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					                                            STAGE 9
815. LESSON 125


   EDGE               LITTLE BY LITTLE                       INTEND
   край               понемногу                               намериваться
   WHAT PART OF THE TABLE IS THIS?                                             That part of... is the edge
   CAN WE BALANCE A DINNER-PLATE ON ITS EDGE?                                       Yes, perhaps we can
                            balance ... but it'd be rather difficult and would depend on the type of plate
    CAN WE CUT BREAD WITH THE THICK EDGE OF A KNIFE ?                                       No, we cant...


   The verb "to edge" means "to move slowly, little by little, " usually in a sideways direction,
   but also in any direction./


    WHAT DOES THE VERB "TO EDGE" MEAN ?                                    The verb ... "to move slowly,
                                                                                         little by little" ...
   WHY DOES A CAR HAVE TO EDGE FORWARD WHEN TURNING FROM A SMALL SIDE-
   STREET INTO A MAIN STREET AGAINST THE FLOW OF TRAFFIC ?                             A car has to edge
                                                              forward when ... so that other cars can see
                                                what it intends doing, and so slow down to let it pass ...
   TIN жесть, консервная банка


816. WHY DO FACTORIES PUT FOOD IN TINS?                                       Factories put food in tins
                                                                                            to conserve it
   WHAT METAL IS A TIN MADE OF?                                                      A tin is made of tin


   COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES OF ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS
   AND PARTICIPLES


   HELPFUL полезный
  Adjectives of two syllables which end in the letters -er, -Ie, -ow and -y form their
  comparatives and superlatives by adding -er and -est. For example, clever - cleverer -
  cleverest.


  WHICH ADJECTIVES OF TWO SYLLABLES FORM THEIR COMPARATIVES AND
  SUPERLATIVES BY ADDING -ER AND -EST ?/                                         The adjectives of two
                                    syllables which form ... are those which end in -er, -Ie, -ow, or -y
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                          Simple ... simpler ... simplest


  Adjectives of two syllables which do not end in the letters - er - Ie - ow or -y and have the
  accent on the first syllable, form their comparatives and superlatives by using "more" and
  "most". For example,


  helpful                 more helpful                            the most helpful
  useless                 more useless                            the most useless
817 WHICH ADJECTIVES OF TWO SYLLABLES FORM THEIR COMPARATIVES AND
  SUPERLATIVES BY USING "MORE" AND "MOST" ?/                                         The adjectives of
                                two syllables which form ... are those which do not end in -er -Ie –
                                                   ow or -y and have their accent on the first syllable
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                          Modern . .. more modern ... the most modern


  Participles ending in -ed or -ing also form their comparatives by using "more" and
  "most". For example,


  pleased                more pleased                  the most pleased
  boring                  more boring                   the most boring
  HOW DO WE FORM THE COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES OF PARTICIPLES
  ENDING IN -ED OR -ING ?                                             We form the... by using "more"
                                                                                           and "most"...
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH, PLEASE !/                                      Learned ... more learned
                                                                                         ... Interesting...
  Adverbs of two syllables made from adjectives by adding -ly form their comparatives and
  superlatives     by       using        "more"          and       "most".         For         example,
   carefully           more carefully                   the most carefully


   HOW DO WE FORM THE COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES OF
818 ADVERBS OF TWO SYLLABLES WHICH ARE MADE FROM ADJECTIVES
   BY ADDING -LY ?                               We form the ... which are made from adjectives
                                                        by adding -ly by using "more" and "most"
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !/                         Happily; more happily; the most happily


   SYMPATHY сочувствие
   WHAT KIND OF PEOPLE DO YOU HAVE MOST SYMPATHY FOR ?
                                    The kind of people I have most sympathy for are those who
                                                            lie in bed for years, or who are blind...
   ANXIETY тревога, волнение            ANXIOUS взволнованный, неспокойный


   DO YOU FEEL ANY GREAT ANXIETY ABOUT YOUR OWN PERSONAL FUTURE, OR
   THE FUTURE OF THE WORLD ?                                       Yes, I feel some anxiety ... or...
                                                                             No, I don't feel any ...
   WHY IS A SHOPKEEPER ANXIOUS TO PLEASE HIS CUSTOMERS ?/
                                         A shopkeeper is ... so that they will come back again ...
819 ENTERTAIN развлекать          ENTERTAINMENT развлечения
   WHAT KIND OF ENTERTAINMENTS EXIST IN THE PLACE WHERE YOU
    LIVE ?                     The kind of... are ...
   SUPPOSING YOU COULD ENTERTAIN A FAMOUS PERSON AT YOUR HOUSE,
   EITHER A GREAT FIGURE IN HISTORY OR SOMEONE ALIVE TODAY, WHOM WOULD
   YOU CHOOSE ?/                                                    Supposing I could entertain .. .
                                                                                       I'd choose ...
   BY ACCIDENT случайно
   IF BY ACCIDENT YOU KNOCKED SOMEBODY'S ARM WHILST HE WAS WRITING,
   WHAT'D YOU SAY?                             If by accident... I'd say "I'm sorry", or just "Sorry"


   BACKGROUND фон, задний план              APPLY подавать, обращаться, применяться


   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY THE BACKGROUND OF A PICTURE OR A
   PHOTOGRAPH ?            By the background... mean that part which is behind the main subject
   WHEN A STUDENT APPLIES TO GO TO UNIVERSITY, IS HE ASKED QUESTIONS
   ABOUT HIS PERSONAL BACKGROUND?/                                Yes, when a... or ... No, when a...
820 WHAT KIND OF ACTIVITIES DO YOU APPLY YOUR ENERGIES TO MOST?
                                                                      The kind of activities ... are ...
   DOES THE LAW OF THE LAND APPLY TO EVERYBODY ?                                         Yes, the law
                                                                              ... or, at least, it should
   WHERE DO YOU HAVE TO GO TO APPLY FOR A PASSPORT ?                                         You have
                                                                               to go to ... to apply ...
   HIGHLY2000 высоко                 THE BROWNS Брауны
   GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORD " HIGHLY ".                                  It's highly probable
                                                                 that the Browns won't come today
   ANCIENT древний                EGYPT Египет
   WHICH IS ONE OF THE MOST ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS IN THE HISTORY OF THE
   WORLD ?                                         One of the ... is the Egyptian civilization, or the
                                                                           Babylonian civilization...
   SOMEWHAT несколько, довольно
   GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORD "SOMEWHAT".                                        I'd say he was
                                                               somewhat lacking in common sense
   AT ALL совсем
821 GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORDS "AT ALL".                                      It's very strange;
                                                  I've worked hard all day but don't feel tired at all
   MERCHANT купец, торговец
   WHAT DOES A MERCHANT DO?/                                      A merchant buys and sells goods


   IDIOM 28


   WHY ON EARTH = a very strong form of "why ?" почему


   e.g. Why on earth didn't you buy one, as they were so very cheap?


   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "WHY ON EARTH" MEAN ?                                     The idiom ... a very
                                                                              strong form of "why?"
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                              I just can't understand why on earth they got
                                                          married if they don't like each other very much
   DICTATION 67                                       UNITY единство
   There are various means of transport/ these days;/ not as in the old days/ when people only had the
   choice/ of going on foot/ or on horseback,/ or by some/ horse-drawn means of transport./ Being
   overweight is usually due to overeating./ One usually needs to be taught/ how to operate a factory
   machine./ Unity is essential for success/ in a battle./ Alfred is the elder/ of the two children,/ though
   even he is not very old./ They just could not decide/ whether to rent a house/ for the summer / or
   stay at a hotel. / Eventually, however,/ they chose to rent a house.
822 LESSON 126
   EXPLAIN TO объяснить                  SUGGEST TO предложить
   CAN YOU EXPLAIN THE GAME OF FOOTBALL TO ME (OR ANY OTHER GAME YOU
   MIGHT KNOW) ?                                                                  Yes, I can explain the ...
                                                                     A game of football is composed of...
   CAN YOU SUGGEST TO ME A NICE PLACE FOR A HOLIDAY ?                                             Yes, I can
                                                                               suggest ... or... No, I can't...
   CONFIDENT уверенный


   NOW THAT YOU ARE AT THIS STAGE OF YOUR ENGLISH STUDIES, DO YOU THINK
   YOU'D BE ABLE TO TRAVEL ABROAD CONFIDENT OF MAKING YOURSELF
   UNDERSTOOD IN THE LANGUAGE ?                                                               Yes, now that
                                                                               I'm at... or... No, now that...
   AGREE ABOUT                            AGREE THAT                      AGREE TO
   договориться                          быть согласным что               согласиться на что-то


   AGREE WITH быть согласным с …                     LAND IN PRISON быть в заключении


823 IF YOUR FRIEND WANTS TO GO TO ONE CINEMA AND YOU WANT TO GO TO
   ANOTHER, AND YOU CAN'T AGREE ABOUT WHICH TO GO TO, WHAT
   DO YOU DO?                                                               If my friend wants to ... we ...
   DO YOU AGREE THAT LIFE WAS BETTER IN THE PAST THAN IT IS TODAY ?/
                                                                 Yes, I agree that... or... No, I don't agree
   WOULD       YOU      AGREE       TO     DO    AN     EXTRA      THREE       HOURS       OF     ENGLISH
   TODAY ?                                                       Yes, I'd agree to ... or... No, I wouldn't...
  WOULD YOU AGREE TO A PLANE THAT MIGHT LAND YOU IN PRISON ?
                                          Yes, I’d agree to … or… No, I wouldn’t…
  WHEN YOU DON’T AGREE WITH OTHERS, WHAT DO YOU DO ?/
                                               When I don’t agree with … I …
  TAKE CARE                       RUN OVER                CARE FOR
  заботиться                      задавить                здесь, иметь желание

  WHAT DO YOU THINK OUGHT TO BE DONE WITH DRIVERS WHO
  DON’T TAKE CARE WHILST DRIVING, AND SO RUN OVER PEOPLE ?
                                         I think that drivers who don’t… ought to…
824 WHO TAKES CARE OF YOU WHEN YOU’RE ILL ?/                 My … take care…or…
                                                           No, I don’t care what…

   When we ask someone to dance, we can say “Would you care for this dance?”, or
   “Woud you like to dance ?”

   WHAT CAN WE SAY WHEN WE ASK SOMEONE TO DANCE ?                          When we ask
                                                                         … we can say …

   I DARE SAY = IT IS PROBABLE       DARING                             REQUIRE
   я полагаю                   смелость, смелый, дерзкий            требовать, нуждаться

   “I dare say you’re right” means I think it is probable that you are right. For such
   an expression we always use the first person./


   WHAT DOES THIS SENTENCE MEAN, IN OTHER WORDS ? – “ I DARE
   SAY YOU’RE RIGHT.”                    That sentence means, in other words, “I think it
                                                             is probable that you are right”
   WHAT KIND OF JOB WOULD YOU SAY REQUIRED THE MOST DARING ?
                                       I’d say the kind of job which… would be that…

   EAGER                              RUB
   стремящийся                        тереть

825 WHEN PEOPLE ARE EAGER TO DO SOMETHING, WHAT DO THEY
   SOMETIMES LOOK LIKE?/                    When people are … they sometimes look alive,
                                Have bright eyes, and perhaps rub their hands together …


  FACE (v)                              FACE TO FACE
  Выходить                              лицом к лицу
   WHERE DOES THIS WINDOW FACE ONTO ?                                        This window ... the street,
                                                                                             a courtyard...
   IF YOU FOUND YOURSELF FACE TO FACE WITH A KILLER WITH A KNIFE IN HIS
   HAND, WHAT'D YOU DO?                                                       If I found myself... I'd ...


   UP TO до
   ABOUT HOW MANY PAGES OF THIS METHOD HAVE YOU STUDIED UP
   TO NOW ?/                                                             I've studied about... pages of...


   ATTACK атаковать, нападать
   DO INNOCENT PEOPLE EVER GET ATTACKED IN THE STREETS OF YOUR
   HOME TOWN ?                                          Yes, innocent people ... or ... No, innocent...


   BURY закапывать, хоронить
   WHAT DOES A DOG DO WITH ITS BONE?                              A dog buries its bone in the ground...
826 WHERE DO THEY BURY THE DEAD IN YOUR COUNTRY - OUTSIDE THE TOWN, IN
   THE GROUNDS OF A CHURCH ... ETC. ?                                             They bury the dead ...


   ANGER злить
   WHAT ANGERS YOU MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE ?/                                         ... angers me more
                                                                                       than anything else
   INSULT обижать, обида
   WHAT DO YOU THINK'S THE BEST WAY TO INSULT A PERSON ?
                                                                                I think the best... is to ...
   IDIOM 29


   FOR HEAVEN'S SAKE = a very strong form of "please"               ради бога

   e.g. For heaven's sake, be quiet! and let me get some sleep.

   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "FOR HEAVEN'S SAKE" MEAN ?                                            The idiom...
                                                                                                "a very..."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                               For heaven's sake, don't do that again!
                                                                                or I shall get very angry
827 DICTATION 68                     MADNESS безумство
   Football is played throughout the whole world./ It is such a popular game/ that in some cases it is
   almost a form of madness./ Provided you go straight home after school,/ you will be in time to see/
   your uncle before he leaves./ Everyone was dressed/ in their very best clothes/ for the big dance,/
   which commenced at 8 p.m./ The waiter placed the tray/ carefully on the table./ The meal he had
   brought us/ consisted of potatoes/ and a small piece of meat/ which appeared to be old and hard.


   LESSON 127


   AFRAID OF                  AFRAID THAT                  AFRAID TO
   бояться чего-то            бояться что …                 бояться что-то делать
   WHY      DO    YOU      SUPPOSE      SOME      PEOPLE,      ESPECIALLY          CHILDREN,         ARE
   AFRAID OF THE DARK ?                        I suppose some ... because they imagine things that are
                                                                                              not there...
   WHY     ARE SOME PEOPLE AFRAID                   THAT      THEY     MIGHT GET KILLED IF
   THEY TRAVEL BY PLANE MORE THAN BY OTHER MEANS OF
   TRANSPORT ?/                         Some people ... because a plane accident is front-page news ...
   ARE YOU AFRAID TO TRAVEL BY PLANE?                              Yes, I'm afraid... or... No, I'm not...


   We can also use "afraid" for an apology. For example, a shopkeeper might say to a customer
   "I'm afraid we haven't got the size you want, sir".


828 GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF THE WORD "AFRAID" USED IN AN APOLOGY/
                                                                             I'm afraid I can't help you
   COMPOUND WORDS E.G. A LONG-HAIRED DOG                                WELL-TIMED
                                   длинношѐрстная собака                 своевременный


   A compound word can be formed by using an adjective and a noun together. For example,
   the adjective "long" can be put together with the noun "hair" and we can say "a long-haired
   dog" meaning a dog with long hair. Other examples are - "A blue-eyed baby, a one -legged
   man, and a broad-shouldered man."


   GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES OF COMPOUND WORDS FORMED BY PUTTING
   ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS TOGETHER.                                                     A blue -eyed baby,
                                                           a one-legged man, a broad-shouldered man
   Another way of forming a compound word is by using an adverb and a participle together.
   For example, the adverb "well" can be put together with the participle "cooked" and so we
   can say "a well-cooked meal". /


   GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES OF COMPOUND WORDS FORMED BY PUTTING
   ADVERBS AND PARTICIPLES TOGETHER.                                            A badly-dressed man.
                                                           A carefully-made   plan. A well-timed move
829 WHISKERS                   HUNTING               MOUSE-MICE
    усы                        охота                 мышь-мыши

   NOISELESSLY                  GAP                FENCE             HEDGE
   бесшумно                     пробел             забор             живая изгородь


   A cat's whiskers are the same width as its body./ This means that, when it goes hunting for
   mice and birds, and wishes to pass noiselessly through a gap in a fence or a hedge, it can first
   try the width of the gap with its whiskers to see if it is possible to get through the gap without
   using force and making a lot of noise. /


   FOR WHAT PURPOSE DOES A CAT USE ITS WHISKERS?                                         A cat uses it's
                                                                          whiskers in order to pass ...
   HAVE YOU ANY GAPS IN YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE ENGLISH YOU
   HAVE LEARN(OR LEARNED) SO FAR ?                                   Yes, I've some gaps ... or ... No,
                                                                               I don't think I've any ...

   HALL       ENTRANCE          TOWN HALL
   зал        вход              ратуша

   A hall is a large room. For example, we have the entrance hall of a house, the dining hall of a
   college, and a village or town hall where public meetings and even dances can be held. /


830 WHAT IS A HALL ?                                                            A hall is a large room
   GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES OF ITS USE.                                                    Entrance hall...

   POOL                   LIQUID                  INDOOR (S)                     OUTDOOR (S)
   бассейн, пруд          жидкость                внутри, крытый                снаружи, открытый
   OUT OF DOOR вне дома              SWIMMING POOL плавательный бассейн
   A pool is a collection of water or other liquid, either large or small. For example, "a pool of
   water on the road, a pool of blood" or "a swimming pool". /


   WHAT IS A POOL ?                                    A pool is a collection of water or other liquid ...
   GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES, PLEASE !                                     Pool of blood ...
   WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF AN INDOOR SWIMMING POOL?/
                                                 The advantages ... are that the water can be heated,
                                                       and one can swim in it in any kind of weather ...
   WHICH DO YOU PREFER AN INDOOR OR AN OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL ?/
                                                                                            I prefer...
   DO YOU SPEND MOST OF YOUR TIME INDOORS OR OUT OF DOORS ?
                                                                                           I spend most...
831 ADJECTIVE + INFINITIVE              E.G. NICE TO SEE                        IT IS WELL TO
                                        приятно видеть                           это хорошо
   It is well to note the construction Adjective + Infinitive. For example, "It is very nice
   to see you again."


   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF AN ADJECTIVE PLUS INFINITIVE
   CONSTRUCTION. /                                                                  It's good to be alive


   MAKE + SOMEBODY OR SOMETHING + ADJECTIVE OR INFINITIVE
   E.G. MAKE HIM HAPPY               OR       MAKE THE CAR GO
        сделать его счастливым                заставить машину ехать

   Another construction to be noted is with the word "make" which is as follows:-


   Make + Somebody or Something + Adjective or Infinitive. For example, "It will make him
   happy (adj)" and "It will make the car go (inf)".


   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF THE CONSTRUCTION "MAKE + SOMEBODY
   OR SOMETHING + ADJECTIVE OR INFINITIVE". /                                 The news made them sad.
                                                                       We made the table look like new


832 KNEE колено                 KNEEL - KNELT - KNELT                 приклонять колени
   WHAT DO WE CALL THIS JOINT OF THE LEG ?                                     We call... knee
   ON WHAT OCCASIONS DO PEOPLE KNEEL ?                     The occasions on which people
                                                   kneel are when they say their prayers ...


   (LATE = RECENTLY DEAD OR ENDED)                      LATELY/
    последний, недавно умерший                           недавно

   WHO WAS THE LEADER OF THE LATE GOVERNMENT IN YOUR COUNTRY ? /
                                                                       The leader of... was ...
   WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SPEAK ABOUT THE LATE MR. JOHNSON ?
                                 When we speak ... we mean he has died recently or lately


   MATCH подходить                   JUDO дзюдо
   IS IT THE FASHION AMONG WOMEN TODAY TO MATCH THEIR HANDBAGS
   WITH THEIR SHOES, AND FOR MEN TO MATCH THEIR TIES WITH THEIR SOCKS
   OR HANDKERCHIEFS ?/                                                    Yes, it's the fashion
                                                                    ... or... No, it isn't...
833 DO YOU THINK A SMALL MAN WHO KNEW JUDO WOULD BE A MATCH
   FOR A BIG MAN WHO KNEW HOW TO BOX ?                                Yes, I think... or... No,
                                                                                 I don't think...
   WHEN DO THEY HOLD FOOTBALL MATCHES IN YOUR HOME TOWN ?
                                                                                    They hold...
   FUNERAL похороны


   WHAT COLOUR CLOTHES DO EUROPEAN PEOPLE USUALLY WEAR FOR
   A FUNERAL ?                           European people usually wear black for a funeral


   MYSTERY тайна
   DO YOU LIKE MYSTERY STORIES ? /                     Yes, I like ... or... No, I don't like ...


