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Chapter 7

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					                        Chapter 7
            Policing America: Issues and Ethics
Chapter Objectives
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

   1. Describe the general attitude of the public toward the police.

   2. Summarize the steps in an effective police officer selection process.

   3. Identify factors that affect the exercise of police discretion and methods of
      limiting discretion.

   4. Describe two general ways that law enforcement agencies can reduce
      stress on the job.

   5. Explain the circumstances under which police officers may be justified in
      using deadly force.

   6. List some of the ways to control and reduce police corruption.



Overview
The chapter begins with a discussion of the police and the public. In carry out the
duties of law enforcement, order maintenance, service and information gathering
successfully, the police must have the trust and cooperation of the public. In
general, the public likes the police and that is shown in almost all public opinion
surveys.

The chapter discusses police recruitment and selection. The qualities of a police
officer are listed as: motivation 1. Motivation, normal self-assertiveness, emotional
stability under stress, sensitivity toward minority groups and social deviates,
collaborative leadership skills, mature relationship with social authority, fle xibility,
integrity and honesty, active and outgoing nature, and the three I‟s of police
selection: intelligence, integrity, and interaction skills

The police recruitment process is explain including where police department get
their best candidates. Police use television, newspapers, college campuses, and
their own police corps to recruit new applicants.




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The police selection process is thoroughly discussed. The applications, physical
exams, psychological exams and backgrounds investigations are all laid out in
extreme clarity.

Other issues in policing are then presented. The most important of which is
police discretion. Discretion is defined and explored. The factors affecting an
officer‟s discretion are completely presented.

Another important issue that is explored is the use of deadly force. When an
officer is allowed to use deadly force is governed by departmental policy, state
law and, most importantly, Supreme Court decisions. Each of these is thoroughly
discussed.

Police corruption is another issue facing the modern day police administrator.
The types of police corruption vary and each is explained. The chapter concludes
with a discussion of how to control police corruption.




Lecture Outline
I. The Police and the Public
      In carry out the duties of law enforcement, order maintenance, service and
      information gathering successfully, the police must have the trust and
      cooperation of the public.

       A. Public Attitudes Toward the Police
             1. When the public is asked, “how much confidence do you,
             yourself have in the police?‟ they respond, 59% said a great deal/
             quite a lot.
             2. 68% think the police respond quickly to calls
             3. 67% think the police do not use excessive force
             4. 73% think the police are helpful and friendly
             5. 66% think the police treat people fairly
             6. 65% think the police are good at preventing crime
             7. 61% think the police are good at solving crime


               Lecture Tip: All of the above statistics show that, in general, the police
               are well supported by the public. But the interpretation of these figures
               is problematic. What is a good score? Why doesn‟t 90% of the public
               view the police as doing a good job? Why is there such a difference
               between blacks and whites. Discuss these issues with your students.




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II. Police Recruitment and Selection

       A. Qualities of a successful police officer.
            1. Motivation
            2. Normal self-assertiveness
            3. Emotional stability under stress
            4. Sensitivity toward minority groups and social deviates
            5. Collaborative leadership skills
            6. A mature relationship with social authority
            7. Flexibility
            8. Integrity and honesty
            9. An active and outgoing nature
            10. The three I‟s of police selection: intelligence, integrity, and
            interaction skills

       B. The Police Recruitment Process
             1. Recruitment
             2. Affirmative Action
             3. Education

       C. Successful Recruiting Practices
             1. College campuses
             2. Television, newspaper and radio advertisements
             3. Public safety officers, police cadets, and police corps

       D. The Police Selection Process
             1. Merit system: A system of employment whereby an
             independent civil service commission, in cooperation with the city
             personnel section and the police department, sets employment
             qualifications, performance standards, and discipline procedures.
             2. Detailed Application
             3. Medical Examination
             4. Physical Ability Test
             5. Written Examination
             6. Background Investigation
             7. Psychological Testing
             8. Oral Interview/Oral Board
             9. Academy Training
             10. Probation

        E. The Selection of a Law Enforcement Executive
             1. Selection from out or inside the organization

III. Issues in Policing

       A. Discretion: The exercise of individual judgment, instead of formal



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         rules, in making decisions.

