the movements of the various synovial joint types f ound in the human body. (Pages 160-163) G) Using one of the synovial joints found in the human body be able to describe the bones and other structures that make up that particular joint. Be able to give the functions of each individual structure f ound in that joint. (Pages 164-165) Monday 10/27: Discussion: Structure of whole and microscopic bone. Lab: Work on homework & Lab Packet. Homework: Read pages 114-117. Complete tables in Parts A & B of lab packet. Read pages 118-124 Tuesday 10/28: Discussion: Ossification and homeostasis of bone. (Pages 118-124) Lab: Skeletal system lab. I.D. part C Homework: Complete “C” in the lab packet. Read pages 146-147. Thursday 10/30: Quiz: Exhibit 6.1 Discussion: Human skeleton, male and female differences, aging. Pages 146-147. Lab: Skeletal system lab part D. Homework: Read pages 157-159. Monday 11/3 Discussion: Classification of joints found in the human body. (Pages 157-159) Lab: Bone Presentations (Groups 1-2). Skeletal system lab. Homework: Work on lab packet. Read 160-165 Tuesday 11/4: Discussion: Structures of a synovial joint, joint movement terms (160-165). Lab: Bone Presentations (Groups 3-6). Skeletal System Lab Homework: Prepare for test Thursday 11/6: Quiz: terms of movement in Figure 7-4 Lab: Bone Presentations (Remaining Groups). FINISH ALL LABWORK. Homework: Prepare for test Thursday 11/13: Unit #5 Test: Skeletal System SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY BONE STRUCTURE LAB PART "A" WHOLE BONE STRUCTURE: Fill in the function portion of the table using your textbook. Diagram the whole bone (cow) found in class. Because the sample bone is dead, some of the structures will not be present. Label your diagram as if they are still present and observable. Name of Function of Structure Structure Distal Epiphysis Proximal Epiphysis Diaphysis Epiphysis Metaphysis Spongy Bone Compact Bone Medullary Cavity Articular cartilage Endosteum Periosteum Nutrient Artery PART "B" MICROSCOPIC BONE STRUCTURE: Using the slides of "Ground Bone" view a cross section that has be cut from the diaphysis of a bone. Identify the structures listed in the chart. Fill in the appropriate information concerning the function of the structure. Be sure to label all structures in your diagrams Name of Function of Structure Structure Haversian System (Osteon) Haversian Canal Lucunae Canaliculi Osteocyte Lamellae Volkman's Canal Use YOUR diagram to identify and label as many of the structures as possible in your diagram. Do not label structures you cannot see. Microscopic Bone (100X) The picture to the left shows a growing bone with a bone forming cell (osteoblast) still in the open space (lucuna) The canaliculi are the long areas occupied by the long arms (processes) of the osteoblast. The second diagram shows bone after it is dead. The cell is gone but the lucuna and the canaliculi remain. In the space below diagram two or three lucunae and their canaliculi. Show how they are positioned next to the Haversian canal. Label all structures in your diagram. Label structures in the picture. Microscopic Bone (400X) Contrast the cells of the skeletal system: Osteoprogenitor: Osteoblast: Osteocyte: Osteoclast: PART "C" BONE I.D. LAB: Using the articulated skeleton, your textbook, and the plastic bones found in class be able to identify each bone numbered with the green Ink. Place the name and then describe its relationship in the skeleton by using the correct terms for position. I.D.# Name of Bone Position in Skeleton Using Terms of Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 PART "D" X-RAY I.D. LAB: Using the X-Rays found in class answer each of the questions found on the X- Ray or MRI 1) 13) 2) 14) 3) 15) 4) 16) 5) 17) 6) 18) 7) 19) 8) 20) 9) 21) 10) 22) 11) 23) 12) 24) SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY 2008-2009 BONE PROJECT HOMEWORK SKULL HIP TEMPORAL ILIUM MANDIBLE ISCHIUM ZYGOMATIC PUBIS SKULL/NECK KNEE OCCIPITAL FEMUR ATLAS (1st Cervical) TIBIA AXIS (2nd Cervical) FIBIA SHOULDER POINTER FINGER SCAPULA PHALANGE (1ST ROW) HUMERUS PHALANGE (2ND ROW) ELBOW ANKLE HUMERUS TIBIA RADIUS CALCANEOUS ULNA TALUS THUMB HIP SCAPHOID FEMUR TRAPEZIUM ILIUM 1st METACARPAL PUBIS WRIST LOWER BACK RADIUS ILIUM SCAPHOID SACRUM LUNATE LUMBAR #5 VERTEBRAE Work in groups of three. Each person in the group is responsible for a single bone and at least 2 Ppt slides. Each bone will need a diagram that is labeled and a picture that can be an X-Ray or MRI. Describe any bone surface markings. (Page 107-108, Tortora, 4th edition) Name and describe a muscle that attaches to the bone. (Pages 189-217) Describe the type of motion the joint formed of the three bones (gliding, pivot, etc). Describe the movement the joint is capable of. (Pages 161-163) Powerpoint requirements: Each person needs 2 or more slides. Slides will be combined into a single file. Each Ppt must use a slide transition. Each slide must be animated. Each bullet can have only 4 words. SVHS ADVANCED BIOLOGY ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY UNIT #5 SELF STUDY GUIDE – THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 1) From pages 114-116 be able to; A) List and explain 6 functions of the human skeleton. B) Name, describe, and give an example of the four categories of bones found in the human body. C) Name and describe the 7 major areas of a human bone. 2) From pages 116-117 titled “Microscopic Structure of Bone” be able to; A) Give another name for bone tissue. B) Explain what makes the matrix “hard bone”. C) Explain the term calcification. D) List and give a function for the four different types of cells in bone or osseous tissue. E) Describe the structure of compact bone as seen through the microscope. (Figu re 6.2) F) Explain how spongy bone is different from compact bone. 3) From pages 118-121 titled “Bone Formation” be able to; A) Name and briefly describe where the two major types of ossification occurs. B) Describe the four steps of intramembranous ossification. C) Summarize the six steps in endochondral ossification. D) Explain how the epiphyseal line relates to ossification. 4) From pages 121-124 titled “Bone Remodeling” be able to; A) Explain the process of “remodeling”. B) Explain how osteoclasts and osteoblasts must “balance” their functions. C) Name minerals, hormones, and vitamins that effect remodeling (Table 6.1). D) Explain how exercise effects remodeling of bones. 5) From pages 146-147 titled “Comparison of Female and Male Skeletons” be able to; A) Describe three general ways in which the male skeleton is different than the female skeleton. B) Describe how the pubic arch, greater pelvis, and lateral view of the female pelvis are different from the male pelvis. 6) From page 147 titled “Aging and the Skeletal System”; A) Explain the effects of aging on the bones of the body. 7) From pages 157-159 titled “Joints” be able to; A) Describe three factors that determine joint movement. B) Explain how a hormone called relaxin effects joint movement toward the end of pregnancy. C) Name and describe three classifications of joints based on structure. D) Name and describe three classifications of joints based on movement. E) Describe the typical structures of a freely movable joint. (Synovial or Diarthrosis) F) Give a function for each of the structures listed above. 8) From pages 160-162 titled “types of movements at synovial joints” be able to; A) Contrast the following terms: flexion, extension, and hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction, medial and lateral rotation. 9) From pages 162-163 titled “special movements” be able to; A) Contrast the following terms; elevation and depression, protraction and retraction, Inversion and eversion, Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, Supination and pronation 10) From pages 164-165 titled “ types of synovial joints” be able to; G) Name and describe the movement of 6 types of synovial joints.
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