   HUMBLE скромный, простой
   CAN YOU NAME ANY GREAT MEN WHO WERE OF HUMBLE BIRTH ?
                                                          Yes, I can ... Lincoln, Dickens ...
   PATH тропа
   WHY DO WE HAVE A PATH IN A GARDEN?                            We have a... so that people don't walk on
                                                                              the grass or on the flowers ...
   INSURE    2050
                    застраховать


834 IS IT THE LAW IN YOUR COUNTRY THAT EVERYONE MUST INSURE HIS CAR
   AGAINST ACCIDENTS ? /                                                   Yes, It's the ... or... No, it isn't...

   IDIOM 30

   SORE POINT = a subject which causes unpleasant memories of past difficulties
   больной вопрос                    .                                                       and arguments.
   e.g. Don't ask him why he had to sell his car last year; it's a sore point with him.


   WHAT'S THE MEANING OF THE IDIOM "SORE POINT" ?                                          The meaning ... is
                                                        "a subject which causes unpleasant memories ..."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                             Don't speak about what happened on holiday
                                                                     last summer; it's a sore point with her
   DICTATION 69
   It looks as if/ we are in double trouble./ Not only have we lost our money/ and return tickets home,/
   but also the key of the front door. /1 will have to look the word up/ in a modem dictionary:/ this one
   is too old./ Though there has been some delay,/ the goods will nonetheless/ arrive in time./ Walking
   in the forest,/ we came across a great lion/ which did not seem at all fierce,/ lying lazily in the sun./
   He certainly looked a real king, however,/ and did not need to sit upon a throne/ to let the world
   know/ that this was his kingdom.


835 LESSON 128

   HYPHENED (OR HYPHENATED) COMPOUNDS                                     SPOON ложка

   E.G. A TEN - MINUTE TALK 10 минутный разговор


   GIVE ME SOME FURTHER EXAMPLES OF HYPHENED COMPOUNDS,
   PLEASE !                                                    A three-roomed flat. A slow-moving train.
                                                           A ten-minute wait. An ash-tray. A table-spoon
836 THE ENGLISH MONETARY SYSTEM
   UNIT        PENNY         PENCE        SHILLING         MONETARY/
   Единица     пенни        пенс          шиллинг          денежный, монетный


   The English monetary system has now changed somewhat, but when reading old books it will
   be the old system that will be referred to, and so it is well to know something of that system,
   which was simply as follows:- The three basic units were the penny, the shilling and the
   pound. 12 pennies made a shilling and 20 shillings made a pound.


   WHAT WERE THE THREE BASIC UNITS OF THE ENGLISH MONETARY SYSTEM ?
                                               The three ... were the penny, the shilling and the pound
   HOW MANY PENNIES MADE A SHILLING ? /                                             Twelve pennies ...
   HOW MANY SHILLINGS MADE A POUND ?                                                         Twenty ...


   The word "penny " has two plurals - "pennies" and "pence". When speaking about the
   actual coins, we say, for example, "I will give you six pennies", that is, six coins but, when
   speaking about value and not the actual coins, we say, for example, "This pencil costs ten
   pence."


   WHAT ARE THE TWO PLURALS OF THE WORD "PENNY", AND WHAT IS THE
   DIFFERENCE IN THEIR USE?/                                                      The two plurals of...


   The monetary system used today is much simpler. The shilling has gone, leaving a hundred
   pennies to make one pound, and instead of saying "pennies" or "pence" people usually say
   just the letter "p", e.g. This pencil costs ninety "pee" (90p).


837 IN THE MONETARY SYSTEM USED TODAY, HOW MANY PENNIES MAKE A
   POUND ?                                                                        In the ... a hundred ...


   DOUBLING CONSONANTS


   OVERCOME             SLOW DOWN            NATURAL                 PICK UP
   преодолевать          замедлять            естественный           научиться быстро, подцепить
   FORBID – FORBADE –FORBIDDEN                                  GATHER SPEED
   запрещать                                                    набирать скорость
   PECULIAR                      PECULIARITY                     SUFFIX             SUNNY
   своеобразный, особенный       особенность                    суффикс             солнечный


   As you have already seen, English spelling is no easy matter, and so the best way perhaps to
   overcome the difficulty is not by learning rules, which often confuse rather than help and
   slow down the natural speed at which the language should be used, but by noting carefully
   how each individual word is spelt and how it behaves when used in different ways./


   For example, instead of trying to remember the rule that explains why the word “forbid”
   doubles the “d” in its past participle “forbidden” whilst the word “happen” doesn’t double
   its “n”, it is perhaps better to note the behaviour of each individual word, accept its
   peculiarities without too much question, remember them and practise using them. This way
   of learning can be used for language study in general, i.e. note and copy, without worrying
   too much about the reasons behind everything. This is, in fact, how some people are able to
   pick up a language in a matter of a few weeks.


838 WHAT IS PERHAPS THE BEST WAY TO OVERCOME THE DIFFICULTY OF
   ENGLISH SPELLING ?                               Perhaps the best … is not by learning rules … but
                                                      by noting how each individual word is spelt and
                                                          how it behaves when used in different ways
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE!/                                Instead of trying to remember the rule
                                                                       …preferred, whilst … offered


   Sometimes, however, a rule which is ve ry clear and easy to remember , can help in the
   learning of the language. For example, with a word of one syllable which ends in a single
   vowel and a single consonant, the consonant is usually doubled when we add a suffix
   beginning with a vowel. For example “big – bigger; hit – hitting; sun – sunny” etc.


   WHEN DO WE USUALLY DOUBLE A CONSONANT ?                                     We usually … with a
                                                          word of one syllable which ends in a single
                                                                        vowel and a single consonant
839 GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES, PLEASE!                       Sad – sadder; glad – gladden; run - running
      WHEN WE SPEAK ABOUT THE DRIVING OF A CAR, WHAT'S THE OPPOSITE OF TO
      SLOW DOWN ? /                                                          When we ... to gather speed


      EITHER OF THEM              NEITHER OF THEM                 EQUALLY
      любой из них                ни один из них                  одинаково


      Notice the way in which we can answer the following: "Which of these books do you want?" -
      "Either of them, it does not matter, as they are both equally interesting", or "Neither of
      them, as they are both very boring."


      IF I ASK YOU WHICH OF TWO THINGS YOU WANT, AND THE CHOICE IS OF NO
      IMPORTANCE TO YOU, WHAT DO YOU REPLY?/                                                    If you ask...
                                                                                              either of them
      AND IF YOU WERE NOT INTERESTED IN EITHER OF THE TWO THINGS, WHAT
      WOULD YOU REPLY?                                                        If I were ... neither of them


      NEXT рядом, в следующий раз


      WHO'S SITTING NEXT TO YOU?                                                    ... is sitting next to me
      WHEN SHALL WE SEE EACH OTHER NEXT ?                                               We'll see ... next...


      OBJECT предмет


840    WHAT      DO    YOU     THINK     IS    THE     OBJECT      OF     LEARNING          A     FOREIGN
      LANGUAGE ? /                                                             I think the object of.. . is ...


      PAD             COTTON                 COTTON-WOOL                 ABSORB
      тампон          хлопок                    вата                      впитывать


      WHEN WE CUT OURSELVES, WHY DO WE PUT A PAD OF COTTON-WOOL OVER THE
      CUT ?                     When we cut... to absorb the blood and to cover and protect the wound
      IS THIS CHAIR PADDED ?                                            Yes, this ... or ... No, this chair...


      REACH OUT потянуться (за чем-либо), протягивать (руку)
      WHAT AM I DOING ?                                You're reaching out for me to give you something
   SCALE шкала           THERMOMETER термометр


   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY THE SCALE ON A THERMOMETER ? /                                            By the
                                                                         scale ... we mean the marks
                                                           on it showing the degrees of temperature
   WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY THAT A MAP IS DRAWN TO A SCALE OF ONE
   INCH TO A MILE ?                                                When we say that... we mean that
                                                 an inch on the map represents a mile of actual land


841 UNFINISHED SENTENCES ENDING WITH " TO " CONTINUATION
                                                            продолжение
   Sometimes we leave a sentence unfinished, ending it with the word "to". For example, "I did
   not want to tell him but I had to". The continuation of the sentence would have been "had to
   tell him". /


   GIVE    ME     AN     EXAMPLE OF       AN    UNFINISHED        SENTENCE ENDING               WITH
   "TO", PLEASE !                                             He said I could go if I wanted to (go)
   FINISH THIS SENTENCE, PLEASE ! - "I DON'T WANT TO DO IT, BUT I
   SUPPOSE I OUGHT TO ..."                                                          ... do it


   TAKE HOLD OF                    TAKE BY SURPRISE                      TAKE A BATH
   хватать, охватывать              застигать врасплох                    принимать ванну


   CHANCE случай, случайность                BY CHANCE случайно


   WHY DO PEOPLE TAKE HOLD OF SOMETHING WHEN THEY SUDDENLY
   BECOME AFRAID ?                         People take ... in order to give them strength and support
                                                                            and to steady themselves
   WHAT DO PEOPLE OFTEN DO WHEN THEY ARE TAKEN BY SURPRISE ?                             People often
                                                                                   jump when they ...
842 HOW OFTEN DO YOU SUPPOSE THE AVERAGE PERSON TAKES A BATH?
                                                                    I suppose the average ... about ...
   WHAT DID HE SAY?               He said he supposed the average person took a bath about once a...


   Some other uses of "take" are "take a holiday; take a house for a year; take a degree; take an
   exam" etc./
   CAN YOU GIVE ME SOME OTHER USES OF THE VERB "TAKE" ?
                                                                   ... take a holiday; take a chance ...
   WHAT DO WE MEAN               WHEN WE SAY             WE GIVE SOMEONE A                    SECOND
   CHANCE ?                         When we say ... we mean they have failed at something or done
                          something wrong and we are going to give them the chance to do better ...
   WHY    DO PEOPLE THESE DAYS HAVE A                        MUCH      GREATER CHANCE OF
   LIVING    TO   A   MUCH       GREATER        AGE     THAN      THEY      DID      IN    THE      OLD
   DAYS ?/               People these days ... because life today is easier and more comfortable, and
                                              modern medicine has improved a lot in recent times ...
843 WHICH OF THE MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS OF YOUR LIFE HAVE HAPPENED
   TO YOU BY CHANCE ?                                       Of the most important... by chance are ...


   TEMPTATION соблазн
   DO YOU EVER GET THE TEMPTATION TO DO SOMETHING VERY STRANGE ? - FOR
   EXAMPLE, TO SHOUT SOMETHING OUT WHEN EVERYONE IN A ROOM IS
   VERY SILENT                                               Yes, I sometimes ... or ... No, I never ...
   WHAT ?/


   VIEW вид, пейзаж
   WHAT KIND OF VIEW WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE FROM YOUR BEDROOM
   WINDOW?                                                                        I'd like... a view of...


   HIDE - HID - HIDDEN прятать, скрываться


   WHERE'D     BE THE BEST PLACE TO HIDE FROM THE POLICE IN                                         THIS
   BUILDING ?                                          The best place ... in this building would be ...
   WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO HIDE" ?/
                                                                    The paradigm... hide-hid-hidden
   LIAR лгун
   WHO'S THE BIGGEST LIAR YOU'VE EVER MET ?                                          ... is the biggest...
844 DETAIL подробность


   WHEN SOMEONE GIVES YOU AN ACCOUNT OF A FILM HE HAS SEEN, OR OF
   SOMETHING THAT'S HAPPENED TO HIM, DO YOU LIKE HIM TO GIVE YOU ALL THE
   SMALL DETAILS AS WELL ?/                                                    Yes, when someone ...
             I like him ... or... No, when someone ... I don't like ... but just the main points ...


   IDIOM 31


   GET ONE DOWN = make one tired and unhappy утомлять, огорчать кого-нибудь
   e.g. With all the noise and everyone getting angry it just gets you down after a time.
   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "GET ONE DOWN" MEAN ?                                            The idiom ... make...
    GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                He had to stop work, because the problems
                                                      and difficulties of the job got him down after a time
   DICTATION 70              CORNER (v) загонять в угол
   The men arrived late/ at the works so often/ that they lost their jobs./ It is said that/ when a rat is
   cornered/ by a man/ and has to defend its life,/ it will fly/ at the man's throat./ John did not realize/
   what he was doing/ and consequently forgot/ to shut the door behind him./ They have always led/ a
   very comfortable life till now./ suppose/ we shall reach the end of the book/ eventually/ if we keep
   working steadily./ The price of goods/ depends on supply and demand./ If the demand is great/ but
   the supply is small,/ the price will, of course, be high.
845 LESSON 129
   HOW DO YOU DO ?                             HOW ARE YOU ?
   Здравствуйте! Как поживаете?                Как дела?


   When we are introduced to somebody, we shake his hand and say "How do you do ?" and he
   replies the same "How do you do ?"


   WHEN WE ARE INTRODUCED TO SOMEBODY, WHAT DO WE SAY?
                                                                        When we are ... "How do you do ?"
   AND WHAT DOES THE OTHER PERSON REPLY ?                                   The other... "How do you do ?"


   When we meet somebody we know, we say "How are you ?" and they can reply in many
   different ways, but perhaps one of the most common replies is "Not too bad"./


   WHAT DO YOU SAY WHEN YOU MEET SOMEONE YOU KNOW?                                                     When I
                                                                                    meet... "How are you ?"
    AND WHAT DO THEY GENERALLY REPLY ?                                  They generally reply "Not too bad"
   UNDERNEATH снизу, вниз, нижний


   The difference between "under" and "underneath" is the same as that between "after" and
   "afterwards". "Underneath" means "under that" or "under it", and, unlike the word
   "under", it does not usually need to be followed by any other words. For example, "I knelt
   down by the car and looked under it", whilst "I knelt down by the car and looked
   underneath"./


846 WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "UNDER" AND "UNDERNEATH" ?
                                       The difference ... "underneath" means "under that" or "under it"
                                         ... it does not usually need to be followed by any other words
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                               I knelt down by the car and looked under
                                                                     it... or... I knelt down ... underneath


   WANDER бродить, прогуливаться                             DISTINGUISH различать


   CAN     YOU     DISTINGUISH        THE DIFFERENCE IN              PRONUNCIATION            BETWEEN
   THE WORDS "WANDER" AND "WONDER" ? /                                                  Yes, I can ... or...
                                                                                              No, I can't...
   WHAT DOES THE WORD "WANDER" MEAN ?                     The word ...
   WHAT DOES THE WORD "WONDER" MEAN ?                     The word ...


   STILL ещѐ, всѐ ещѐ                  YET ещѐ, уже
847 ANNOYANCE                 STRESS                  GOOD HEAVENS!
    раздражение               ударение                О боже! Боже мой!

   As we have already seen, we use "still" for something that is in progress at the moment,
   whilst we use "yet" for something that has not begun or happened. This means that "still" is
   generally used in positive sentences whilst "yet" is generally used in negative and
   interrogative sentences.
   In addition, however, we must note that when "still" is used in questions, it often gives the
   feeling of surprise or annoyance etc., and is generally spoken with a heavy stress, e.g. "What!
   Is that man still here?" - in other words, "Why doesn't he go home and let us all have some
   peace    ?"     -   or,    "Good    heavens!     You     aren't       still   eating,    are     you?"/
   WHAT FEELING DOES THE WORD "STILL" OFTEN GIVE WHEN USED IN
   QUESTIONS ?                                   The feeling the word ... is one of surprise or annoyance
   HOW IS IT USED?                                                       It's used with a heavy stress
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                "Good heavens! Are you still working ?"


   When "still" is used with comparatives, such as "longer, quicker, worse" etc., it is similar in
   meaning to the word "even" (meaning "more"), e.g. "If we want to get there in time, we must
   go still faster" or "even faster".


848 WHEN "STILL" IS USED WITH COMPARATIVES, WHAT IS IT SIMILAR
   IN MEANING TO ?/                                    When "still" is ... "even" (meaning "more")
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE ! My French is bad, and my English is still worse

   ACCORDING TO          в соответствии с, по

   IF I SAID TO YOU THAT ACCORDING TO THE NEWSPAPERS THIS
   MORNING WORLD WAR THREE HAD BEEN DECLARED, WOULD YOU
   BELIEVE ME ?                                                             No, if you said ...
   WHY NOT?
   WHAT, ACCORDING TO YOU, IS THE BEST WAY TO DEAL WITH
   CRIMINALS ?/                                                   I think the best way to deal...
   WHEN THINGS DON'T GO ACCORDING TO PLAN, WHAT DO YOU DO ?
                                                                                  When things don't go ...

   BAND группа         DISTURBANCE              MILITARY           SWEAT          SHAPE
   лента, оркестр      нарушение                военный            пот, потеть    форма, вид

849 IN THIS COUNTRY, DO YOU GET BANDS OF YOUTHS GOING AROUND
  THE TOWNS CAUSING DISTURBANCES ?                                   Yes, in this country we get... or...
                                                                                 No, in this country we
   DO YOU LIKE THE SOUND OF A MILITARY BAND ?/                                             Yes, I like ...
                                                                                         or... No, I don't...
   WHY DO THEY PUT A BAND OF MATERIAL INSIDE A HAT?                                            They put a ,.
                                        ... in order to absorb the sweat and help the hat to keep its shape


   CARRIAGE вагон, доставка
    WHAT'S THE NOUN OF THE VERB "TO CARRY" ?                                      The noun ... "carriage"
    HOW MANY CARRIAGES DOES THE AVERAGE TRAIN CONSIST OF?
                                                    The average train consists of perhaps ... carriages
    IF A FACTORY SENDS YOU GOODS, WHO USUALLY PAYS FOR THE
    CARRIAGE - YOU OR THE FACTORY ?/                                                        If a factory ...


850 ABOUT (cont.)            FOR WEEKS AND WEEKS                     WHAT ABOUT (YOU)
    но, об, около, кругом    на протяжении многих недель             какое Ваше мнение?

    We must now note some of the different uses of the word "about".


    WHAT KIND OF THINGS DO PEOPLE ARGUE ABOUT ?                                           The kind of ...
                                                                                 are politics, religion ...
    DO YOU THINK THERE'S ANYTHING TERRIBLE ABOUT TELLING
    PEOPLE YOU ARE NOT AT HOME WHEN, IN FACT, YOU ARE ?/                                             Yes, I
                                                   think there's something ... or ... No, I don't think ...
    DO PEOPLE STAND ABOUT ON THE CORNERS OF THE STREETS IN
    YOUR TOWN ?                                    Yes, people stand about... or... No, people don't...
    ARE YOU IN THE HABIT OF MOVING THINGS ABOUT IN YOUR HOUSE,
    OR DO YOU LEAVE THINGS IN THE SAME PLACE FOR WEEKS AND
    WEEKS ?/                             Yes, I'm in the ... or... No, I'm not in ... but I leave things ...
    WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY "THERE ARE FLOWERS ABOUT
    THE DOOR" ?                          When we say ... we mean there are flowers around the door
851 I DON'T THINK THERE'S GOING TO BE ANOTHER WORLD WAR, WHAT
    ABOUT YOU ? - THAT IS, WHAT DO YOU THINK ?                                        Yes, I agree. I don't
                                            think ... or ... No, I don't agree. I think there's going to ...