      B. Patrol Officer Discretion
            1. Full Enforcement: A practice in which the police make an arrest
                for every violation of law that comes to their attention.
            2. Selective Enforcement: The practice of relying of the judgment
                of the police leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide
                which laws to enforce.

      C. Factors Affecting Discretion
            1. The nature of the crime.
            2. Departmental policies
            3. The relationship between the victim and the offender
            4. The amount of evidence
            5. The preference of the victim.
            6. The demeanor of the suspect.
            7. The legitimacy of the victim.
            8. Socioeconomic Status

      D. Discretion and Domestic Violence

      E. Discretion and Racial Profiling: The stopping and/or detaining of
      individuals by law enforcement officers based solely on race.

      F. Job Stress: The harmful physical and emotional outcomes that occur
      when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources,
      or needs of the worker.

      G. Copicide: A form of suicide in which a person gets fatally shot after
      intentionally provoking police officers.

IV. Use of Force

      A. Excessive Force: A measure of coercion beyond that necessary to
      control participants in a conflict.

              Lecture Tip: The professor should discuss the cases of Abner
              Louima in 1997, Amadou Diallo in 1999, and the Rodney King case.
              Why do these type of cases continue to plague American Law
              Enforcement?




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      B. Deadly Force
           There is no more important issue for police officers than the use of
           deadly force. The case of Tennessee v. Garner should be
           discussed in detail.

V. Police Corruption

      A. Types of Police Corruption:
            1. Bribery: accepting cash or gifts in exchange for non-enforcement of
               the law
            2. Chiseling: demanding discounts, free admission, and free food.
            3. Extortion: the threat of enforcement and arrest if a bribe is not given
            4. Favoritism: giving breaks on law enforcement, such as for traffic
               violations committed by families and friends of the police
            5. Mooching: accepting free food, drinks, and admission to entertainment
            6. Perjury: lying for other officers apprehended in illegal activity
            7. Prejudice: unequal enforcement of the law with respect to racial and
               ethnic minorities
            8. Premeditated theft: planned burglaries and thefts
            9. Shakedown: taking items from the scene of a theft or a burglary the
               officer is investigation
          10. Shopping: taking small, inexpensive items from a crime scene or an
               unsecured business or home

      B. Controlling Corruption
           1. High Moral Standards
           2. Police Policies and Discipline
           3. Proactive Internal Affairs Unit
           4. Uniform Enforcement of the Law
           5. Outside Review and Special Prosecutors
           6. Court Review and Oversight


                               Have the students read Buddy Boys and Good Cop
                               Bad Cop by Mike McAlary and Serpico by Peter Maas.
                               These three books deal with police corruption at its
                               worst.


VI. Professionalizing Law Enforcement




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Key Terms:

Three I’s of police selection:    Intelligence, integrity, and interaction skills.
p. 236

College academies:          students pursue a program that integrates an
associate‟s degree curriculum in law enforcement of criminal justice with the
states required peace officer training. p. 239

Public safety officers:      Recruitment strategy which is employment of 18-year-
olds as public safety officers (sometimes called community service officers or
public service aides), who perform many police service functions but do not have
arrest powers. p. 241

Police cadet program:       A program that combines a college education with
agency work experience and academy training. Upon graduation, a cadet is
promoted to police officer. p. 241

Tech prep (technical preparation):          A program in which area community
colleges and high schools team up to offer 6 to 9 hours of college law
enforcement courses in the eleventh and twelfth grades, as well as one of two
training certifications, such as police dispatcher or local corrections officer.
Students who graduate are eligible for police employment at age 18. p. 241

Merit system:       A system of employment whereby an indepe ndent civil
service commission, in cooperation with the city personnel section and the police
department, sets employment qualifications, performance standards, and
discipline procedures. p. 242

Discretion: Is the exercise of individual judgment, instead of formal rules, in
making decisions. p. 247

