Orthodoxy and Heresy

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					What is Heresy
Heresy as Choice

       Pre 1000 AD
           Heresy as Choice
 Heresy comes from the Greek hairesis
  which means choice
 There were ALWAYS splinters within
  Christianity, virtually from its inception
 Paul and James
 filioque
        Filioque Controversy
 Nicene Creed
   Et in spiritum sanctum, dominum et
    vivicantem, qui ex Patre (filioque) procedit

   Picked up by Augustine and the doctrine made
    its way into Western Christianity
   West accused of heresy by a 9th century
    Patriarch of Constantinople
        Great Schism of 1054
 Disputes over filioque and other liturgical
  practices came to a head in 1054
 For all intents and purposes, pope
  excommunicated Patriarch of
  Constantinople, Patriarch excommunicated
  pope
 Split between Eastern Orthodox and Roman
  Catholic Church officially established
 Actual Causes of Great Schism
 Challenging each other’s authority
   RC Churches opening in Constantinople,
    believed they were under the authority of the
    Pope, not the Patriarch of Constantinople
   RC Church sending missionaries to areas the
    East took care of
   Eastern Orthodox Church asserted the authority
    of Patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem,
    Antioch and Alexandria before that of Pope
Heresy as Challenges to
     Church Authority
                Post 1000
              Heresy post 1000
 Rise of cities
 Second conversion
    People chose different paths to Christ
 Gregorian Reform
 Priests better educated
 Spiritual authority and temporal power of Pope
  established
    Church could now define heresy and fight against it
  (Petrus) Valdes-- Peter Waldo
 Son of a rich merchant who lived in Lyons,
  France, in the late 12th c
 Asked for translations of biblical books
 Finally chose to live a love of apostolic
  poverty (1176)
              Waldensians
 Peter Waldo soon attracted followers
 He and his group began to preach publicly
  without permission (or church sanctioned
  education
 Deemed heretical by a council of French
  bishops in 1184 and were more widely
  condemned in 1215
      After the Condemnation
 Doctrine became increasingly heretical
   Denied purgatory
   Denied usefulness of indulgences
   Denied the authority of priests to hear
    confessions and to forgive sins
   Began to argue that there was no hierarchy of
    mediation-- faith between oneself and God
                 Cathars
 Offered active life not only for men but for
  women
 Women could be priests, and even
  (theoretically) bishops of the Cathar Church
   Perfecti
   credentes
         Roots of Catharism
 Early Eastern heresies
   Manichaeism-- Mani (210-276 AD)
   Bogomilism
                 Bogomilism
   Founded in 10th century
   Influenced by Manichaeism
   Story of Satanail and Michael
   Adopted by many people
   Spread far and wide-- as far as Italy by the
    11th century
            Cathar Doctrine
 Two Gods-- God of Matter and God of
  Spirit (Satan and God)
 Hatred of all things material as matter had
  trapped the spirit--no marriage, no
  reproduction
 Refusal to eat byproducts of reproduction
  ie: eggs, cheese, milk
            Consolamentum
 Purification/ordination ritual
 Once received, people would give away
  material goods to the community and don a
  simply black robe with a cord
 Lived life of asceticism, prayer and teaching
 Often taken at the end of a life
         Cathar Challenges to
          Church Authority
 Cathar perfecti lived a more pure life than
  Catholic priests
 Believed the Catholic Church to be utterly
  corrupt-- a Church of Wolves
 Alternate priesthood, alternate dioceses,
  alternate bishops
Reactions to Heresy

 Crusades and Inquisitions
             Dominicans
 St. Dominic (1170-1221)
 Foundation of Dominican Order (1216)
 Friars vs monks
        Albigensian Crusade
 Preaching was not working at returning
  heretics to Catholicism
 As early as 1204, Pope Innocent III brought
  up the idea of a crusade against heretics in
  the South of France
 No on really interested in 1204
   Raymond of Toulouse- great landholder, live
    and let live attitude towards Cathars
          Albigensian Crusade
 1207-- Innocent accuses Raymond of aiding
  Cathars and excommunicates him
 Jan 1208-- Raymond wants to reconcile with
  Church, meets with papal legate, Peter of
  Castelnau
 Shortly after unsuccessful meeting Peter is killed
  by supporters of Raymond
 March 1208-- Innocent hears of his legate’s death
  and renews excommunication of Raymond,
  accusing him of heresy and murder
        Albigensian Crusade
 Calls for a Crusade against the heretics in
  the South again
 Promises a full/plenary indulgence for those
  who give 40 days service to the Southern
  Crusade
 Knights flooded into the South of France
          Raymond’s Response
   Begged absolution from the Pope
   Did penance
   Joined the Crusade
   Crusade rode to fight the heretics, subdue
    cities where heretics lived
                 Béziers
 First ‘battle’-- siege of Béziers
 Citizens of the town overconfident and the
  town was taken
 Crusaders massacred everyone
 So vicious was the attack that the cities
  between Béziers and Carcassone simply
  opened their gates when the Crusaders
  approached
         Successful Crusade?
 Only Carcassone gave the Crusaders any
  trouble-- siege lasted two weeks before the
  city fell
 By that time the 40 days service required
  for indulgence were over and the Crusaders
  left
 Cities rebelled
 In the end, the first wave of the Crusade
  accomplished little
         Religion or Politics
 After 1208-- continual back and forth
  between the new leader of the Crusade
  Simon de Montfort and Raymond of
  Toulouse
 Simon often took lands that were Christian
  in an effort to ultimately take over
  Raymond’s territory
         End of the Crusade
 In 1223 the new French king, Louis VIII
  began to back the Albigensian Crusade
 Became much more effective
 Raymond realized he could not withstand
  the power of the French king and finally
  sued for peace on April 12 1229-- the so-
  called Peace of Paris
              Peace of Paris
 Raymond of Toulouse
   Lost Toulouse to the French monarchy
   Reconciled with the church (again)
   Allowed an inquisition to be set up in the South
    of France to track down heretics
Inquisitions
Fyodor Dostoevsky,
The Grand Inquisitor
        A New Kind of Court
 Accusatio- relied on the accusations of a
  victim against a suspect
 Inquisitio- no accuser required- court heard
  the fama and tried suspect itself
   Establishing the Inquisitions
 1184?-- Episcopal inquisitions established
   Not at all efficient
 1230s-- papal inquisition
   Run by Dominicans
   Efficient at gathering and storing information
                  Torture
 Initially torture was not used to extract
  confessions of heresy
 But increasingly torture regarded as the
  ‘queen of proofs’
 1252-- heretics were to be treated as traitors
 1256-- inquisitors were absolved of any sins
  the committed while questioning suspected
  heretics
        Punishments for Heresy
   Wearing badge
   Fasting/other light penance
   Pilgrimage
   Loss of property
   Imprisonment
   Burning at the stake (RARE)
Punishment for Heresy
              Later Inquisitions
 Spanish Inquisition 1478-1810
    Used against ‘crypto-Muslims’ and ‘crypto-Jews’ and
     Protestants
    Used in the New World
 Portuguese Inquisition 1536-1774
    Goa
 Roman Inquisition 1542--present
    This inquisition tried Galileo in 1633
    Exists today as Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith
How did they Justify It?
        How did They Justify It
   Not crazy, not delusional
   Remember for medieval people God is real
   Heaven and Hell are physical realities
   They believe the soul lives eternally