    BITTER горький          DISSATISFACTION неудовлетворенность, недовольство

    DOES TEA WITHOUT SUGAR TASTE SWEET ?/ No, tea ... but it tastes bitter
    WHAT DO YOU THINK MAKES PEOPLE BITTER, ESPECIALLY IN THEIR
    OLD AGE?                     I think that what makes people ... is dissatisfaction with their lives;
                                       things not having happened as they had wished; illness,... etc.

    NEAT опрятный

    WHAT WORD CAN WE USE INSTEAD OF THE WORD "TIDY" ?                                              We can
                                                                               use ... "neat" instead of...
   POVERTY бедность
   WHAT DO YOU THINK OUGHT TO BE DONE ABOUT THE POVERTY IN
   THE WORLD?                                      I think...
   ADMIRE восхищаться
   WHOM DO YOU ADMIRE MORE THAN ANYONE ELSE ?/                                                I admire ... more
                                                                                               than anyone else
   GENEROUS щедрый
852 DO YOU THINK THE RICH ARE MORE GENEROUS THAN THE POOR?
                                                                        Yes, I think the ... or... No, I don't...
   IDIOM 32


   TOUCH AND GO = dangerously very uncertain очень опасно, быть на волоске


   e.g. It was touch and go for a moment. I thought the piece of wood would break and
   we'd all fall into the sea.

   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TOUCH AND GO" MEAN ?                                         The idiom... uncertain...
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                  The car was in a very bad condition, and it
                                                     was touch and go whether it would get us home or not
   DICTATION 71
   The ship sank slowly/to the ocean bed./Some of the men on board were drowned/ as they were
   unable to swim./ Others managed / to hold on to pieces of wood/ that were floating/ on the surface
   of the sea/ and so were able to save themselves,/ and were carried to land/ by the tide./ Empires
   have always meant/ the conquering of one country by another,/ and the country which conquers/
   then demands a tax/ which makes it possible/ to conquer still more countries./ He was a great
   literary figure/ of his day,/ but today he is very little read./


853 LESSON 130

   DEAR2100 дорогой, заветный
   DO YOU THINK IT IS POSSIBLE FOR TWO PEOPLE TO REMAIN DEAR FRIENDS FOR
   LIFE ?                                                              Yes, I think it's ... or ... No, I don't...
   IS LIFE VERY DEAR TO YOU ?                                         Yes, life's very ... or ... No, life isn't...
   WHAT'S THE DEAREST THING YOU'RE WEARING ?                                   My ... is the dearest...


   EASY                 EASE легкость                AT EASE              ILL AT EASE/
   легкий, удобный      освободиться, облегчить      свободно              сковано, смущенно


   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY AN EASY CHAIR ?                                    By an easy chair we mean a
                                                                                     comfortable chair
   AND AN EASY LIFE ?                                              A comfortable and unhurried life
   DO YOU FEEL AT EASE IN STRANGE COMPANY, OR DO YOU FEEL ILL
   AT EASE ?                                                              I feel... in strange company
   ARE YOU ABLE TO DO THE DICTATIONS IN THIS BOOK WITH EASE ?/
                                                     Yes, I'm able to do ... or ... No, I'm not able ...
   IF YOU HAVE A HEADACHE, WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE BEST WAY
   TO EASE THE PAIN?                                 If I have a... I think ... the pain is to lie down,
                                                                         relax, take an aspirin ... etc.


854 FAILURE                 TO BE OBLIGED           CANDLE           LIGHT -LIT- LIT
   неудача, повреждение     быть вынужденным         свеча            зажигать


   WHEN THERE'S A FAILURE IN THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, WHAT ARE WE OBLIGED
   TO DO?/                                          When there's a ... we're obliged to light candles
   WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO LIGHT" ?                     The paradigm ... "light - lit - lit"
   WHAT KIND OF THINGS DO YOU THINK MAKE A PARTY A FAILURE ?                                 I think the
                                                                             kind of things that are ...
   STEAL             ROB                  THIEF
   красть            обкрадывать           вор


   The difference in sentence construction when using the verbs "steal" and "rob" is
   as follows:-
   To steal + something + from somebody.
   The thief stole + my watch + from me.


   To rob + something or somebody + of something.
   The thief robbed + me + of my watch.
   WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE IN SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION WHEN USING THE VERBS
   "STEAL" AND "ROB" ?/                                    The difference ... is "to steal + something..."
855 GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH, PLEASE!                             The thief stole + a handbag + from
                                                       Mary. The thief robbed + Mary + of her handbag


   The object of the verb "steal" is what is taken by the thief, whilst the object of the verb "rob"
   is the person or the place from whom or from which the thing is stolen, e.g. The man stole a
   car. The man robbed me (or the bank).


   WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OBJECTS OF THE VERBS "TO STEAL"
   AND "TO ROB" ?                                The difference ... is that the object of the verb "steal"
                                       is what is taken by the thief, whilst the object of the verb "rob"
                                            is the person from whom or from which the thing is stolen
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH, PLEASE !/                                He stole a pen. He robbed them
                                                                    of a pen. He robbed the Post Office


   HANDLE (v+n) ручка, рукоятка, обращаться(с)               GENTLE мягкий, кроткий
   WHAT'S THIS?                 It's the door-handle
856 WHAT KIND OF OBJECTS MUST BE HANDLED VERY GENTLY WHEN WE TOUCH
   THEM?                                   The kind of objects that... are objects such as glass, eggs ...
   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY A PERSON WITH A GENTLE NATURE ?
                                   By a person ... we mean someone who is not cruel or rough ... etc.
   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY A GENTLE WIND?/                                      By a ... we mean a wind that
                                                                                    is not at all strong ...
   DO YOU KNOW HOW TO HANDLE (I.E. USE) A GUN ?                                         Yes, I know how
                                                                              ... or... No, I don't know ...
   WHAT'S THE BEST WAY TO HANDLE A HORSE?                                      The best way ... is gently,
                                               without making any quick or sudden movements ... etc.


   HAND-IN-HAND                    ARM-IN-ARM                      CUSTOM
   рука в рука                     под руку                         обычай
   GIRLFRIEND                     SHORTHAND                    SYMBOL               HAND (v)
   возлюбленная, подруга           стенография                   знак                 вручать, подавать
   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY "WALKING HAND-IN-HAND" ?/                                    By "walking hand-
                             in-hand" we mean two people holding each other's hand as they walk
857 IS IT THE CUSTOM IN YOUR COUNTRY FOR A BOY TO WALK ARM-IN-ARM
   WITH HIS GIRLFRIEND ?                                    Yes, it's the custom ... or... No, it isn't...
   WHAT IS SHORTHAND?                   Shorthand is a system of writing in which we use symbols
                                                                    to represent the sounds of words
   WOULD YOU HAND ME THAT BOOK PLEASE !                                                   Yes, certainly


   ENQUIRE           INQUIRE               ENQUIRY/INQUIRY                     OFFICE
   узнавать          узнавать              наведения справки                    бюро
   WHERE DO WE GO TO ENQUIRE ABOUT TRAIN TIMES AT THE STATION ?/
                                              We go to the enquiry office to enquire about train ...
   ESCAPE бегство, побег
   IF YOU HAD BEEN A PRISONER DURING THE LAST WORLD WAR, WOULD
   YOU HAVE TRIED TO ESCAPE?                                    Yes, if I'd been a ... I'd have tried to
                                                                    escape ... or ... No, if I'd been ...
   REGRET сожалеть
   IS   THERE   ANYTHING        YOU    REGRET       HAVING        DONE       OR      NOT      HAVING
   DONE ?                         Yes, there's something I regret... or... No, there isn't anything ...
   WHAT?/ WHY?


858 TENDER                            ENABLE                                LOVINGLY/
   мягкий, уязвимый, деликатный       делать возможным, разрешать           нежно, с любовью


   ARE THE BOTTOMS OF THE AVERAGE MAN'S FEET TOO TENDER TO ENABLE HIM
   TO WALK WITHOUT SHOES ON ?                                                   Yes, the bottoms ... or
                                                                               ... No, the bottoms of...
   WHY ?                   Because he has been accustomed for a long time now to wearing shoes,
                                                  although it doesn't take long to harden one's feet
   IN THIS SENTENCE - "THE MOTHER PUT HER HAND TENDERLY ON HER
   CHILD'S HEAD" - WHAT DOES THE WORD "TENDERLY" MEAN ?/
                                                      In that sentence - "The mother ..." - the word
                                                            "tenderly" means "gently and lovingly"
   IDIOM 33


   CAN'T MAKE HEAD NOR TAIL OF IT = can't understand it at all
   INSTRUCTION инструкция


   e.g. I can't make head nor tail of this letter I got from John this morning. I don't know
   whether he means he is coming tomorrow or not


   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "CANT MAKE HEAD NOR TAIL OF IT' MEAN?
                                                            The idiom... means "can't understand it at all"
859 GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                              These instructions that go together with the
                                        machine are so complicated that I can't make head nor tail of them
   LESSON 131
   INTEREST                     DOCUMENTS               SHARES             SEAT-BELT
   интерес, выгода, доля         документы               акции              ремень безопасности
   WHEN WE BUY AN INTEREST IN A BUSINESS, WHAT EXACTLY DO WE CALL THE
   DOCUMENTS WE BUY?                                             When we buy an ... the documents we buy
                                                                                           we call "shares"
   IS IT IN YOUR OWN INTEREST TO WEAR A SEAT-BELT IN A CAR ?/
                                                                                    Yes, it's in your own...


   VERBS, NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING IN "Y"                           TIDINESS
                                                                       опрятность, порядок
   When a verb ends in "y" with a consonant in front of it, we change the "y" into "i" when
   adding -es or -ed. For example, "carry - carries - carried".


   WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE ADD -ES OR -ED TO A VERB ENDING IN "Y" ?
                                                               When we add ... we change the "y" into "i"
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !/                        study - studies - studied; hurry - hurries – hurried


   Nouns and adjectives usually behave in a similar way to verbs before a suffix is added, e.g.
   tidy - tidier - tidily - tidiness.


860 HOW DO NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES THAT END IN "Y" PRECEDED BY A CONSONANT
   BEHAVE ?                                               Nouns and ... behave in a similar way to verbs...
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                                 pity - pitiful - pitiless


   JUST как только, только                 PREFERABLY предпочтительно, лучше


   CAN YOU REMEMBER WHAT YOU DID JUST AS YOU CAME INTO THE
   ROOM?/                                                                                    Yes, I can...
   WHAT MUST A DRIVER DO WHEN THE GAP BETWEEN TWO OTHER CARS IS ONLY
   JUST WIDE ENOUGH TO ALLOW HIM TO PASS ?                                                        When a
                                               gap between two other cars is only just wide enough
                                           to allow a driver to pass, he must drive very slowly, and
                                                   preferably have someone standing in front of his
                                                          car to wave him to the left or to the right...


   LARGELY                   QUALITY                      CLEVER
   в значительной мере       качества                     умный, ловкий
   DO YOU THINK THAT SUCCESS IN LIFE (LIKE MAKING A FORTUNE) IS LARGELY A
   MATTER OF LUCK, OR DO YOU THINK CERTAIN QUALITIES ARE REQUIRED WHICH
   ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN LUCK. IN OTHER WORDS, DO YOU THINK THAT RICH,
   SUCCESSFUL PEOPLE ARE CLEVERER THAN POOR AND UNSUCCESSFUL PEOPLE, OR
   JUST LUCKIER ?/                 Yes, I think that... or... No, I don't think that... but I think that...


   MAY AS WELL... AS               WE MAY GO                        WE MAY AS WELL GO
   можно также, заодно              мы можем пойти                  мы можем также пойти
   DO YOU THINK THAT PEOPLE WHO ARE IN PRISON FOR LIFE OFTEN
   THINK THAT THEY MAY AS WELL BE DEAD AS IN PRISON ?                                               Yes, I
                                                         think that people ... or... No, I don't think ...
   WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO SENTENCES ? -
   WE MAY GO TO THE CINEMA THIS EVENING
   AND
   WE MAY AS WELL GO TO THE CINEMA THIS EVENING                                        The difference is
                               that the first sentence expresses a possibility, whilst the second one
                                    is saying that, as we do not know what else to do this evening,
                                         we may as well go to the cinema. In other words, going to
                                                      the cinema would be better than doing nothing
862 ON ACCOUNT OF            BOMB              EXPLOSION                      TIP
   из-за, по причине             бомба                    взрыв                                   кончик
   TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT                           ON MY OWN ACCOUNT/
   принимать во внимание                         по собственному желанию
   IF IT SNOWED IN THE MIDDLE OF SUMMER, WOULD YOU SAY THAT
   IT WAS ON ACCOUNT OF PAST ATOMIC BOMBS AND NUCLEAR
   EXPLOSIONS HAVING DISTURBED THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE?                                                Yes, if it
                                                                     ... or ... No, if it... I wouldn't say ...
   WHEN CONSIDERING THE PRICE OF A MEAL IN A RESTAURANT, DO
   YOU TAKE INTO ACCOUNT SUCH THINGS AS THE SERVICE CHARGE
   AND THE WAITER'S TIP, ETC. ?/                     Yes, when considering the ... or ... No, when ...
   ARE YOU STUDYING ENGLISH ON YOUR OWN ACCOUNT OR BECAUSE YOU
   ARE FORCED TO ?                                                                 I'm studying English...
   WHAT PART OF MY TONGUE IS THIS AND WHAT PART OF MY
   FINGER IS THIS ?                           That's the tip of your tongue and the tip of your finger


   When we are trying to think of a word or a name that we know well but doesn't come to us
   immediately, we say it's on the tip of our tongue./


863 WHAT DO WE SAY WHEN WE ARE TRYING TO THINK OF A WORD OR
   A NAME THAT WE KNOW WELL BUT DOESN'T COME TO US IMMEDIATELY ?
                                                                                              When we are
                                                            trying ... we say it's on the tip of our tongue
   NOT ... NOR ни …ни
   IF YOU ARRIVED HOME AT MIDNIGHT DYING OF THIRST AND FOUND
   THAT, FOR SOME REASON, THERE WAS NOT A SINGLE DROP OF
   WATER IN THE HOUSE NOR A BOTTLE OF DRINK, WHAT'D YOU DO ?/
                                                                If I arrived ... nor a bottle of drink, I'd...


   DELICATE тонкий, легкий, деликатный
   HOW SHOULD DELICATE THINGS BE HANDLED ?                                          Delicate things should
                                                              be handled with great care, i.e. delicately
   OBSERVE наблюдать, замечать
   DO PEOPLE BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY THAN THEY NORMALLY DO WHEN THEY THINK
   THEY'RE NOT BEING OBSERVED ?                                               Yes, people behave ... or ...
                                                                                         No, I don't think...
   WHY DO YOU THINK THIS IS ?                        I think this is because, when we are in company
                                  with other people, we have to behave as we are expected to behave,
                                                         out of consideration for them, but when we are
                                                                     alone, we can behave as we wish...
864 RIVAL соперник


   WHY IS IT THAT, IN ALMOST EVERYTHING ONE DOES, ONE NEARLY ALWAYS
   HAS A RIVAL ?                                 I think the reason that one nearly always has a rival in
                                            almost everything one does is that when something is worth
                                                   doing and pays well, there's nearly always more than
                                                            just one person wanting, or trying, to do it...
   PRESERVE сохранять, консервировать
   HOW DO WE PRESERVE FRUIT ?/                           We preserve fruit by putting it in bottles or tins


   PAW лапа
   WHAT'S A PAW ?                               A paw is the foot of an animal which has nails, like that
                                                                              of a cat, a dog, a lion etc ...
   IDIOM 34


   LUCKY BREAK = a piece of good luck usually following a period of little or no success
   счастливый случай, удача
   e.g. For many weeks I was without work and without money, then I had a lucky break: a man
   offered me a very good job on a ship.


   HITCH - HIKE ехать автостопом
   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "LUCKY BREAK" MEAN?                                     The idiom... "a piece of..."
865 GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                 We had to hitch-hike, and for hours no
                                                one stopped for us, then we had a lucky break: someone
                                                    stopped for us and we covered 400 miles in one day


   SELLER продавец, торговец                SWIMMER пловец


   DICTATION 72
   He is now/in control of one of the largest/ printing presses in the country./ Another step/ and the
   child would have stepped/ right off the table/ and fallen onto the floor./ After a bill has been passed
   by parliament,/ it becomes an act./ My uncle was always talking with pride/ about his many
   adventures abroad/ as a young man./1 was introduced to the seller/ and gave the car a trial run/ and
   found it was working all right./ Although he was a strong swimmer,/ he was borne out to sea/ by
   the                                                                                                  tide.
   LESSON 132
   WOODEN              HUT           WOOLLEN              SILKEN               GOLDEN
   деревянная          хижина        шерстяной                шелковистый       золотой, золотистый


   A wooden hut is a hut made of wood; a woollen hat is a hat made of wool; a silk dress is a
   dress made of silk, whilst silken hair is hair which is soft and smooth like silk; a gold watch is
   a watch made of gold, whilst golden hair looks like gold in colour.


   WHAT'S A WOODEN HUT?                A wooden ... made of wood
   WHAT'S A WOOLLEN HAT ?              A woollen ... made of wool
866 WHAT'S A SILK DRESS?/              A silk ... made of silk
   WHAT'S SILKEN HAIR?                 Silken ....like silk
   WHAT'S A GOLD WATCH ?               A gold ... made of gold
   WHAT'S GOLDEN SKIN ?                Golden ... looks like gold in colour

   EVERY OTHER DAY через день

   DO YOU HAVE ENGLISH LESSONS EVERY DAY OR EVERY OTHER DAY ?
                                                                                           I have English...
   OTHERWISE иначе                 ENGAGED занятый


   WHEN A FRIEND CALLS UPON YOU AT YOUR HOUSE AND YOU ARE OTHERWISE
   ENGAGED, WHAT DO YOU DO ?/                When a friend ... I...
   IF A CAR HAD NO WHEELS AND ALL ITS WINDOWS WERE BROKEN BUT OTHERWISE
   WAS IN GOOD CONDITION, WOULD YOU BUY IT?
                                                                         Yes, if a car... or... No, if a car...
   PERFORM                          TRICK                               PERFORMANCE
   Представлять                    хитрость, фокус, шутка               представление


867 IF YOU HAD TO PERFORM IN A PLAY, WHAT KIND OF PART WOULD
  YOU LIKE TO PERFORM ?/                      If I had to perform ... I'd like to...
   CAN YOU PERFORM ANY TRICKS ?                      Yes ,I can...or...No, l can't...
  WHICH ONES?
  WHAT TIME DOES THE LAST PERFORMANCE BEGIN AT YOUR LOCAL
  CINEMA ?                                                                The last... at my ... begins at...


  ENVY завидовать
  DO YOU ENVY A TEACHER HIS JOB ?