Full enforcement: A practice in which the police make an arrest for every
violation of law that comes to their attention. p. 248

Selective enforcement: The practice of relying on the judgment of the police
leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide which laws to enforce. p. 248

Racial profiling: The stopping and/or detaining of individuals by law
enforcement officers based solely on race. p. 250

Job stress: Is defined as the harmful physical and emo tional outcomes that
occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources, or
needs of the worker. p. 252




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Copicide: A form of suicide in which a person gets fatally shot after
intentionally provoking police officers. p. 252

Excessive force: is a measure of coercion beyond that necessary to control
participants in a conflict. p. 253

“Grass eaters”:       Officers who occasionally engage in illegal and unethical
activities, such as accepting small favors, gifts, or money for ignoring violations of
the law during the course of their duties. p. 257

“Meat eaters”:      Officers who actively seek ways to make money illegally
while on duty. p. 257

Internal affairs investigation unit:     The police unit that ferrets out illegal
and unethical activity engaged in by the police. p. 258



Additional Activities
Criminal Justice Websites

http://www.ethicsinstitute.com/ This is the website for the National Institute of
Ethics. This website deals with ethical issues in all professions, however, it
includes a link to the National Commission on Law Enforcement Integrity at
http://www.policeintegrity.org/, which can be very useful for the criminal justice
student.

http://www.calea.org/ This is the website for CALEA, which is the Commission for
Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, which was formed for two reasons:
to develop a set of law enforcement standards; and to establish and administer
an accreditation process through which law enforcement agencies could
demonstrate voluntarily that they meet professionally-recognized criteria for
excellence in management and service delivery. This website will offer the
students insight into how CALEA works and what its purpose is. Many of the
Police Departments rely on CALEA to establish their operating procedures.

http://www.aclu.org/RacialEquality/RacialEqualitylist.cfm?c=133 This website is
sponsored by the American Civil Liberties Union. Its main focus is on the
controversial issue of racial profiling. There are many interesting articles and
press releases to be found at this site.

http://www.fletc.gov/ This is the home page for the Federal Law Enforcement
Training Center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This
website offers information on current employment opportunities as well as what
the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center teaches.


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http://forums.officer.com/forums/ Officer.com has a wide variety of public forums
that enables the student to actually interact with officers in the field. Students can
either just read the entries posted on a particular topic or can actually ask a
question and have an officer in the field reply.

http://www.ncjrs.org/ This is the homepage for the Nation Criminal Justice
Reference Service (NCJRS). By clicking on library abstracts, the student can
gather a wealth of information on various subjects in the criminal justice area.
They should be encouraged to type in “police corruption;” their search will yield
many interesting articles and studies on this topic. Another search term for the
student to use is “police abuse of force.”

http://www.icisf.org/ This is the home page for the International Critical Stress
Foundation, Inc. The ICISF is dedicated to the prevention and mitigation of
disabling stress. It offers education and training to teach professionals to deal
with daily stress of the workplace.

http://www.policestress.org/ Some agencies have specific programs dedicated to
officers who are dealing with stress. This is the website for the Central Florida
Police Stress Unit, which is an example of how agencies help their officers to
cope with stress through peer support and training courses. Among some of the
things this website offers are teaching tools to recognize symptoms of stress, tips
on how to deal with anger, and what type of situations to avoid.



Internet Activities

One:

Racial profiling has been a hot topic for many years. Since the September 11 th
attacks on the World Trade Center it has become an even more hotly debated
topic. Read the Article Driving While Black: Racial Profiling on Our Nation‟s
Highways at http://www.aclu.org/RacialEquality/RacialEqualitylist.cfm?c=133.
After reading and summarizing this article, answer the following questions:

1. According to the author of this article, what effect does the war on drugs have
on racial profiling?
2. In 1985, the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles issued
guidelines for the police on "The Common Characteristics of Drug Couriers."
What were these common characteristics? Do you agree that these are the
common characteristics for drug couriers? Why or why not?
3. What do Operation Pressure Point in New York, Operation Invincible in
Memphis, Operation Clean Sweep in Chicago, Operation Hammer in Los
Angeles, and the Red Dog Squad in Atlanta have in common?



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4. What did the Supreme Court hold in Whren v. U.S.? What effect did this have
on racial profiling?
5. What are professor Harris‟ recommendations for ending racial profiling?
6. Do you believe racial profiling should never be used? Under what
circumstances should it be used, if ever?
7. Is racial profiling effective?

Two:

Every department has different requirements for a law enforcement officer. Study
at least four different departments that are hiring from four different states at
http://www.jobs4police.com/2004page109845409204m1e2m3b4e5r6s.htm.
Answer the following questions:

1. What requirements does each department have for entry-level officers? What
level of education does each department require for its entry-level officers?
2. Compare these requirements from state to state. For the state that has the
least requirements, check out its neighboring states? Do they have the same
requirements or do they expect mo re of an officer? Do you see a pattern?
3. Write the different department and ask them for an application or download
their on-line application if they offer that option. What information is asked on the
applications? Is this the same for each department?
4. What is the salary structure of the department? What is the starting salary?

Three:

The beating of Rodney King by four Los Angeles police officers became a
reluctant symbol for police brutality across the nation. Read the article on Rodney
King at http://www.cnn.com/2001/LAW/03/02/beating.anniversity.king.02/. After
reading this article, answer the following questions:

1. What happened with the four police officers charged with the excessive
beating of Rodney King?
2. What happened in Los Angeles after the verdict?
3. What explanation did the officers give for beating Rodney King?
4. What happened to Rodney King after he settled his lawsuit against the city for
$3.8 million?
5. Why does this article compare the O.J. Simpson and Rodney King case?

Four:

How serious is the problem with police abuse. Police officers certainly will not
acknowledge it is a problem. Read the article entitled “Fighting Police Abuse” at
http://www.aclu.org/PolicePractices/PolicePractices.cfm?ID=5009&c=25. When
you are done, summarize what you have read and answer the following
questions:



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1. What is the first step in addressing the problem of police abuse?
2. Name some of the police problems
3. There are certain issues, such as quotas that are on the back of an officer‟s
mind when he is on the street. What must the officers forget about while they are
on the street and why?
4. How can the police be controlled? Which one do you think would be most
effective and why?
5. How serious is the problem with police abuse?
6. Why does this article state that statistics regarding police abuse and citizen
complaints are unreliable? Do you agree?

Five:

Who does the FBI hire? Visit https://www.fbijobs.com/ Read section on Special
Agent Vacancy. When you are done, answer the following questions:

1. What are the basic qualifications? Do these seem more difficult than the basic
qualifications for a municipal policing job? Why or why not?
2. What are the duties and responsibilities of a special agent?
3. Where will you be assigned once out of the academy?
4. How do you advance through the ranks?
5. What is the starting salary for a special agent?
6. What are the various entry-level programs and what qualifications do you
need for each of these programs?



Solutions
Answers to In-Chapter Questions

Career Box: Police Officer, Robert Bour          p. 235

What are the pros and cons of being a police officer?

Answer: The pros are numerous, especially to someone who has the
enthusiasm to carry out the job well. Students will likely point to the several pros
mentioned in the career box and then name several of their own. Cons can
include the risks to one‟s health and life, job stress, and the interaction with some
of the worst elements of society.

Critical Thinking    p. 234

1. Why do you think that racial groups differ so greatly in their attitudes toward
the police?


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Answer: This is for a variety of reasons, including more negative experiences
with police (for a variety of reasons, including police prejudice), specific issues
like racial profiling, high-profile cases involving black victims of police brutality,
and the fact that most police officers are white.

2. What do you think could be done to improve public attitudes toward the
police?

Answer: Many students will state that the police should tone down or eliminate
behavior that injures the public‟s confidence, such as racial profiling or other
discriminatory behavior. Others may bring up the fact that community policing will
help the public understand the police job better and thus make them more
understanding, while increasing police accountability to the public. If students do
not mention community policing, you may want to use this opportunity to bring it
up again as a “refresher.”