  ADVICE (n)                ADVISE (v)                 PRACTICE (n)
  совет                     советовать                 практика


  PRACTISE (v)             LICENCE (n)          LICENSE (v)
  практиковать             лицензия              давать разрешение
  WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "ADVICE" AND "ADVISE " ?/
                                The difference ... that "advice" is the noun, whilst "advise" is the verb
   WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE IN SPELLING BETWEEN THE NOUN "PRACTICE" AND THE
   VERB "PRACTISE"?         The difference ... that the noun is spelt "-ce", whilst the verb is spelt "-se"
868 AND BETWEEN THE NOUN "LICENCE" AND THE VERB "LICENSE" ?
                                                                                  It's the same difference
  RECORD (n)-                                    RECORD (v)-
  the "e" is pronounced as in "rest"            pronounced as in "see"
  рекорд,протокол,архив                         записывать


  WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WORDS "RECORD" (N) AND
  "RECORD" (V) ?/             The difference... is that "record" is the noun, whilst "record" is the verb
  CAN YOU THINK OF ANY RECORD THAT HAS BEEN BROKEN RECENTLY ?
                                                                    Yes, I can think... or... No, I can't...
  WHICH?


  HAVE YOU EVER RECORDED YOUR OWN VOICE ?                                            Yes, I've recorded...
                                                                                     or ... No, I haven't...
  WHAT DID IT SOUND LIKE ?                                                                   It sounded ...


  SCATTER                              ROW2150                      DISORDERLY
  рассыпать(ся), расшивать(ся)         ряд, сора, грести            беспорядочный
   WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF SCATTERING SEEDS ON THE LAND
   INSTEAD OF SETTING THEM CAREFULLY IN THE GROUND IN ROWS ?/
                                                       The disadvantages of... are that birds eat them,
                                                                      the wind blows them away, etc ...
869 WHY DOES A DISORDERLY CROWD OF PEOPLE SCATTER WHEN THE
   POLICE ARRIVE ?             When the police arrive, a disorderly crowd of people scatters because
                                        people are afraid of being arrested or hit by the police,... etc.


   TAP                  TURN ON                     ANTICLOCKWISE
   кран, стучать        откручивать, включать      против часовой стрелки


   WHAT AM I DOING ?                  You're tapping your fingers on the table
   IN WHICH DIRECTION DOES ONE NORMALLY TURN A WATER-TAP ON ?
                                     One normally turns a water-tap on in an anticlockwise direction


   UPSIDE DOWN вверх ногами                    RIGHT WAY UP правильное положение
   WHAT AM I DOING?/                               You're turning the book upside-down
   WHAT'S THE OPPOSITE OF "UPSIDE - DOWN" ?                                     The opposite of... is the
                                                                                            right way up
   WEAR                     RUB                 WORN-OUT                   MEND
   износиться, носить       тереть, затирать    изношенный                 чинить, штопать
870 WHAT'D HAPPEN IF I KEPT RUBBING MY ARM ON THE EDGE OF THE
   TABLE, LIKE SO?                      If you kept rubbing your ... you'd wear the arm of your jacket
                                                      (or dress) smooth and probably wear a hole in it
   WHAT DO WE DO WITH THINGS THAT ARE WORN - OUT ? /                                        We mend or
                                                                  throw away thinks that are worn-out


   EXPERIENCE опыт            QUALIFICATION квалификация
   WHICH DO YOU THINK'S MORE IMPORTANT - EXPERIENCE OR
   QUALIFICATIONS ?                                                                 I think it depends ...


   DEBT долг
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN: "TO BE IN DEBT" ?                             "To be in debt" means that we owe
                                                                  somebody something, usually money
   INTERRUPT перебивать            INTERRUPTION перерыв


   WHAT DO WE SAY WHEN WE INTERRUPT SOMEONE WHO'S SPEAKING ?
                                                                      When we ... we say "Excuse me"
   WHAT DO THEY SAY ON TELEVISION WHEN THERE'S AN INTERRUPTION ?
                                                       When there's an interruption on television, they
                                                                say "We're sorry for the interruption..."
871 MENTION упоминать
   GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORD "MENTION" IN IT./                                       Would you
                                                             mention to Mr. Green the fact that he still
                                                               hasn't paid his bill, and see what he says
   IDIOM 35


   GET HOLD OF THE WRONG END OF THE STICK = understand the
   неправильно понять                                                       opposite of what is meant
   e.g. No, you've got hold of the wrong end of the stick. It's the opposite of what I meant
   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "GET HOLD OF THE WRONG END OF THE
   STICK" MEAN ?                                             The idiom ... "understand the opposite ..."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                            Every time you explain anything to him, he
                                                always seems to get hold of the wrong end of the stick
   DICTATION 73               CLOTHING одежда
   On the whole / we speak English rather well now./ I have a clothing account/ at Westman's,/ where
   I spend nearly all my money./ The eastern states of North America/ were settled by the Europeans
   before the western states./ Before drawing money from a bank/ it is usually necessary/ to sign a
   cheque./ The size of the temple/ was much greater than we had expected./ After a very violent
   storm/ the navy found/ that many of its best ships/ had been broken on the rocks./1 would not dare/
   to differ with his opinions.
872 LESSON 133


   WAS + NFINITIVE
   "Was" (or "were") plus an infinitive expresses a future event in relation to the past, e.g. "1
   did not realize back in 1940 that I was never to see my mother again."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF "WAS" OR "WERE" PLUS AN INFINITIVE.
                                                          They were to find out later that he had lied to
                                                               them - at the time they had believed him
   ACT акт,поступок                CAPABLE                 BRING AN ACTION AGAINST
   закон, действие(в пьесе)        способен                начать судовой процесс
   WHAT DO YOU CONSIDER TO BE THE NOBLEST ACT A PERSON IS
   CAPABLE OF PERFORMING ?/                          I consider... the noblest act a person is capable of
                                                                                               performing
   WHAT'S THE BEST WAY TO JUDGE A PERSON - BY WHAT HE SAYS
   OR HOW HE ACTS ?                                                     I think the best way to ... is by...
   WHERE'D YOU HAVE TO GO IF YOU WANTED TO BRING AN ACTION
   AGAINST SOMEONE ?                               You'd have to go to the law courts if you wanted ...


873 BAR стойка,брусок         MADMAN             LOCK                 BARRISTER/
   плитка, преграждать        сумасшедший        замок, запирать      адвокат
   WHICH IS HEAVIER: A BAR OF GOLD OR A BAR OF IRON (IF, OF
   COURSE, THEY ARE THE SAME SIZE)?                                                    A bar of gold is ...
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN WHEN THE POLICE PUT A BAR OF WOOD OR
   METAL ACROSS THE ROAD ?                                         When the police put... it means that
                                                                         cars are not allowed to pass ...
   SUPPOSING AN ESCAPED MADMAN WERE RUNNING AROUND IN THIS
   BUILDING, WOULD YOU FEEL SAFER IF YOU LOCKED THE DOOR OF
   THE ROOM OR IF YOU BARRED IT?/                                                Supposing an escaped...
                                                                                         I'd feel safer if...
   We can also use "bar" in a legal sense. For example, when we talk about the "prisoner at the
   bar", or a "barrister" being called to the bar, etc.
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF THE WORD "BAR" BEING USED IN A LEGAL SENSE.
                                                             The prisoner at the bar; called to the bar...


   CART воз,телега,повозка
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN: "TO PUT THE CART BEFORE THE HORSE"?/
                              "To put the ..." means to put something first when it should come second
874 CAN YOU GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE ?                                  Learning to read and write a
                               language before learning to speak and understand it is like putting the
                                       cart before the horse, as a language should be listened to first,
                                                       then spoken, then read, and then finally written
   DECEIVE обманывать
   ARE YOU VERY GOOD AT DECEIVING PEOPLE ?                               Yes, I'm... or... No, I’m not...


   EITHER SIDE                NOT ... EITHER
   обе стороны                не …также не
   ARE THERE STUDENTS SITTING ON EITHER SIDE OF YOU ?                                       Yes, there are
                                                                               ... or ... No, there aren't...
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF THE USE OF "NOT... EITHER"./ This pen isn't his,
                                                                                 and it isn't yours either


   WHAT AND WHICH
   The word "what" is generally used in a somewhat unlimited sense, whilst "which" is used in
   a more limited sense, e.g. "What kind of books do you like reading ?"- that is, of all the books
   that exist, whilst "Which of these books do you prefer ?" – that is, of the limited number we
   have here at the moment.


875 WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WORDS "WHAT" AND "WHICH" ?
                                     The difference ... is that "what" is generally used in a somewhat
                                     unlimited sense, whilst "which" is used in a more limited sense
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH, PLEASE !/                                "What kind of food do you like
                                  to eat most ?" - that is, of all the foods that exist, whilst, "Which of
                                     these dishes would you prefer ?" - that is, of the limited number
                                                         of dishes of food we have here at the moment


   FAINT                           ENERGETIC             EXCITEMENT                    FEAR
   слабый, падать в обморок        энергичный            возбуждение, волнение          страх
   WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK OR DO WHEN A FAINT SMELL OF BURNING
   REACHES THEIR NOSES ?                            When a faint... reaches people's noses, they think
                                              something is on fire, a cigarette end that is still burning
                                                   has perhaps fallen on something ... they try to find
                                                                out where the smell is coming from ...
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN: "YOU MUST NOT BE FAINT-HEARTED IF YOU
   WISH TO SUCCEED IN LIFE" ? /                             "You must not be ..." means that you must
                                                   be strong, energetic, courageous and determined ...
876 WHY DO PEOPLE FAINT?                                       People faint because of excessive heat,
                                                                               excitement, fear, pain,...
   GLASSES очки
   WHY DO PEOPLE WEAR GLASSES ?                                                           People wear...
   DO YOU THINK PEOPLE LOOK BETTER WITH OR WITHOUT GLASSES ?
                                                                                 I think some people ...
   HAPPEN TO случаться (сделать что-то)
   WHEN YOU HAPPEN TO SEE SOMEONE IN THE DISTANCE WHILST
   WALKING DOWN THE STREET AND THAT SOMEONE IS A PERSON YOU
   DON'T PARTICULARLY WANT TO SPEAK TO, WHAT DO YOU DO ?/
                                                         When I happen to see ... want to speak to, I...
   OUTWARD(S)                 INWARD(S)
   внешний,наружный           внутренний,внутрь
   WHY DOES A MAN'S STOMACH GROW OUTWARDS INSTEAD OF
   INWARDS AS HE GETS OLDER?                             A man's stomach ... as he gets older because
                                               he eats too much and does not take enough exercise ...
   LEAN                      BENEATH             GIVE WAY                              FEATHER
   прислоняться, опираться    под                давать дорогу (не мешать)            перо
   LEAD свинец        VACUUM вакуум, пустота


877 WHAT AM I DOING ?        You're leaning on the table
   WHY DOES THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA LEAN ?/                                          The leaning ...
                                                 because the ground beneath one side has given way
   WHAT WAS THE FAMOUS EXPERIMENT THAT GALILEO IS SAID TO
   HAVE PERFORMED FROM THE TOP OF THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA ?
                              The famous experiment... was the one that showed that two objects of
                                    different weights, such as a feather and a piece of lead, fall at the
                                            same speed as each other if they fall through a vacuum ...
   MANKIND человечество
   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY MANKIND?                                    By mankind we mean people in the
                                                                                      world in general
   MONKEY обезьяна           CLOSELY близко
   WHICH ANIMAL IS MOST CLOSELY RELATED TO MAN ?                                      The monkey is
                                                                                the animal which is ...


   PIGEON            COUPLE             MATE                          CAGE/
   голубь             пара              товарищ                        клетка
   WHICH BIRD DO WE USE FOR RACING?                                             We use the pigeon...
   HOW DO WE MAKE PIGEONS RACE?                              We make pigeons race by taking them
                               a long way from home and then letting them go free to fly back home


   Two little tricks that are sometimes used to make a pigeon hurry home fas ter are as follows:-
   If the pigeon's a female bird, her owner can give her a couple of false eggs to sit on a few days
   before the race. On the day of the race he takes her off the eggs and sends her away. She will
   fly home faster, because she will be worried about her eggs.


   If, on the other hand, the pigeon's a male bird, on the day of the race the owner can take the
   pigeon out of its cage where it has its female mate, and at the same time show him that he's
   putting another male bird in with his mate. During the race the pigeon will hurry home fast
   and angry, wanting to get back to his mate and throw out his rival.


878 WHAT ARE TWO LITTLE TRICKS THAT CAN BE USED IN PIGEON
   RACING ?/                                                                    The two little ... are ...
   ARE YOU FOR OR AGAINST KEEPING ANIMALS IN CAGES?                                            I'm for ,
                                                                         keeping ... or... I'm against...


   IDIOM 36


   SNAP DECISION = A quick decision - fast, like the snap of one's fingers
   быстрое решение


   e.g. There wasn't time to think carefully: I had to make a snap decision.
879 WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "SNAP DECISION" MEAN ?                                 The idiom... "quick..."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                          Although it was a snap decision,
                                                                                      it was the right one
   DICTATION 74
   It doesn't matter / if we occasionally make a mistake./ We were suddenly forced to stop/ by the
   appearance of men/ standing in front of us/ with bows and arrows./ Some of them/ had drawn back
   their bows/ ready to let fly at us./ The youth claimed/ that he had not stolen the apples/ but the
   shopkeeper would not believe him./ Last year I paid a visit/ to the Holy Land/ which is the
   birthplace of Christ./ We stood on the shore/ and watched the sun go down over the lake.


   LESSON 134
   "SO" AND ITS MANY USES (CONT.)


   IT IS NOT SO                      SO, YOU HAVE COME !                  IT SO HAPPENS
   это не так                       итак, Вы пришли                      так получается, так случается
   SO KIND AS                       JUST (EXACTLY)                       WASH UP
   так добры, чтобы                 точно (именно)                       мыть посуду


   Some further examples of the uses of the word "so" are:-
   1) He said the train had left, but it was not so (not true)
   2) So, you have come after all! (said as an exclamation)
   3) It so happens that I have just the thing you are looking for
   4) Would you be so kind as to help me wash up the plates and dishes ?/


880 CAN YOU GIVE ME SOME FURTHER EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF THE
  WORD "SO" ?                                              Some further ... are 1) He said the train had ...


   MELT таять, растапливать, плавить
   WHAT DO WE GET WHEN ICE MELTS?                                            We get water when ice melts


   NOTHING TO DO WITH IT не иметь ничего общего с …...


   WHAT HAS THAT GOT TO DO WITH IT ? ..что общего с этим?
   IF WE WERE DISCUSSING ART AND I SUDDENLY SAID "AH YES, BUT
   WHAT ABOUT THE COST OF FOOD THESE DAYS?", DO YOU SUPPOSE
   THAT'D HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH THE DISCUSSION?                                    No, if we were
                                                         discussing... I don't suppose that'd have ...
   AND WHAT'D YOU PROBABLY ASK ME?/                            I'd probably ask you what the cost of
                                                                          food had got to do with art?
881 PICK AT клевать       PICK OUT отбирать
   WHAT AM I DOING? You're picking at your clothes (or at the comer of your book, etc.)
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN: "TO PICK OUT"?             "To pick out" means to choose ...


   REGARD             GREET                 GREETINGS
   считать             здороваться            поздравления
   BYE - BYE           CHEERIO                        CHEERS
   до свидания         пока! Всего хорошего           За Ваше здоровье
   WHAT'D YOU REGARD AS THE GREATEST FAVOUR THAT ANYONE COULD DO YOU?
                                                            I'd regard ... as the greatest favour that...
   WHEN WE WISH TO SEND OUR GREETINGS TO A FRIEND THROUGH A
   THIRD PERSON, WHAT DO WE SAY ?/                                    When we wish ... we say "Give
                                                             my regards to John when you see him"
   WHAT DO WE SAY WHEN WE GREET SOMEONE IN THE STREET?                                                We
                                              say "Hallo!" or "Good evening!" etc. when we greet...
   AND WHAT DO WE SAY WHEN WE LEAVE SOMEONE ?                                       We say "Goodbye;
                                       Bye-bye; Cheerio" or just "Cheers" when we leave someone


882 SCENT        GIVE OFF                  RIDER
   аромат        выделять, испускать       наездник
   WHICH FLOWER DO YOU THINK GIVES OFF THE NICEST SCENT ?/
                                                               I think the ... gives off the nicest scent
   CAN YOU TELL ME OF A CASE YOU KNOW WHERE AN ANIMAL HAS
   SHOWN IT HAS SCENTED DANGER BEFORE THE DANGER HAS ACTUALLY
   BEEN REACHED ?                                                     Yes, I can ... or ... No, I can't. ..
   As an example, a horse will sometimes refuse to cross a bridge that is in danger of breaking,
   even though its rider might try to make it go on ... and animals, such as deer, can also scent
   danger when a tiger is about...


   GO RIGHT                      TEMPER                   LOSE ONE'S TEMPER
   складываться хорошо           характер, настроение      выйти из себя
   THOUGHTFUL                    GO BAD                    SWEET/
   задумчивый, вдумчивый         испортиться               сладкий
   WHEN THINGS DON'T GO RIGHT, WHAT DO YOU DO - LOSE YOUR TEMPER, OR JUST
   BECOME VERY QUIET AND THOUGHTFUL, ETC. ?
                                                                           When things don't go ... I...
883 WHAT DO WE DO WITH FOOD THAT HAS GONE BAD ?                                        We throw away
                                                                                food that has gone bad
   WHAT KIND OF THINGS PUT YOU INTO A BAD TEMPER ?/                                         The kind of
                                                                                       ... temper are...
   WOULD YOU SAY THAT GENERALLY SPEAKING WOMEN WERE MORE SWEET-
   TEMPERED THAN MEN ?                                  Yes, I'd say that... or... No, I wouldn't say ...


   FOUR WAYS OF FORMING THE FUTURE


   There are four ways in which we can form the Future, and they are as follows:-


   1)1 shall go to London tomorrow (Normal Future)
   2) 1 go to London tomorrow (Present Simple)
   3) I am going to London tomorrow (Present Progressive)
   4) I am going to go to London tomorrow (Future Intention)


   Naturally, we can't use these different forms as we like. In some cases we use one form, whilst
   in other cases we use another, and, as with so much else in English, we best learn when to use
   them through practice./


   WHAT ARE THE FOUR WAYS IN WHICH WE CAN FORM THE FUTURE ?
                                                        The four ways ... are 1)1 shall got to London
                                                             tomorrow (Normal Future) 2) I go to ...
884 CAN WE USE THESE DIFFERENT FORMS JUST AS WE LIKE?                               No, we can't...
   WHAT'S THE BEST WAY TO LEARN WHEN TO USE THEM ?                                            The best way
                                                                                  to ... is through practice
   BY NOW к настоящему моменту
   IF YOU HAD LEFT FOR SCOTLAND TEN HOURS AGO, WOULD YOU HAVE ARRIVED
   THERE BY NOW ?                                                     Yes, if I'd left ... or ... No, if I'd ...
   WARN                                 AHEAD                 TRIANGLE
   предостерегать, предупреждать        вперед, впереди       треугольник


   WHAT KIND OF SIGN DO WE SEE ON THE SIDE OF THE ROAD THAT WARNS US THAT
   THERE'S DANGER AHEAD?/                                               The kind of sign we ... ahead is
                                        a red triangle with a picture of the danger in the middle. If, for
                             example, it's a dangerous bend, a line in the shape of a dangerous bend ...
   MERCY милосердие,милость
   HAS IT BEEN THE HABIT THROUGHOUT HISTORY FOR THE CONQUEROR TO SHOW
   MERCY TO THOSE HE HAS CONQUERED ?
                                                                                  No, it hasn't been the ...
885 WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE ?                                                                    I'd have ...


   DESIRE2200 желание
   WHAT'S A SIMILAR WORD TO "WISH" ?                               A similar word to "wish" is "desire"
   HAVE YOU ANY GREAT DESIRE TO VISIT A PARTICULAR FOREIGN
   COUNTRY?                                                  Yes, I've a great ...or ...No, I haven't any...
   WHICH ?/


   IDIOM 37
   IT NEVER RAINS BUT IT POURS = problems never come in ones and twos
   беда никогда не приходит одна                                          but many come together


   e.g. There was nowhere we could buy any petrol for the car, there were no trains or buses
   until the next morning, and there was only one hotel, and that was full. Well, you know what
   they say, it never rains but it pours.


   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "IT NEVER RAINS BUT IT POURS" MEAN ?
                                                                   The idiom ... means that problems ...
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                  One thing went wrong after another. It's
                                                              always the same; it never rains but it pours


   DICTATION 75                            INJUSTICE несправедливость
   The chickens/ have not laid a single egg/ for an entire week./ The soldiers behaved with great
   courage/ and fought well,/ but still they lost the battle./ He had the choice/ of either entering the
   government/ and becoming some kind of official/ or of entering the church/ and becoming a priest./
   The village looked very pretty/ lying in the valley /in the morning sunshine./ It is not uncommon/ to
   find public speakers/ preaching against the social injustices/of the day ./His eyes travelled to the
   ceiling.


   LESSON 135
   UPRIGHT прямой,                      LUNG                      ORGAN
   прямо, вертикально                   лѐгкое                     орган
   WHY IS IT HEALTHIER TO SIT AND WALK UPRIGHT RATHER THAN WITH HEAD AND
   SHOULDERS BENT FORWARD ?                                                       The reason it's healthier
                                        ... is that the lungs and other organs of the body are not pressed
                                          against each other, and with an upright back the blood moves
                                                 more freely in the body and the person feels less tired ...


   WORK OUT решать (проблему, задачу), разрабатывать (план)
   WORK OUT THIS PROBLEM, PLEASE - WHAT IS IT THAT, THE MORE WE TAKE AWAY
   FROM IT, THE BIGGER IT GETS ?                                                      It is a hole: because
                                      the more we take away from a hole, the bigger the hole becomes
887 WHAT ARE YOU DOING ?/                                 I'm working out the problem of- "What is it..."


   ADVANCE                      STEP BY STEP                                  CONFUSION
   продвигаться вперед           шаг за шагом                         беспорядок, путаница, смущение
   IN ADVANCE вперед, заранее                      IN ARREARS с опозданием (платить)


   WHY        IS   IT   BETTER     TO      ADVANCE          SLOWLY         STEP    BY     STEP      WHEN
   LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE RATHER THAN RUSH FORWARD TOO
   QUICKLY ?/                 The reason it's better to advance ... too quickly is that, unlike many other
                                subjects, a foreign language requires that page one is thoroughly learnt
                                   before page two can be completely understood, as the work on each
                                        page is based on the work on the pages that have gone before it,
                                            so to rush on too quickly would mean eventual confusion ...
   WHEN PEOPLE WORK FOR A WAGE, ARE THEY PAID IN ADVANCE OR IN
   ARREARS ?                                                         When people work ... in arrears


   BARE                WEAPON                       SILENCE (v)                   BARELY
   голый                оружие            заставлять молчать, успокаивать          едва
   ARE MY HANDS COVERED ?                                         No, your hands ... but they're bare
   IS IT POSSIBLE TO KILL A MAN WITH ONE'S BARE HANDS; THAT IS, WITHOUT USING
   A WEAPON OF ANY KIND ?                                                     Yes, it's possib le to ...
888 HOW ?/        By putting your hands round his neck and pressing your thumbs hard into his throat
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN: "HE SILENCED HIM WITH A BARE WORD" ?
                           "He silenced ..." means he silenced him with nothing more than a word ...
   WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY "WE BARELY HAD TIME TO EAT" ?
                                   When we say "We barely ..." we mean we only just had time to eat


   GO BACK            COME BACK               GO IN          COME IN            RETURN
   возвращаться       возвращаться             входить        входить           возвращаться
   ENTER               DESCEND                GO DOWN                   COME DOWN/
   входить            спускаться               спускаться               спускаться


   Sometimes you may find it difficult to know when to use the verb "go back" and when to use
   "come back", when to use "go in" and when to use "come in", exactly as when to use "bring"
   and when to use "take". There may appear to be no problem with these words but, in fact,
   pupils often confuse their use, as everything depends on where the person who is doing the
   act is at the time, and where the person who is speaking or writing about the action is at the
   time./


   For example, if at the time of speaking I am at the school, I would say "After the lesson
   tomorrow, I shall go back home", whilst, if at the time of speaking I were at home, I would
   say "After the lesson tomorrow, I shall come back home".


   If, therefore, you are in any doubt as to what you should use, you can easily overcome the
   problem by using the word "return", which serves for both "go back" and "come back", and
   the word "enter", which serves for both "go in" and "come in"./


889 WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH THE WORDS "GO BACK" AND "COME BACK" AND "GO
   IN" AND "COME IN" ?                                               The problem with the ... is that
                                                     everything depends on where the person who ...
   HOW CAN WE OVERCOME THE PROBLEM?                                      We can overcome the problem
                                                by using the word "return"... and the word "enter"...


   The same thing can be applied to the word "descend", which can be used for both "go down"
   and "come down". Though, in fact, it is seldom used in this way, you can use it if you are in
   difficulty and don't know whether you should use "go down" or "come down"./
890 WHAT WORD CAN WE USE INSTEAD OF "GO DOWN" OR "COME
   DOWN" ?                                               We can use the word "de scend" instead of...
   DO WE, IN FACT, GENERALLY USE THE WORD "DESCEND" INSTEAD OF "GO DOWN"
   OR "COME DOWN" ?                                             No, we don't, in fact, generally use ...
   GET доставать, получать, достигать
   Although the word "get" has many different meanings, we cannot always use it in place of the
   other verbs with the same meaning./ For example, we cannot say, "1 hope one day to get a
   doctor". For this reason, when there is any doubt, it is perhaps safer to avoid using "get" and
   use the verb of the same meaning.
   WHAT'S THE PROBLEM WITH USING THE WORD "GET" ?                                      The problem with
                                                           ... is that we can't always use it in place of
                                                               the other verbs with the same meaning
   HOW DO WE OVERCOME THE PROBLEM ?                                    We overcome ... by avoiding its
                                                use and using the verb of the same meaning instead


   CASE                IN CASE               RISK                   RUN A RISK/
   случай              в случае              риск                    рисковать
   WHAT DO WE CALL THE PERSON WHOM WE EMPLOY TO FIGHT OUR CASE IN THE
   LAW COURTS ?                                        We call the person whom we employ to fight
                                                    our case in the law courts a lawyer or a barrister
891 DO YOU CARRY AN UMBRELLA IN CASE IT RAINS, OR ARE YOU THE TYPE OF
   PERSON WHO PREFERS TO RUN THE RISK OF IT RAINING?/
                                              I carry an ... or ... No, I don't carry ... I'm the kind of...


   DEGREE                BY DEGREES                    ANGLE                  RIGHT ANGLE
   степень                постепенно                    угол                   прямой угол
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN: "WE ADVANCED BY DEGREES" ?                                     "We advanced by
                                            degrees" means we moved slowly and carefully forward
   HOW MANY DEGREES ARE THERE IN A RIGHT ANGLE ?                                          There are 90
                                                                              degrees in a right angle
   WHAT'S THE TEMPERATURE TODAY ? - I.E. ABOUT HOW MANY
   DEGREES IS IT TODAY ?                                                    It's about... degrees today


   EXCUSE (v) (pronounced "excuz")                       EXCUSE (n)
   извинить, прощать                                    предлог, отговорка
   WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "EXCUSE" (v) AND "EXCUSE" (n) ?/
                           The difference ... is that "excuse" is the verb, whilst "excuse" is the noun
892 FANCY                                     WAIST                    WAISTCOAT
   воображать, представлять себе,              талия                     билет
   любить, нравиться, людный
   WHAT WOULD I MEAN IF I SAID "I FANCY THAT JOHN WILL NOT COME THIS
   EVENING" ?                                        If you said "I fancy that..." you'd mean you had
                                                                  a feeling that John would not come
   AND WHAT WOULD I MEAN IF I SAID "I FANCY MYSELF TO BE IN ANCIENT
   GREECE" ?/                                          If you said "I fancy myself..." you'd mean you
                                                                           imagined yourself to be ...
   WHAT PART OF THE BODY IS THIS?                                   That part of the body is the waist
   DO YOU LIKE FANCY WAISTCOATS FOR MEN ?                                     Yes, I like ... or... No, 1
                                                                                           don't like ...
   WHAT DO       YOU     FANCY      FOR    YOUR        DINNER     THIS     EVENING;        THAT       IS,
   WHAT'D YOU LIKE TO HAVE?                                     I fancy ... for my dinner this evening


   PINT                 GALLON                          LITRE
   пинта                 галлон                         литр
893 8 PINTS = 1 GALLON                        1 PINT = 0.5679 LITRES/


   HOW MANY PINTS MAKE A GALLON ?                                 8 pints make a gallon
   HOW MANY LITRES MAKE A PINT?                                    Point 5679 litres make a pint


   JEALOUS завистливый
    HAVE YOU GOT A JEALOUS NATURE ?                                         Yes, I've got a... or... No, I haven't
                                                                                                            got a...
   MINE шахта                                  MINER шахтер
   WHAT DO WE CALL A MAN WHO WORKS IN A MINE ?                                                     We call a man
                                                                                  who works in a mine a miner
   TEND иметь тенденцию, склонность
   DO YOU THINK MOST PEOPLE TEND TO LIKE OTHERS OR TO DISLIKE
   OTHERS ?/                                                                     1 think most people tend to ...


   TOUGH жесткий, прочный
    WHAT'S THE CONTRARY OF "TENDER" ?                                      The contrary of "tender" is "tough"
    NAME A TOUGH METAL.                                                                    Steel is a tough metal


894 CONTENT (n) (kon'tent)                                        CONTENT (v) (kon-tent)
   (with the accent on the first syllable)                       (with the accent on the second syllable)
   удовлетворение, удовольствие                                   удовлетворить
   WHAT'S       THE     DIFFERENCE            BETWEEN         THE      WORDS        "CONTENT"         (n)    AND
   "CONTENT" (v) ?                The difference ... is that "content" is a noun, whilst "content" is a verb
   WHAT ARE THE CONTENTS OF YOUR POCKETS OR BAG ?                                                  The contents
                                                                  of my ... are a handkerchief, some money ...
   ARE YOU CONTENT WITH YOUR LIFE ? /                                             Yes, I'm ... or... No, I'm not...


   WITNESS свидетель
   HAVE YOU EVER HAD TO GO TO THE LAW COURTS AS A WITNESS TO AN ACCIDENT
   OR A CRIME ?                              Yes, I've had to go ... as a witness ... or ... No, I've never had ...


   RID избавлять (от чего-либо)                             GET RID OF избавляться
   WHAT'S THE BEST WAY TO RID OURSELVES OF SOMEONE WHO'S CAUSING
   US TROUBLE ?/                                                          The best way to ... is, if the problem
                                                                                    is serious, to call the police
   WHAT'D I EXPECT YOU TO DO IF I TOLD YOU TO GET RID OF THAT PEN ?
                                                          If you told me ... you'd expect me to throw it away
895 ABOVE ALL прежде всего
   GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORDS "ABOVE ALL" IN IT.                                        Don't forget
                                                     we need plenty of paper, pencils, rulers, etc. for the
                                                             exam, but above all pens that write properly
   IDIOM 38
   IN A NUTSHELL = briefly; in a few words коротко говоря
   e.g. After all the complicated explaining you have been doing, what you really mean
       to say - to put everything in a nutshell - is that you are not able to do the job.


   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "IN A NUTSHELL" MEAN ?                                      The idiom... "briefly..."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                 To put it in a nutshell, the answer is "no"


   DICTATION 76
   As a rule,/1 do not waste a lot of time/ worrying about details of little importance./ Last night/ there
   was a terrible storm/ and the surface of the sea/ looked like/ a mass of hills and valleys./ There has
   been a wonderful improvement/ in his health/ and he is now beginning/ to enjoy life again./
   Wisdom usually comes with experience./ Although he objected,/ he was still defeated./ I do not
   mind you smoking your pipe/ whilst I am eating./ We switched on the light/ and found that all the
   Christmas gifts/ had been stolen from the tree.
896 LESSON 136


   FLOUR                 GRIND - GROUND - GROUND                         SHARPEN
   мука                  молоть                                           точить
   HOW IS FLOUR MADE?                                                     Flour is made by grinding corn
   HOW DO WE SHARPEN AN AXE?                                We sharpen an axe by grinding it on a stone


   HARM                  HARMFUL                HARMLESS                           CREATURE
   вред, ущерб            вредный               безвредный                   создание, живое существо
   IF YOU WANTED TO HARM SOMEBODY, WHAT’D YOU DO ?                                       If I wanted... I'd...
   WHICH DO YOU THINK'S THE MOST HARMFUL CREATURE AND WHICH
   DO YOU THINK'S THE MOST HARMLESS CREATURE ON EARTH?/                                               I think
                                                            the ... is the most harmful creature and the ...
                                                                is the most harmless creature on earth


   "DO" WITH "WHO"
   The auxiliary verb "do" is not used with the interrogative pronoun "who" - e.g. "Who speaks
   German here ?" and not "Who does speak German here ?", unless, of course, one is being
   emphatic. Sometimes, however, you will find "do" together with "who", but this is because in
   such cases the word "who" should really be "whom", e.g. "Who do you think I saw yesterday
   ?" should really be "Whom do you think I saw yesterday ?"/


897 WHY IS IT WE SOMETIMES FIND THE AUXILIARY VERB "DO" WITH THE
   INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN "WHO" WHEN, IN FACT, "DO" IS NOT SUPPOSED TO BE
   USED WITH "WHO" ?                                                    The reason we sometimes find
                            ... "who", is that, the word "who" in such cases should really be "whom"
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                           "Who did you give the money to ?" should
                                                     really be "Whom did you give the money to ?"


   IRON (v+n) гладить/железо, утюг
   DO YOU IRON YOUR CLOTHES YOURSELF OR DOES SOMEONE ELSE IRON
   THEM FOR YOU ?                            I iron my... or... Someone else irons my clothes for me


   LIKELY вероятный                           UNLIKELY неправдоподобный, маловероятный
   DO YOU THINK IT'S LIKELY TO RAIN IN THE NEXT 24 HOURS ?
                                                 Yes, I think it's likely to ... or ... No, I don't think...
      DO YOU THINK IT'S VERY UNLIKELY THAT YOU WILL GO THROUGH THE ENTIRE
     WINTER NEXT YEAR WITHOUT CATCHING A SINGLE COLD ?/                                   Yes, I think it's
                                                        very ... or ... No, I don't think it's very ... but
                                                        I think it's very likely that I will catch a cold


898 DO SOMEONE A FAVOUR                                      THAT'S ALL RIGHT
   оказать услугу                                            не за что; все в порядке


   NOT AT ALL не за что, пожалуйста


   IT'S NOTHING              WELCOME                                         DON'T MENTION IT
   пустяки                    добро пожаловать! приветствовать               не стоит благодарности
    When we give something to someone or do someone a favour etc., and they say "Thank you",
    there are many ways in which we can reply, depending to some extent on what we have given
    them or what we have done. We can say, for example, "That's all right. That's O.K. Not at
    all. It's nothing. You're welcome. Don't mention it" etc., or we can just reply with a smile
    without saying a word./


    WHEN WE GIVE SOMETHING TO SOMEONE, OR DO SOMEONE A FAVOUR ETC., AND
    THEY SAY "THANK YOU", WHAT DO WE REPLY ?
                                   When we give ... we reply "That's all right. That's O.K. Not at all..."
899 UP (частичка) делать что-либо до конца            TEAR-TORE-TORN рвать


    When we add the word "up" to a verb it sometimes gives it the meaning of doing something
    more completely. For example, "I'm breaking this match"; that is, once, whilst "I'm breaking
    this match up" means I'm breaking it many times./


    WHEN WE ADD THE WORD "UP" TO A VERB, WHAT MEANING DOES IT SOMETIMES
    GIVE THE VERB ?                                        When we add ... it sometimes gives the verb
                                                      the meaning of doing something more completely
    GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                           "I'm cutting a loaf of bread into two halves",
                                           means, I'm cutting the loaf once, whilst "I'm cutting the loaf
                                                           of bread up" means I'm cutting it many times
    WHAT AM I DOING?                                                     You're tearing a piece of paper
    WHAT AM I DOING?                                                  You're tearing a piece of paper up


    PILE                ONE ON TOP OF THE OTHER                              HEAP/
    стопка, куча        один на другом                                        куча, груда
    WHAT AM I DOING?                                   You're piling your books one on top of the other
    WHAT’S ANOTHER WORD SIMILAR IN MEANING TO THE WORD "PILE"?
                                                                    Another word similar to ... is "heap"


    As with many words which are similar in meaning, in some cases we prefer to use the word
    "pile", whilst in other cases we prefer to use the word "heap", whilst in still other cases we
    can use either one word or the other. A pile is usually tidier than a heap.
900 POINT           FREEZE - FROZE - FROZEN22S0                          NOUGHT
   точка, конец     мерзнуть, замораживать                                    ноль


   CENTIGRADE (OR, CELSIUS)                  ZERO                  FAHRENHEIT/
    шкала Цельсия                              ноль                     шкала Фаренгейта
   WHAT'S THIS ?              It's the point of your pencil
   WHAT DO WE USE TO SHARPEN THE POINT OF A PENCIL ?                                         We use a
                                                                                     knife to sharpen...
   WHAT IS BOILING POINT ?                                Boiling point is 100 degrees centigrade or
                                                                              212 degrees Fahrenheit
   WHAT IS FREEZING POINT?                                Freezing point is nought (or zero) degrees
                                                                centigrade, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit


   SCRATCH                CHEEK                  SCRAPE                    SCRATCH OUT
   поцарапать              щека                     сдирать, царапать            отдирать
   WHAT'S THIS ?           It's your cheek
901 WHAT AM I DOING?/                                You're scratching your cheek with your ringer
   WHAT AM I DOING NOW ?                              You're scraping your cheek with your fingers
   WHAT DO WE HAVE TO USE IN ORDER TO SCRATCH OUT THE DATE
   ON A COIN ?                    We have to use the point of a knife ... etc., in order to scratch . ..
   DO WE USUALLY HAVE TO SCRAPE OFF OLD PAINT FROM A CAR OR A WOODEN
   DOOR BEFORE PUTTING ON A NEW COAT ?/                                               Yes, we usually
                                                                                  have to scrape off...
   THE ...THE чем … тем        THE SOONER ... THE BETTER чем раньше … тем лучше




   WOULD      YOU   SAY THAT        THE MORE            WE     LEARN        THE HAPPIER            WE
   BECOME ?                                                 Yes, I'd say that... or... No, I wouldn't
   say ...
   GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORDS "THE SOONER... THE
   BETTER".                                           The sooner we get the job finished the better,
                                                                          so that we can have a rest
   RESPONSIBLE ответственный                     COUNCIL совет (организация)
902 AT ABOUT WHAT AGE IS A CHILD CONSIDERED TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR
   HIS OWN ACTIONS ?/                             A child is considered to be ... at about... years old
   WHAT'S A LOCAL TOWN COUNCIL RESPONSIBLE FOR ?                                            A local town
                                  council is responsible for keeping the streets clean, looking after the
                                   public gardens, supplying water and electricity to the houses, etc....


   FRIGHT страх                               FRIGHTEN испуганный
   HAVE YOU EVER BEEN FRIGHTENED BY A GHOST ?                                             Yes, I've been
                                                                          ... or... No, I've never been ...
   WHAT HAPPENED ?


   MEAN (adj) злой, подлый
   WHO DO YOU THINK ARE THE MEANEST PEOPLE YOU KNOW OF ?
                                                            I think ... are the meanest people I know of


   THOUGHTLESS невнимательный, легкомысленный, необдуманный


   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY A THOUGHTLESS PERSON ?                                           By a thoughtless
                                                   person, we mean either someone who doesn't think,
                                               or someone who shows little consideration for others...


903 PALE бледный                    SICKNESS болезнь
   WHAT CAN MAKE A PERSON'S FACE TURN PALE ?/                                     Fright, fear, sickness,
                                                                etc., can make a person's face turn pale


   IDIOM 39                PREPARATION приготовление


   OFF THE CUFF = without preparation, or, not official. (The expression comes
   спонтанно                                           from the habit in the old days of men writing
                                                                      notes on their hard shirt cuffs.)
   e.g. I can't give you a full and proper answer to your question but only one off the cuff.


   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "OFF THE CUFF" MEAN ?                          The idiom "off the cuff" means...
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                             He had no time to prepare a proper speech
                                                                     and so had to give one off the cuff
   HAVE YOU EVER HAD TO MAKE A SPEECH "OFF THE CUFF" ?
   LESSON 137
   -ISH                         SICILY Сицилия


   When we add the letters "-ish" to an adjective it means "rather" or "more or less". For
   example, "Sicily is not exactly a big island, like Japan or Britain, but it's biggish compared
   with the other islands in the Mediterranean."


904 WHAT MEANING DO THE LETTERS "-ISH" GIVE WHEN WE ADD THEM TO AN
   ADJECTIVE ?                             The letters "-ish" give the meaning of "rather" or "more or
                                                               less" when we add them to an adjective
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !/                     "The ceiling is not exactly white, but it's whitish"


   We cannot always add the letters "ish" to an adjective. We do not say, for example,
   "simplish". This is because it does not sound very nice. We would instead say, "fairly
   simple".


   UPSET                  FEEL UPSET                      TERRIBLY
   расстроенный             быть расстроенным                 ужасно
   WHAT WOULD I MEAN IF I SAID "MY PLANS FOR THE FUTURE HAVE ALL BEEN
   UPSET BY THE INTERFERENCE OF MY FATHER" ?                                                    If you said
                                              that your plans for the future had all been ... you would
                                                          mean that he had not agreed with your plans,
                                                                and had made you change them ... etc.
   IF YOU      UPSET A       DRINK     OVER      A    LADY'S DRESS, WHAT'D                   YOU       SAY
   AND DO ?/                       If I upset a ... I'd say "I'm terribly sorry" and would try to help her
                                                                            clean the dress in some way
905 IF I SAID "I'M FEELING VERY UPSET TODAY", WHAT WOULD I MEAN ?
                                  If you said that you were feeling very upset today, you'd mean that
                                              something unpleasant had happened to you, or you had
                                                                       seen something unpleasant etc...
   WRECK                  MISFORTUNE             SHIPWRECK                 TAKE TO
   разрушить, разбить       неудача                   кораблекрушение             убегать, спасаться
   HOW WOULD YOU FEEL, AND WHAT WOULD YOU DO, IF ALL YOUR PLANS FOR THE
   FUTURE WERE WRECKED THROUGH SOME ACCIDENT OR SOME PIECE OF
   MISFORTUNE?/                                            If all my plans for the future were wrecked
                                                                                    ... I'd feel ...and I'd...
   DESCRIBE WHAT HAPPENS IN A SHIPWRECK.                              In a shipwreck, the ship sinks
                                                         and people take to small boats, or drown ...


   ADVERTISE                SALE              FOR SALE                ADVERTISEMENT
   рекламировать              распродажа          продается                 реклама
   ADVERTISING             COMMERCIAL                    PRODUCT
   рекламирование             торговый                       продукт
906 HOW WOULD YOU ADVERTISE THE FACT THAT YOU HAD A HOUSE FOR
   SALE ?                                                  I'd advertise the fact that... by putting an
                                                             advertisement in the newspaper ... etc.
   WHAT DO YOU THINK'S THE BEST FORM OF ADVERTISING FOR SELLING A
   COMMERCIAL PRODUCT?/                                                 I think the best form ... is ...


   "SOME" IN INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES                           USUAL обычный


   We sometimes use the words "some, somebody" and "something", in interrogative sentences
   instead of the usual "any, anybody", and "anything". We generally do this when we expect a
   positive answer, and especially when we offer something to somebody. For example, "Would
   you like some more tea ?" - "Is there somebody here you're looking for ?" - "Would you like
   me to buy you something nice for Christmas ?" etc./


   WHEN DO WE USE "SOME, SOMEBODY" AND "SOMETHING" IN INTERROGATIVE
   SENTENCES INSTEAD OF THE USUAL "ANY, ANYBODY" AND "ANYTHING" ?
                                           We use "some"... when we expect a positive answer, and
                                                 especially when we offer something to somebody
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH, PLEASE !                          "Would you like some more tea ?"
                                          "Did I hear somebody ring the front door bell just then ?"
                                                     "Would you like something nice for dinner ?"


907 BARGAIN            OVER              SECOND-HAND                     BASEMENT/
   торговаться          более чем           бывший в употреблении             цокольный этаж
   GET THE BETTER OF THE BARGAIN получить наибольшую выгоду от сделки
   WHAT WOULD I MEAN IF I SAID THAT I HAD HAD TO BARGAIN FOR OVER
   AN HOUR WHEN I BOUGHT MY SECOND-HAND CAR, BUT EVENTUALLY
   GOT THE BETTER OF THE BARGAIN?/                                                If you said that you
                had had to bargain ... you would mean that you had bought a car that was not new and
                        that, for more than an hour, you had had to argue about the price, because the
                               price was not fixed. Eventually, the deal was to your advantage, which
                                             meant you got the car cheaper than the expected price ...
   WHAT KIND OF GOODS WOULD WE EXPECT TO FIND IN THE BARGAIN BASEMENT
   OF A SHOP ?                               The kind of goods we'd expect... would be those which
                                    the shop was able to sell more cheaply than at the normal price ...


   CAUTION осторожность, предостерегать                               CAUTIOUSLY осторожно
   IN WHAT KIND OF SITUATIONS DO PEOPLE MOVE VERY CAUTIOUSLY ?
                             The kind of situations in which people ... is when there's danger... etc ...
908 HOW MANY TIMES DO THE POLICE CAUTION YOU ABOUT BAD
   DRIVING BEFORE THEY TAKE AWAY YOUR LICENCE ?/                                                The police
                                                             caution you ... about bad driving before ...
   DELIVER                  MAIL                BEFOREHAND                        SET FREE
   доставлять                 почта                заранее                        освобождать
   AT WHAT TIME DO THEY DELIVER THE MAIL AT YOUR HOUSE ?
                                                                           They deliver the ... at about...
   IF YOU HAD TO DELIVER A SPEECH, WOULD YOU CAREFULLY PREPARE NOTES
   BEFOREHAND OR WOULD YOU GIVE IT "OFF THE CUFF" ?/                                             If I had to
                                                                                   deliver a speech, I'd ...
   WHICH WOULD SOUND MORE NATURAL?                                    Delivering the speech off the cuff
                                                                               would sound more natural
   WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY "THE PRISONERS WERE DELIVERED FROM THE
   ENEMY" ?                                                 When we say that the prisoners were ... we
                                                                             mean that they were set free
   CRITIC критика
   DO YOU THINK CRITICS SERVE A USEFUL PURPOSE ? IF SO, WHAT ?
                                        Yes, I think critics ... because they ... or ... No, I don't think...
   909 DO THEY ALWAYS KNOW WHAT THEY ARE TALKING ABOUT?/
                                                     Yes, they always ... or... No, they don't always ...
   IDIOM 40


   HARD UP = having very little money на мели, без денег


   e.g. I can't let you have any money this week: I'm very hard up.
   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "HARD UP" MEAN ?                                         The idiom ... "having very ..."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                               We were so hard up we couldn't
                                                                                          even buy a newspaper


   OPPOSITION оппозиция                               SADLY грустно


   DICTATION 77
   Some people find it sad/ that the steam engine/ is hardly any longer used/ on the railways these
   days./ Although he strongly opposed the bill,/ he knew it would be passed/ all the same/ and so,
   after replying to the opposition,/ he returned sadly to his seat./ The guards were given orders/ to
   shoot the enemy on sight./1 am an early bird,/ and so feel very bright/ in the morning/ and dull in
   the evening./ Find out if he is fit/ to do the job first.


   LESSON 138
   DOUBLE CONTRACTIONS


   One of the reasons spoken English is difficult to understand is due not only to contractions
   but to double contractions. For example, "I would have seen him if he had been there"
   becomes "I'd've seen him if he'd been there." - "I would have" becomes "I'd've."


910 GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF A DOUBLE CONTRACTION.                                                 An example of a
                                                   double contraction is "He'd've gone if he'd been able to"


   EXPECT = TO LOOK FORWARD TO AN EVENT                                    RELY ON/
   ожидать                                                                      полагаться на
   ARE YOU EXPECTING A LETTER FROM ANYONE IN THE NEXT FEW DAYS ?                                                 .
                                                                    Yes, I'm expecting ... or ... No, I'm not ...
   DO YOU THINK A CHILD CAN BE EXPECTED TO STUDY WITHOUT BEING FORCED TO
   DO SO, EITHER BY HIS TEACHER OR HIS PARENTS ?/
                                                               Yes, I think a child ... or ... No, I don't think...
   I EXPECT BY NOW THAT YOU UNDERSTAND EVERYTHING I SAY WITH EASE - IS
   THAT RIGHT ?                                                  Yes, that's right... or ... No, that is n't right...
   CAN YOU ALWAYS BE RELIED UPON TO DO THINGS THAT YOU HAVE PROMISED
   SOMEONE YOU WILL DO ?                                           Yes, I can always be relied upon to
                                                                        ... or... No, I can't always be ...


911 FAST                     FASTEN                         AEROPLANE                    TAKE OFF
   прочный, крепкий                           прикрепить, застегивать                           самолѐт
   взлетать


   TOUCH DOWN здесь: приземлиться              . SAFETY-BELT ремень безопасности


   WHAT DO WE HAVE TO DO IF WE WANT TO HOLD TWO PIECES OF WOOD FAST
   TOGETHER ?                               If we want to... we have to hammer a nail into them... etc
   WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE NOTICE "FASTEN YOUR SEAT - BELTS"
   THAT    APPEARS      IN   AN     AEROPLANE JUST             BEFORE        THE PLANE           TAKES
   OFF OR LANDS ?                  The meaning of the notice "Fasten your seat-belts" that appears in
                                       an aeroplane just before the plane takes off or lands is that we
                                           must tie our safety-belts around us to hold us fast when the
                                                   plane leaves the ground and when it touches down


   HASTEN спешить                           HASTE спешка
   WHAT'S THE BEST WAY TO HASTEN A LAZY WORKER?/                                       The best way to
                                      ... is to offer him more money or tell him he will lose his job ...
912 WHAT DOES IT MEAN: "MORE HASTE LESS SPEED" ?                                       "More haste less
                                  speed" means that often if we try to do something too fast we finish
                                               by doing it much slower than if we had taken our time


   GARDEN GATE = GATE OF THE GARDEN


   ELIMINATE                  PORTER                     HALL - PORTER
   исключать                      портье                     портье


   We can often put two nouns together in English and by doing so eliminate the need for the
   words "of the". For example, "the clock face" means "the face of the clock".
   GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES OF PUTTING TWO NOUNS TOGETHER AND SO
   ELIMINATING THE WORDS "OF THE" /                     "Hall-porter" meaning "the porter of the hall".
                                                      "Book cover" meaning "the cover of the book".
                                                       "Table top" meaning "the top of the table"
   OVERNIGHT ночь на пролет, всю ночь
   IF YOU WERE EVER TO BECOME VERY RICH AND FAMOUS, WOULD YOU PREFER IT
   TO HAPPEN OVERNIGHT OR LITTLE BY LITTLE?                                                If ever I
                                                             were to become ... I'd prefer it to ...


913 MERE обычный
   IS THERE ANY JOB YOU COULD THINK OF THAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO
   DO,     NOT   FOR   MONEY,      BUT   FOR      THE   MERE       HONOUR         THAT       GOES
   WITH THE JOB?                                    Yes, there's a job I can think of that I'd like
                                                          ... or... No, there isn't any job I can ...
   WHICH JOB ?/


   NUISANCE досада, неприятность, раздражающий человек
   WHAT DO YOU THINK'S THE BEST THING TO SAY TO PEOPLE, OR DO WITH PEOPLE,
   WHO MAKE THEMSELVES A NUISANCE ?                                                          I think
                                                                                  the best... is to...


   POST           DOORPOST           GOAL           DIG-DUG-DUG                  POSTAGE
   столб           дверной столб         ворота           копать                        почтовый
   сбор
   WHAT ARE THESE ?                                                           These are doorposts
   WHAT DO WE HAVE TO DO WHEN WE WANT TO PUT POSTS IN THE GROUND TO
   MAKE THE GOALS FOR A GAME OF FOOTBALL OR RUGBY ?/                            When we want to
                                                          put posts in the ground to make the ...
                                                    we must dig fairly deep holes in the ground
   ABOUT HOW LONG DO YOU THINK IT TAKES TO REACH THE POST OF BANK
   MANAGER IF YOU START RIGHT FROM THE BOTTOM ?
                                                    I think it takes about... years to reach the ...
914 HOW MUCH IS THE POSTAGE FOR A LETTER FROM YOUR COUNTRY TO
   ENGLAND?/                                                 The postage for a letter from... is ...


   PUNISH наказывать
   HOW'D YOU PUNISH A PUPIL WHO WAS LACKING IN DISCIPLINE ?
                             .            I'd punish a pupil who was lacking in discipline by ...
   FOLD сворачивать
   WHAT AM I DOING?                                          You're folding a page of your book
   NATIVE родной, уроженец                                     COLONIALISM колониализм
    A native is a person born in a certain country or place. For example, "I'm a native of...".


    WHAT’S A NATIVE ?/                             A native is a person born in a certain country or place


    TREASURE сокровище
    IS THERE STILL ANY LOST TREASURE IN THE WORLD?                                         Yes, there's still
                                                      ... especially at the bottom of the sea where treasure
                                                                  ships sank during storms in the old days


915 RECEIPT2300 счет                               PROVE доказывать


    WHY DOES ONE ASK FOR A RECEIPT TO BE SIGNED WHEN ONE DELIVERS
    GOODS ?/                                          One asks for a receipt to be signed when ... in order
                                                           to prove that they have, in fact, been delivered


    IDIOM 41


    TELL OFF = to speak angrily to someone for doing something wrong                      ругать


    e.g. The teacher told the pupil off for being late for his lesson.


    WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TELL OFF" MEAN?                                        The idiom ... "to speak..."
    GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE!                                             If I'm not home early at night,
                                                                               I get told off by my mother
    DICTATION 78
    We spent the whole afternoon/ gathering up the apples/ that had fallen on the ground./ A railway
    line/ does not have to be level,/ but it cannot climb too rapidly,/ otherwise a train cannot run on it./
    As we weighed the cake/ my father gave a cry of surprise./ He had not realized/ it would weigh so
    much./ The theatre seats were well-made,/ so that the audience/ could relax/ and watch the play in
    comfort./ For one brief moment,/ I was certain he would obey.


916 LESSON 139
    EXCUSE ME                      I'M SORRY                     ACCIDENTALLY
    извините меня                    извиняюсь                       случайно
  Generally speaking, we use "Excuse me" for something that is not very important and "I'm
  sorry" for a more important apology. This, however, like so many other things, is only a
  general rule.


  WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "EXCUSE ME" AND "I'M SORRY" ?
                         The difference ... is that we generally use "Excuse me" for something that is
                                    not very important, and "I'm sorry" for a more important apology
  WHAT DO YOU SAY WHEN YOU WANT TO PASS BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE WHO ARE
  SPEAKING TO EACH OTHER?/                                                      When I want to ... I say
                                                                                   "Excuse me, please"
  AND WHAT DO YOU SAY IF, IN PASSING, YOU ACCIDENTALLY STEP ON THE FOOT
  OF ONE OF THE TWO PEOPLE WHO ARE SPEAKING ?
                                            If, in passing, I accidentally step... I say "Oh, I'm terribly
                                                                      sorry! I hope I haven’t hurt you"


  REJOICE                   REJOICING                     WEALTHY                   DISASTER
  радость                     радостный                        богатый                    катастрофа
917 WHY ARE PUBLIC REJOICINGS NOT AS COMMON NOW AS THEY WERE IN
  THE PAST ?/                                  Public rejoicings are not as common ... because many
                                      countries in the world today are at peace; and with the progress
                                             of science, people are becoming wealthier and healthier
                                                       than in the past, and so national disasters such
                                                                as war, plague, hunger etc., are rarer...


  SCREW шуруп                            SCREWDRIVER отвертка
  WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A NAIL AND A SCREW ?
                                     The difference ... is that a nail we hammer into a piece of wood,
                                                  whilst a screw we turn and turn with a screwdriver
  THEN тогда; потом, в случае
  The word "then" has three meanings:-


  1) At that time - e.g. I shall see him on Thursday and will give him the news then.


  2) Next - e.g. We'll have dinner first, and then watch T.V.


  3) In that case - e.g. If you don't understand, then ask.
    WHAT ARE THE THREE MEANINGS OF THE WORD "THEN" ?/                                           The three
                                                       meanings ... are "at that time; next; in that case"
    GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH, PLEASE !                                1)1 began studying English last
                                                    year, and before then (i.e. before that time) did not
                                               know a single word. 2) I shall study first, then go to the
                                     cinema. 3) You will find the door locked; then what will you do ?


918 URGE побудить, подстегнуть, советовать
   WHAT'S THE BEST WAY TO URGE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING HE DOES
   NOT WANT TO DO ?/                                 The best way to urge someone to ... is to tell him
                                             how much better everything will be after he has done it...


   YOU'RE RIGHT вы правы                     YOU'RE WRONG вы неправы
   AM     I   RIGHT    WHEN      I    SAY     THAT       THE     OPPOSITE        OF    "BELIEVE"         IS
   "UNBELIEVE" ?                            No, you aren't right when you say that... but you're wrong,
                                                      because the opposite of "believe" is "disbelieve"


   AFFAIR дело                            LOVE AFFAIR роман
   IS IT WISE TO SPEAK ABOUT ONE'S PRIVATE AFFAIRS IN PUBLIC ?
                                                                                    No, it isn't wise to ...
    ARE LOVE AFFAIRS ALWAYS HAPPY ?/                                             No, love affairs aren't...


   BASIN          WASH – BASIN                 RIVER BASIN               SHAPED LIKE
   раковина           раковина                    бассейн реки                в форме чего-то
919 WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A WASH-BASIN AND A RIVER
    BASIN ?                              The difference between ... is that a wash-basin is an object in
                                               which we wash our hands and face, whilst a river basin
                                                         is so called because it is shaped like a basin ...


   CHARM                  CHARMING                        MUSICAL                        SNAKE
   шарм                    очаровательный                      музыкальный                     змея
   SNAKE-CHARMER                        INSTRUMENT                          MAGIC
   заклинатель змей                        инструме нт                           магический
    WHO'S THE MOST CHARMING PERSON YOU KNOW ?                                         The most charming
                                                                                      person I know is ...
   WHAT'S A SNAKE-CHARMER?/                                 A snake charmer is a person who charms a
                                                               snake by playing a musical instrument...
   DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THERE ARE PEOPLE IN THE WORLD WHO CAN PUT A MAGIC
   CHARM ON OTHER PEOPLE?                                                     Yes, I believe that there ...
                                                                                        or ... No, I don't...


   WHETHER ли


   Just a short note to remind ourselves about the use of the word "whether". With the word
   "whether" we generally add the words "or not", and it usually expresses a doubt, e.g. "I
   wonder if Tom will come" or "I wonder whether Tom will come or not." The word
   "whether" cannot generally be used to express a condition. Only "if will do in such cases, e.g.
   If you meet James, tell him to come and see me./


920 WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE' IN USE BETWEEN THE WORDS "WHETHER" AND "IF" ? -
   AND GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.                                              The difference in ... is that with
                                         the word "whether" we generally add the words "or not", and
                                           it usually expresses a doubt, e.g. "I wonder if Tom ..." or "I
                                                  wonder whether Tom ...". The word "whether" can't
                                                            generally be used to express a condition ...


   LAST                   LATEST                     LAST BUT ONE
   последний              самый новый                   предпоследний


   The difference between "last" and "latest" is that, if I say "Have you read John Brown's last
   book ?" it usually means John Brown is dead and I am talking about the last book he wrote;
   whereas, if I say "Have you read John Brown's latest book?" it means that John Brown is
   still alive and I am talking about the book he has written most recently./


   WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "LAST" AND "LATEST" ?
                       The difference ... is that if I say "Have you seen Charles Smith's last painting?"
                                  it usually means Charles Smith is dead; whereas if I say "... Charles
                                                          Smith's latest painting ?"... he is still alive ...
921 WHICH'S THE LAST LETTER BUT ONE IN THE ENGLISH ALPHABET?
                                                                                   Y's the last letter but...
   BLACKBOARD доска                                 CHALK мел
   WHAT DO WE WRITE ON A BLACKBOARD WITH?                                     We write on a blackboard
                                                                                    with a piece of chalk


   EYEBROW                EYELASH            EYELID                 LID             PAN
   бровь                  ресница               века                    крышка            кастрюля
   WHAT'S THIS?                        It's an eyebrow
   WHAT ARE THESE ?/                   Those are eyelashes
   WHAT'S THIS?                        It's an eyelid
   DOES WATER IN A PAN BOIL MORE QUICKLY WITH THE LID ON OR WITH
   THE LID OFF ? AND WHY ?                                Water in a pan boils more quickly with the
                               lid-on because, with the lid оn, the steam and the heat are kept in...
   FAVOUR (v) = TO APPROVE OF; TO HELP                            YACHT
   благоприятствовать                                                     яхта
922 WHAT KIND OF FILMS DO THE PEOPLE IN YOUR COUNTRY FAVOUR
   THE MOST ?/                      The kind of films the people ... are ... (westerns, action films,
                                                                          war films, films about love ...)
   DOES BAD WEATHER FAVOUR A YACHT IN A RACE AT SEA ?                                             No, bad
                                                                                       weather doesn't...
   WHAT DO YOU DO WHEN YOU DON'T APPROVE OF SOMETHING ?
                                         When I don't approve ... I... (say so, or shake my head ...)
   CLOTHE одеться
   CAN A WOMAN CLOTHE HERSELF MORE CHEAPLY THAN A MAN?/
                                                    Yes, a woman can ... or ... No, a woman can't...


   ABILITY способность
   HAVE YOU ANY SPECIAL ABILITY THAT MOST PEOPLE DON'T HAVE ?
                                                        Yes, I've a special... or ... No, I haven't any ...
   WHAT ?


   ENDLESS бесконечный
   GIVE ME A SENTENCE CONTAINING THE WORD "ENDLESS".                                           There was
                                                               an endless stream of traffic on the road


923 BUNCH букет, гроздь                          GRAPE виноград
   WHICH'D YOU RATHER RECEIVE, A BUNCH OF FLOWERS OR A BUNCH
   OF GRAPES?/                                                            I'd rather receive a bunch of...


   RESIST                       RESISTANCE                          GO QUIETLY
   сопротивляться                 сопротивление                          спокойно идти
   WOULD YOU RESIST ARREST BY THE POLICE ?                                    Yes, I'd resist... or ... No, I
                                               wouldn't resist arrest by the police, but I'd go quietly ...
   IDIOM 42


   GIVE THE COLD SHOULDER = make to feel unwelcome
   оказать холодный прием
   e.g. I didn't know what I had dqne wrong, but everyone seemed to give me the cold shoulder.


   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "GIVE THE COLD SHOULDER" MEAN ?
                                                                              The idiom ... "make to ..."
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PL EASE !                                Instead of a friendly welcome we were
                                                                                 given the cold shoulder


   NOBLE (n) благородный                                   REVOLUTION революция
924 DICTATION 79
   Lacking central heating,/ we managed to keep the room/ sufficiently warm with an oil heater/
   which our next-door neighbour/ had lent us./ The nobles had behaved so wickedly/ that the people
   marched against them,/ and so a bloody revolution broke out./ The Greeks in the old days/ believed
   in many gods,/ whereas in the Christian Bible/ there is only one god./ The accident was not really
   the soldier's fault:/ he simply did/ what the captain commanded him to do./ It was quite plain/ that
   he was a policeman,/ even though he was not in uniform.


   LESSON 140


   THE MEALS                      APPROXIMATE                          CEREAL
                                   приблизительный                          хлопья
   FRY - FRIED - FRIED                 BACON                            TOAST
   жарить                                 бекон                             тост
   MARMALADE                      SUBSTANTIAL                            SNACK
   мармелад                         основоположный                           перекусить
   SANDWICH                          BREAK (n)                  SOUP
   бутерброд                         перерыв                        суп


   DESSERT                     TEA               TAKE TEA                       CHEESE
   десерт                      чай                пить чай                   сыр


925 SUPPER                       BISCUIT                     CHOCOLATE 2350
   ужин                              печенье                    шоколад


   Most people in England eat three average meals a day, the names of which depend on what
   time of the day they are eaten. The following is a list of six possible meals with their
   approximate times:-


   1)8 a.m. Breakfast - consisting of a cereal with milk; fried eggs and bacon; toast and
   marmalade, and a cup of tea or coffee, generally with milk and sugar./


   The English usually like to face the day with something substantial in their stomachs, as it
   helps to steady the nerves and keeps them calm. It also means that they do not need to eat too
   much at midday or in the evening.


   WHAT'S THE FIRST MEAL OF THE DAY; AT WHAT TIME DO WE HAVE IT; AND
   WHAT DOES IT CONSIST OF?                      The first meal of... we have it... and it consists of ...


   2) 11 a.m. Snack - consisting of a cup of tea or coffee and a sandwich, usually taken during a
   ten or fifteen minute break at work.


   WHAT DOES A SNACK CONSIST OF, AND WHEN DO WE TAKE IT ?
                                                                A snack consists of... and we take it...


   3) 1 p.m. Lunch - consisting of soup, meat, vegetables and a dessert. The main meal of the day
   is called dinner, which means that if lunch is the main meal of the day, then it can be called
   dinner instead of lunch./


926 WHEN IS LUNCH, AND WHAT DOES IT CONSIST OF?                                    Lunch is at ...and it...
   WHY IS LUNCH SOMETIMES CALLED DINNER ?                                           Lunch is sometimes
                                                 ... because it is sometimes the main meal of the day
   4) 4 p.m. Tea - consisting of a cup of tea and a piece of cake or a sandwich; again taken
   during a ten or fifteen minute break at work, or by a housewife togethe r with her friends.


   WHAT DOES TEA CONSIST OF, AND WHEN AND BY WHOM IS IT TAKEN ?/
                                                               Tea consists of... and it's taken at... by ...


   5) 7 to 9 p.m. Dinner - generally speaking it is more the middle and upper classes that have
   dinner. It consists of soup, meat, vegetables and dessert, etc. Most other people have a large
   tea, as soon as they arrive home from work at about 6 p.m., consisting of sandwiches, cakes or
   perhaps     something     more      substantial,    such      as    cheese,      fish,    meat,      etc.


   WHAT'S      THE    DIFFERENCE          BETWEEN       THE     EVENING          MEAL       TAKEN        BY
   THE     MIDDLE      AND      UPPER       CLASSES       AND         THAT      TAKEN        BY      MOST
   OTHER PEOPLE ?/                     The difference ... is that middle and ... eat between 7 and 9 p.m.
                                           and the meal is called dinner, and consists of... whereas that
                                                  taken by ... is eaten at about 6 p.m., and consists of...


   6) 10 to 11 p.m. Supper - consisting of either the same kind of food as at dinner or just
   something like cheese and biscuits and a hot drink of chocolate etc. It can be taken instead of
   dinner. Not many people take supper, as they do not like to go to bed on a full stomach.


927 WHEN IS SUPPER, AND WHAT DOES IT CONSIST OF ?                                              Supper is at
                                                                                       ... and consists of...
   WHY DON'T MOST PEOPLE TAKE SUPPER ?/                                  Most people don’t... because ...


   As has already been stated, most English people only eat three times a day, and then these
   three meals are not usually very big. If they do eat more than three times a day, the meals
   they have are usually very light.


   If they have a fairly large breakfast, they might have no snack at 11 a.m., and have a light
   lunch. If they have a large lunch, then they will probably have no tea and a light evening
   meal,                            and                                so                                on.
   HOW MANY MEALS A DAY DO MOST PEOPLE GENERALLY EAT?/
                                                                      Most people generally eat three...
   IF THEY DO EAT MORE THAN THREE MEALS A DAY, WHAT DOES IT
   MEAN ?                              If they do eat more ... it means that the meals are very light ...


928 DINE обедать                  DINING-ROOM столовая
    WHAT'S THE NAME OF THE ROOM IN WHICH ONE DINES ?                                           The name
                                                                       of the room ... is the dining-room


   JAM               ORANGE                    PEAR                 PLUM
   джем              апельсин                    груша                 слива


   The difference between marmalade and jam is that marmalade is generally made from
   oranges whilst jam is made from other fruits, such as pears, apples, plums, etc./


   WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MARMALADE AND JAM?
                                                                 The difference ... is that marmalade is
                                                 generally made from oranges ...jam ... other fruits ...


   THE COUNTRY село                       VICTORY победа


   Sometimes we use "the country" not with the meaning of "the opposite of the town" but
   meaning "the people of a nation", e.g. "The country rejoiced at the news of the victory".


929 HOW ELSE CAN WE USE "THE COUNTRY" BESIDES MEANING "THE
   OPPOSITE OF THE TOWN" ?/                                We can use "the country" besides meaning
                              "the opposite of the town" with the meaning of "the people of a nation"
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                    Most of the country was in favour of
                                                                                             his election
   HEAL излечивать, заживать


   ABOUT HOW          LONG     DOES IT       TAKE      FOR     A     CUT ON        THE     HAND       TO
   HEAL ?             The time it takes for a cut on the hand to heal depends on how deep the cut is...
   LIVE (v)         LIVE (adj)                       The "i" is pronounced as in the verb "to lie"
   жить             живой
   WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIVE (v) AND LIVE (adj) ?                                      The difference
                                                                           ... is that "live" is a verb, whilst...
   DO YOU THINK IT'S ALL RIGHT TO PERFORM EXPERIMENTS ON LIVE
   ANIMALS ?/                    Yes, I think it's all right to ... or ... No, I don't think it's all right to ...


   MILD                  REMARK                          LOOK (n)                       STORMY
   легкий, мягкий           замечание                         вид                              бурный
   WHAT KIND OF REMARK WOULD SOMEONE HAVE TO MAKE TO BRING A MILD
   LOOK OF SURPRISE TO YOUR FACE ?                                              The kind of remark someone
                               would ... would be that he has the same Christian name or surname as
                                       myself, or that he used to live in the same town as myself... etc.
930 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY MILD WEATHER?                                   By mild weather, we mean weather
                             that is not stormy, or very hot, or very cold. In other words, not extreme
   WHAT DO WE MEAN BY MILD DISCIPLINE ?/                                        By mild discipline, we mean
                                                                            discipline that is not very severe
   AND WHAT DO WE MEAN BY MILD WINE, MILD EXERCISE, ETC. ?
                                                      By mild wine, we mean not strong wine, whilst by
                                                              mild exercise, we mean not violent exercise


   PROOF доказательство
   IN YOUR COUNTRY, DO YOU HAVE TO CARRY DOCUMENTS AS PROOF
   THAT YOU ARE WHO YOU SAY YOU ARE ?                                        Yes, in my country we have to
                                                                carry ... or... No, in my country we don't...


   SAYING поговорка
   WHAT DOES THIS SAYING MEAN - "A BIRD IN THE HAND IS WORTH TWO IN
   THE BUSH" ?/                            That saying means that what you've actually got in the hand
                                         you can be sure of, and that is worth twice what you might be
                                                     able to get, because you can’t be sure of getting it...
931 HUNT поиски, охота
   WOULD YOU JOIN THE HUNT FOR A MURDERER?                                             Yes, I'd join the ... or...
                                                                                               No, I wouldn't...
   WHY OR WHY NOT ?


   ARMS броня
   ARE YOU FOR OR AGAINST THE POLICE CARRYING ARMS WHILST WALKING
   AROUND THE STREETS ON DUTY?                                                   I'm for the police ... whilst
                                                                                   ... or ... I'm against the ...
   TRAP ловушка
   WHAT FOOD DO WE PUT IN A TRAP TO CATCH A MOUSE ?/                                                   We put
                                                                           cheese in a trap to catch a mouse
   WHY ?                                    Because mice like cheese, and cheese has a strong smell, and so
                                                                                       attracts the mice to it


   IDIOM 43


   TOUCH WOOD = what people say when they touch wood in the hope of
   постучать по дереву                                                              preventing bad luck.
   e.g. We've been very lucky and everything's gone very well until now; touch wood.
932 WHAT DO PEOPLE DO AND SAY WHEN THEY WISH OR HOPE TO
   PREVENT BAD LUCK ?                              When people ... they touch wood and say "touch wood"
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                 I've been driving now for ten years without
                                                                                   an accident; touch wood
   DICTATION 80
   She picked up her wedding ring/ from the floor/ and put it back on her finger./ A bird has a pair of
   wings/ and a tail./ The value of goods/ depends a great deal/ on how much they are in demand./
   Unless the sea is very rough,/ the ship won't rock and roll very much./ Most people like to live a
   settled life,/ but often find their lives/ are interfered with/ by those who like to stir up trouble./ A
   chicken is not a very brave bird.


   LESSON 141
   "BY" AND ITS MANY USES


   GO PAST                       BY HIMSELF                         NEARBY
   проходить мимо                  сам                                 поблизости, близкий


   The word "by" has many different uses. The following sentences will serve as examples of
   how                                 it                             is                                 used:-
   1) "I like to sit and watch people pass by my window". "By" in
   this case means "to go past


   2) "Mr. Williams lives by himself" means that nobody lives with
   him; whereas, "Mr Williams did the job all by himself
   means "without help".


   3) "He worked by night and slept by day" means "during the
    night" and "during the day".


   4) "Hamlet was written by Shakespeare" means "Shakespeare
   was the writer of Hamlet"./


   5) "He came from a nearby village" - Exactly as we don't say "a
   far village" but "a distant village" so we don't say "a near
   village" but "a nearby village".


933 TELL ME THE MEANING OF THESE SENTENCES WITHOUT USING THE
   WORD "BY":-
   "I SAW HIM PASS BY MY HOUSE YESTERDAY"                                    I saw him going past my
                                                                                      house yesterday
   "HENRY SAT IN THE ROOM ALL BY HIMSELF"                                 Henry sat alone in the room
   "HENRY DID THE TRANSLATION ALL BY HIMSELF"/                                          Henry did the
                                                                              translation without help
   "THIEVES OFTEN WORK BY NIGHT"                                  Thieves often work during the night
   "THIS PICTURE WAS PAINTED BY ME"                                   I was the painter of this picture
934 IS IT CORRECT TO SAY "THE MAN LIVED IN A NEAR TOWN" ?                                        No, it
                                                                                      isn't correct to...
   WHAT MUST WE SAY INSTEAD ?                                       We must say "The man lived in a
                                                                                 nearby town" instead


   POT                           COOKING - POT                     FLOWERPOT
   горшок, котелок                 кастрюля                            цветочный горшок
   INKPOT                   INK                   JAMPOT                      TEA-POT/
   чернильница                     чернило           горшочек для варенья                      чайник
   NAME ME SOME DIFFERENT KINDS OF POTS WE CAN HAVE.
                                        Some different kinds of pots we can have are cooking-pots,
                                               flowerpots, jampots, inkpots, tea-pots, coffee-pots ...


   IN RELATION TO                  RELATIONSHIP                      RELATIVES
   в связи с ...                     отношения, родство                    родственник


   RELATIVE              OVERWEIGHT               PYGMY            DWARF            GIANT
   относительный          с лишним весом              карлик            гном, карлик
   великан
   DO YOU THINK MOST PEOPLE ARE OVERWEIGHT OR UNDERWEIGHT IN RELATION
   TO THEIR HEIGHT ?                                      I think most people are ... in relation ...
935 WHAT WAS THE RELATIONSHIP LIKE BETWEEN SERVANT AND MASTER IN
   THE OLD DAYS ?/                                              The relationship between servant...
                                             was often not very good, and sometimes quite cruel ...
   WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY THAT EVERYTHING IS RELATIVE ?
                         When we say that everything is relative, we mean, for example, that a man
                                is only tall because in relation to himself the people around him are
                                   short. Among pygmies or dwarfs a man of normal height would
                                       be considered a giant, whereas the same man in Scandinavia
                                             or Texas would be considered short - it's all relative ...
   WHAT'S ANOTHER WORD WE CAN USE INSTEAD OF "RELATIONS" WHEN TALKING
   ABOUT THE FAMILY ?                                         Another word we can ... is "relatives"


   AT SEA на море                           BY SEA по морю
   HOW LONG ARE YOU AT SEA FOR WHEN YOU TRAVEL BY SEA FROM EUROPE TO
   AMERICA ?/                                        How long you are at sea when you travel by...
                                                     depends on the ship, but I should think about...


   IN SEASON по сезону                    OUT OF SEASON не по сезону
936 ARE APPLES IN OR OUT OF SEASON AT THE MOMENT?                                          Apples are
                                                                             ... season at the moment


   THREAD            NEEDLE               SEW            COMPASS                INJECTION
   нить                игла                  шить            компас                   укол
   WHAT AM I PRETENDING TO DO?                         You're pretending to thread a piece of cotton
                                                                         through the eye of a needle
   ABOUT HOW LONG DOES THE THREAD OF COTTON HAVE TO BE TO SEW
   A BUTTON ON A SHIRT ?/                                  The thread of cotton has to be about a foot
                                                                         long to sew a button on a shirt
   WHAT        OTHER    KINDS      OF     NEEDLES        ARE       THERE        BESIDES         SEWING
   NEEDLES ?/                                     There are compass needles, and needles for giving
                                                                  injections ... besides sewing needles
   WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO SEW" ?                                           The paradigm ...
                                                        sew - sewed - sewed or sew - sewed - sewn
937 USE UP              GO SHOPPING                  DO THE SHOPPING
   употребить            идти за покупками               делать покупки
   WHEN ALL THE FOOD IS USED UP AT HOME, WHAT DO YOU HAVE
   TO DO ? /                     When all the food is ... I have to go shopping and buy some more ...
   WHO DOES THE SHOPPING EN YOUR HOUSE ?                             ... does the shopping in my house


   AGENT агент                              AGENCY агентство
   WHEN YOU GO ON HOLIDAY, DO YOU FIX EVERYTHING UP THROUGH A TRAVEL
   AGENCY BEFOREHAND OR DO YOU JUST GO ?                                     When I go on holiday, I ...


   TITLE           CHAMPION                    BOXER                DUKE               LORD
   титул               чемпион                    боксер                князь                господин
   WHAT WAS THE TITLE OF THE LAST BOOK YOU READ ?/                                            The title of
                                                                             the last book I read was ...
   WHO, AT PRESENT, HOLDS THE TITLE OF WORLD HEAVYWEIGHT CHAMPION
   BOXER ?                                                             At present... holds the title of...
   WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE, THE TITLE OF DUKE OR LORD ETC. ?
                                                   Yes, I'd like to have ... or ... No, I wouldn't like ...
938 BELIEF вера, убеждение
   DO YOU THINK THAT BELIEF IN RELIGION IS INCREASING IN THE WORLD
   GENERALLY, OR GROWING LESS?/                                      I think that belief in religion is ...


   SHAVE бриться                            RAZOR бритва


   WHAT DO WE SHAVE WITH?                                                        We shave with a razor
   EFFORT попытка


   IS IT AN EFFORT FOR YOU TO GET UP IN THE MORNING ?                                                   Yes, it's an
                                                                               effort for... or... No, it isn't an ...


   IDIOM 44


   KEEP ONE'S FINGERS CROSSED держать кулаки


   When we wish for something to happen, we cross our fingers like this (second finger
   over the first).


   IS IT THE CUSTOM IN YOUR COUNTRY FOR PEOPLE TO CROSS THEIR
   FINGERS WHEN THEY WISH FOR SOMETHING IF NOT, WHAT DO THEY DO
   INSTEAD ?                   Yes, it's the custom in my... or...   NO , it   isn’t the custom... Instead they...
939DICTATION 81
   The storm had done/ a lot of damage on the beach,/ which took a lot of tidying up./ It was clear/
   that the poor fellow/ was suffering from stage-fright,/ as it was the first time/ he had ever spoken in
   public./ Our plans/ were at a very advanced stage/ of development/ when we had to change them
   entirely;/ and in doing so received/ a stream of letters in protest./ They all went to the railway
   station/ to wave goodbye to their guest.


   LESSON 142
   VERB + AND + VERB                          E.G. GO AND HAVE идите и имейте
   GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES OF A VERB + AND + ANOTHER VERB, PLEASE !
                                              Come and see me next Sunday. Let's wait and see what will
                                                happen. Would you go and buy me a newspaper, please ?
   GO AHEAD продолжить идти вперед                        JUST THE SAME одинаково
   WHAT DOES IT MEAN WHEN WE SEE A NOTICE BY THE SIDE OF THE ROAD
   SAYING "WARNING - DANGEROUS BEND AHEAD" ?/                                                       When we see
                                                          a notice ... it means that further down the road,
                                                the road bends suddenly and that we should slow down if
                                                                        we want to avoid having an accident
   WHEN       YOU      WERE      A     CHILD       AND      YOUR          PARENTS            FORBADE           YOU
   TO DO SOMETHING, DID YOU USED TO GO AHEAD AND DO IT JUST THE
   SAME ?                                  Yes, when I was a child and ... I used to go ahead and ... or...
                                                        No, when I was a child ... I didn't used to go ...
   WHAT WERE THE CONSEQUENCES?                               The consequences were that... my parents
                                                                                           scolded me ...
   BATH                     BATHE                     SUNBATHE/
   ванна                    купаться                     солнечная ванна


   One of the main differences between "bath" and "bathe", apart from the fact that "bath" is
   generally used as a noun, whilst "bathe" is gene rally used as a verb, is that we have a bath at
   home, whilst we go for a bathe in the sea, in a river, or in a swimming pool etc.


   WHAT'S      ONE     OF     THE     MAIN       DIFFERENCES          BETWEEN          "BATH"        AND
   "BATHE" ?                   One of the... apart from the fact that "bath" is generally used as a noun
                                                whilst "bathe" is generally used as a verb, is that we ...


   Other uses of the word "bathe" are, for example, "to bathe a wound with water, to bathe in
   sunshine" or "to sunbathe"./


941 WHY DO PEOPLE SОMETIMES BATHE THEIR EYES ?                                        People sometimes
                                                                     ... because they have some kind of
                                                          eye illness, or because their eyes feel tired ...
   DO YOU DO ANY SUNBATHING ?                                  Yes, I do some sunbathing ... or ... No, I
                                                                                don't do any sunbathing


   CHEAT2400 хитрить, обманывать
   WHO'S THE BIGGEST CHEAT, OR WHAT IS THE BIGGEST CHEAT, YOU'VE EVER
   COME ACROSS OR HEARD OF ?                                       The biggest cheat I've ever ... was ...
   WHAT HAPPENED ?
   WHAT DO YOU THINK OUGHT TO HAPPEN WHEN A PUPIL IS CAUGHT CHEATING IN
   AN EXAM?/                                                     When a pupil is caught cheating in an
                                                   exam, I think ... he should be sent out of the room...


   DIP                      HORIZON                             HORIZONTAL
   нырять                     горизонт                             горизонтальный


   WHAT AM I PRETENDING TO DO ?                                      You're pretending to dip your pen
                                                                         into some ink in order to write
   WHAT'S MY HAND DOING?                                 Your hand's moving in a horizontal direction,
                                                           then suddenly dipping and coming up again
942 DOES THE SUN RISE OVER THE HORIZON IN THE EAST OR THE WEST?
                                                              The sun rises over the horizon in the east.


   FEED - FED - FED кормить
   IF A DOG SITS LOOKING AT YOU WHILST YOU ARE EATING AT TABLE, DO YOU
   FEED IT WHILST YOU YOURSELF ARE FEEDING, OR DO YOU LEAVE SOME FOOD ON
   YOUR PLATE AND GIVE IT TO THE DOG AFTER YOU'VE FED ?/                                 If a dog sits ... I...


   HAY                     STRAW                       STEM
   сено                    солома                        стебель


   The difference between hay and straw is that hay is dried grass, whilst straw is the stems of
   wheat or other types of corn after it has been cut.


   WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HAY AND STRAW ?                                             The difference
                                                                                         ... is that hay is ...
   THE USE OF THE APOSTROPHE "S"


943 PREFERENCE               TASTE                STYLE             DETERMINE                RUN
   преимущество                 вкус                  стиль                определять                 бег


   Generally speaking, we use the apostrophe "s" for people or animals, e.g. Mr Johnson's tie;
   my uncle's house; the horse's tail etc., but sometimes we can also use it for things, e.g. "The
   book's main purpose is to teach", which is the same as saying "The main purpose of the book
   is to teach". /


   WHEN      DO      WE USE       THE       APOSTROPHE "S" ?           -    AND      GIVE ME          SOME
   EXAMPLES, PLEASE !                         We use the apostrophe "s" for people or animals, e.g. Mr.
                                                       Johnson's tie; the horse's tail... also ... for things,
                                                                           e.g. the book's main purpose ...


   As with so much else in a language, it is mainly a question of making a pleasant sound, being
   easy to pronounce, and having a smooth rhythm. For example, we might prefer to say "The
   history of Athens" rather than "Athens's history" as it runs more smoothly off the tongue. It
   is often a question of taste or style.
   WHAT MAINLY DETERMINES THE USE OF THE APOSTROPHE "S" ?/
                      The use of the apostrophe "s" is mainly determined by whether or not it makes
                                    a pleasant sound, is easy to pronounce, and has a smooth rhythm


   With the names of people, we are almost obliged to use the apostrophe "s", whilst with
   animals and things we often have the choice. Often, however, even with the names of people,
   we have a choice. For example, we can say "The works of Shakespeare" if we like, in
   preference to "Shakespeare's works".


944 WHEN ARE WE ALMOST OBLIGED TO USE THE APOSTROPHE "S", AND WHEN
   DO WE HAVE THE CHOICE?/                                We are almost obliged to... with the names
                               of people, whilst with animals and things we often have the choice ...


   HELP угощаться                   CAN'T HELP не мочь не …


   AT A PARTY, DO YOU THINK IT'S BETTER TO LET EVERYONE HELP THEMSELVES TO
   THE FOOD, OR FOR THEM TO BE SERVED BY SOMEONE ?                               At a party, I think it's
                                  better to let... or... At a party... for people to be served by someone
   IS THERE ANY MISTAKE IN ENGLISH THAT YOU CAN'T HELP MAKING WHEN YOU
   WRITE OR SPEAK ?                                                   Yes, there's a mistake in ... or...
                                                                         No, there isn't any mistake ...
   WHICH ?/


   LOAD                     BARREL                     ELEPHANT                      ROD
   груз, бремя, заряжать      дуло, бочка                 слон                            прут,
   стержень
   WHICH ANIMAL DO YOU THINK CAN PULL THE HEAVIEST LOAD ?
                                                                             I think the elephant can ...
945 HOW DID THEY USED TO LOAD A GUN IN THE OLD DAYS ?                                              They
                       used to load a gun in the old days first by pouring gunpowder down the barrel
                             of the gun, then packing the powder down hard with a metal rod ... and
                                then finally dropping the lead ball down the barrel on to the powder
   WHAT DO WE USE TO FISH WITH?                              We use a rod (a fishing-rod) to fish with


   VOYAGE путешествие                                      SPACE космос, пространство
   WHAT IS A VOYAGE?                            A voyage is usually a journey by water, or into space
   EXCELLENT превосходно
   CAN WE EXPECT EXCELLENT FOOD IN A FIRST-CLASS RESTAURANT ?/
                                                                                 Yes, we can expect...
   LOVER любовник
   CAN YOU NAME ANY GREAT LOVERS IN HISTORY ?                                           Yes, I can name
                                                               ... Casanova, Don Juan, Lord Byron ...


   TOUR тур                              TOURIST   турист
   HAVE YOU EVER BEEN ON A TOUR ?                           Yes, I've been on ... or... No, I've never...
946 WHERE?


   RABBIT кролик                     PET домашнее животное
   DO YOU LIKE RABBITS AS PETS OR AS FOOD ?                     I like rabbits as ...


   IDIOM 45


   KICK THE BUCKET = to die umrze6
   e.g The old man had been ill for quite some time, and finally kicked the bucket last night


   WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "KICK THE BUCKET" MEAN ?                                   The idiom... "to die"
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                   We hadn't expected him to kick the
                                                                                         bucket so soon
   As death is a serious matter, this idiom would only be used on non-serious occasions.


   LESSON 143
   MILL             WINDMILL                    WATERMILL                  HILLY
   мельница            ветряная мельница             водяная мельница              бугристый


   SAIL                    MILLER                RUN                              SITUATE
   лопасти мельницы          мельник                 приводимый в движение              находиться


947 HOLLAND              MOUNTAINOUS                   CLOTH                PACKET
   Голландия               гористый                         материал              мешок
      The difference between a windmill and a watermill is that, although both might contain a
      machine for grinding, a windmill is worked by the action of the wind on four giant arms
      called sails, which, turning round in the wind, turn the large stones inside the mill enabling
      the miller to grind his corn to make flour. A watermill, on the other hand, is run by water,
      and for this reason is situated by a fast-flowing river or stream. It is worked by a large wheel
      which is forced round and round by the water./


      WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A WINDMILL AND A WATERMILL?
                                                The difference ... is that a windmill is worked by the action
                                                              of the wind ... a watermill... is run by water ...


      We generally find windmills in flat country where the wind is strong. For this reason there
      are many in Holland. Watermills we generally find in hilly or mountainous country which has
      a lot of rain and many fast-flowing rivers or streams. Watermills can also be made to produce
      electricity or to drive various kinds of machines./


      WHERE DO WE GENERALLY FIND WINDMILLS AND WATERMILLS ?
                                                 We generally find windmills in flat country ... Watermills
                                                       we generally find in hilly or mountainous country ...


      The word "mill" can also be used with the meaning of "factory", but we usually think of a
      mill in this sense as producing such things as cloth or steel; whilst a factory usually produces
      a finished article like a car, an electric iron, or a packet of cigarettes, etc.


948     WHAT'S        GENERALLY         THE     DIFFERENCE          BETWEEN         A     MILL      AND      A
      FACTORY ? /                          The difference ... is that we usually think of a mill as producing
                                                       such things as cloth or steel, whilst a factory usually
                                                                     produces a finished article like a car ...


      CONVINCE                      ADMIT                     TRY
      убедить                         признать                    пробовать
      WHEN       A    MAN      COMMITS        MURDER        AND      THE      LAW        CANNOT        PROVE
      HE DID         IT, EVEN     THOUGH        EVERYONE IS CONVINCED                    HE DID, WHAT
      HAPPENS?                                                             When a man ...the man is set free
   AND IF AFTERWARDS HE ADMITS TO THE CRIME, WHAT HAPPENS ?/
                                   If afterwards he ... he is still left free, because a man can't be tried
                                twice for the same crime (unless perhaps further proof can be found)
   WHAT MUST YOU BUY IN ORDER TO BE ADMITTED TO THE CINEMA ?
                                                                       You must buy a ticket in order...
   RELIEVE               PILL                RELIEF                    PARCEL
   облегчить               таблетка              облегчение                  посылка
949 IF WE HAVE TOOTHACHE, HEADACHE, STOMACH-ACHE ETC., WHAT CAN WE
   DO TO RELIEVE THE PAIN ?/                                     If we have toothache ... we can take a
                                                                              pill etc. to relieve the pain
   HOW LONG IS A SOLDIER GENERALLY ON GUARD FOR BEFORE HE'S RELIEVED ?
                                                    A soldier is generally on guard for perhaps two to
                                                                         four hours before he's relieved
   WHAT'S THE NOUN OF "RELIEVE"?                                                   The noun ... is "relief
   DURING A WAR, WHAT DO WE MEAN BY RED CROSS RELIEF ?                                           During a
                                 war, by Red Cross relief, we mean parcels of food and medicine etc.
                                      sent to the soldiers who are prisoners behind the enemy lines ...


   SELF        SELFISH          SELF-CONTROL               CONTROL (v)                EMOTION
   сущность эгоистичный            самоконтроль                  контролировать                эмоции
   WHY IS IT THAT WE SELDOM KNOW ANOTHER PERSON'S REAL SELF?/
                                                    The reason we seldom ... is that most people keep
                                                            a part of themselves hidden from others ...
   WHAT DO YOU THINK A SELFISH NATURE IS DUE TO ?                                        I think a selfish
                                         nature is perhaps due to the person being spoilt as a child ...
950 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY SELF-CONTROL?                               By self-control we mean we control
                                                                our own feelings, desires and emotions
                                                              without discipline coming from others ...
   LIE-LAY-LAIN                 LIE-LIED-LIED                  LAY - LAID - LAID
   лежать                        врать                              ложить


   Three verbs which sometimes get confused with one another are -1) The irregular verb "to
   lie" as in "to lie in bed", its paradigm being "lie - lay - lain" 2) The regular verb "to lie"
   meaning "not to tell the truth", its paradigm being "lie - lied - lied" and 3) The verb "to lay"
   as in "to lay the book on the table", its paradigm being "lay - laid - laid".
   WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE IRREGULAR VERB "TO LIE" AND WHAT DOES IT
   MEAN ?/                                               The paradigm... lie - lay - lain, and it means
                                                                                 ... as in "to lie in bed"
   WHAT’S THE PARADIGM OF THE REGULAR VERB "TO LIE", AND WHAT DOES
   IT MEAN ?                                        The paradigm ... lie - lied - lied, and it means ...
                                                                              i.e. "not to tell the truth"
951 WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO LAY" AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
                                                   The paradigm ... lay - laid-laid, and it means ... as
                                                                      in "to lay the book on the table"


   TIGHT         TIGHTLY               TIGHT-FITTING                   AIRTIGHT
   тесный            тесно                тесный                             герметичный


   LOOSE-FITTING                   CONTAINER                       WATERTIGHT /
   свободный                          контейнер                         водонепроницаемый
   WHAT AM I DOING ?                                You're holding on tightly to the arm of the chair
   WHAT'S THE CONTRARY OF "TIGHT" ?                                           The contrary ... "loose"
   WHICH       ARE     MORE      COMFORTABLE-TIGHT-FITTING                  OR       LOOSE-FITTING
   CLOTHES ?                                              Loose-fitting clothes are more comfortable
   WHY ?                 Because they allow one to move more easily. In hot weather they keep one
                             cool whilst in cold weather they keep one warm, as they allow plenty of
                                       air between the body and the material the clothes are made of
                                                                 and so act as a form of protection ...
   WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY A CONTAINER IS AIRTIGHT AND
   WATERTIGHT ?/                             When we say a... we mean that no air or water can pass
                                                                    into it from outside, or vice versa


   AIM цель, целиться                           TAKE AIM нацелиться
952 WHAT AM I PRETENDING TO DO ?                                     You're pretending to take aim at
                                                                               the window with a gun
   HAVE YOU ANY PARTICULAR AIM IN LIFE ?                                         Yes, I've a ... or... No,
                                                                                            I haven't a...
   WHAT?
   DAMP влажный
   IS IT HEALTHY TO LIVE IN A DAMP HOUSE?                                     No, it isn't healthy to ...
   WHY NOT ?                                                              Because it can make us ill...


   INDEED на самом деле
   WHAT DOES THE WORD "INDEED" MEAN, AND WHAT DO WE USE IT
   FOR ?/                               The word "indeed" means "really", and we use it for emphasis
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                                                    It's very cold indeed


   JAW щека, челюсть
   WHAT PART OF THE BODY'S THIS?                                                            It's the jaw


   LADDER2450 лестница
   DESCRIBE A LADDER./                    A ladder's two pieces of wood or metal with several smaller
                                              pieces put horizontally across the two to act as steps for
                                                    climbing when the ladder is leant against a wall...
953 USE OF THE HYPHEN
   When to use a hyphen and when not to use a hyphen in English is by no means easy to learn.
   These days, writers, and sometimes even dictionaries, will disagree about the use of the
   hyphen. As with most things, it is often safer to observe each individual case and remember it.
   One point worth noting, however, could be that a hyphen can make a difference in meaning.
   For example, a "paper-knife" with a hyphen, is a knife which is used for cutting paper, whilst
   a "paper knife" without a hyphen is a knife made of paper.


   TELL ME SOMETHING ABOUT THE USE OF THE HYPHEN IN ENGLISH./
                                                            When to use a hyphen and when not to ...
   GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF HOW A HYPHEN CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN
   MEANING.                                     "Paper-knife" with a hyphen means ... whilst the same
                                                                   words without the hyphen mean ...


954 IDIOM 46


   A LOAD OFF ONE'S MIND = a relief from worry                   камень с сердца


   e.g. Now that I know the results at last, it's a great load off my mind.
WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "A LOAD OFF ONE’S MIND" MEAN ?                                              The
idiom
                                             "a load off one's mind" means "relief from worry"
GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE !                             I'm glad you've arrived safely. It's a great
                                                                                  load off my mind


DICTATION 82
I am afraid/1 cannot recommend him for the job./ A wound we get from fighting,/ whilst an injury
we get by accident./ They decided to separate/ and sit at separate tables./ We generally finish a
business letter/ with "Yours faithfully" or "Yours sincerely"./ When we apply for a job,/ the
manager, or whoever it might be,/ usually asks for a reference./ The corn stood shoulder high,/ but
sad to relate/ was full of weeds./ There is still a chance/ that the envelope containing the money/
might be found./

				
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