Photo Caption: Police Qualities          p. 236

What qualities would you bring to the position?

Answer: Student answers will vary: They may include professionalism, integrity,
critical thinking skills, communication skills, and the ability to make quick
decisions.

Criminal Justice Online       p. 239

What are some of the best ways to increase the number of women in policing?

Answer: Many students will state that recruiters should actively seek more
women for policing jobs, and that they should also make police agencies more
friendly and inclusive toward women.

Photo Caption: Female Police Officers              p. 240

What are some of the advantages of having a greater number of female police
officers?

Answer: Answers will vary. Female police officers tend to be better mediators
and problem-solvers than their male counterparts; thus, the y tend to calm tense
situations rather than exacerbate them with aggressive behavior. Female police
officers also provide a reassuring presence to female victims of violent crimes.

Photo Caption: Police Exams            p. 245




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Do you believe those examinations are necessary? Why or why not?

Answer: Most students will agree that it is necessary to test academy recruits on
what they have learned, much as it is necessary to test students at the end of a
semester with a final exam.

Critical Thinking     p. 247

1. What do you think are the most important qualities for police officers to have?
Why?

Answer: Many students will state the three I‟s of policing, but they should be able
to state many more, such as compassion, quick thinking skills, and common
sense.

2. How much formal education do you think police officers should have? Why?

Answer: Students‟ opinions will vary on this topic, but you should stress to them
the proven benefits that result from hiring police officers with at least two years‟
college education.

Criminal Justice Online        p. 250

What can police departments do to prevent racial profiling?

Answer: Several suggestions are listed in the text, including improving police
hiring criteria, better training, and stronger disciplinary actions for those guilty of
racial profiling.

Photo Caption: Chicago Police Stress                p. 252

Are there ways that you handle stress that you think would work particularly well
in policing?

Answer: Student answers will vary. One technique, for example, is to analyze a
stressful situation after it has occurred, determine what actions will make such a
situation less stressful next time, and do whatever actions are necessary and
appropriate the next time such a situation occurs.

Photo Caption: Excessive Force             p. 253

How much control should be placed on them and why?

Answer: Students may debate this because the same amount of discretion that
could lead to police abuses can also be appropriate (and even necessary) when
dealing with dangerous suspects. Some students may feel that discretion is not



                                        IM-7 | 12
the key problem, but that giving wide discretion to poorly trained or otherwise
unprepared officers is.

Critical Thinking    p. 259

1. What do you think are the best ways for police officers to handle stress on the
job?

Answer: Answers will vary. Some students will note that many of the stressors
listed in the book have to do with the ways in which police organizations are set
up; because of this, it is often outside a low-ranking officer‟s power to change it.
Also, officers live in a constant state of not knowing what will happen next in
regard to their encounters with the public. Therefore, police need to maintain a
state of relative calm in order to avoid excessive stress.

2. What do you think are the best ways to recruit new police officers?

Answer: As the text states, the emphasis should be on people who appear
honest, intelligent, and articulate; this refers back to the three I‟s discussed
earlier. Students‟ specific answers will vary, but should reflect an understanding
of how these personality traits will affect one‟s work as a police officer.



Answers to Review Questions          p. 261

1. In general, what is the attitude of the American public toward the police?

Answer: This depends on several factors, including, but not limited to, an
individual‟s prior experience with police and the individual‟s race, sex, age, and
income level. The text cites several examples of how different American ethnic
groups have sometimes greatly different attitudes toward the police. You can
refer students to Figure 7-1 on page 232, which shows that nonwhites have
considerably less confidence in the police.

The three main criteria by which the public judges the police are their ability to
protect the public from crime in general, to solve crime, and to prevent crime.
Figure 7-2 on page 233 shows that most Americans feel at least some measure
of confidence that the police can protect them from crime. Again, the confidence
level of African-Americans is lower than that of Americans in general—although
you might want to point out to students that this does not reflect the views of all
nonwhite Americans, since Hispanic people appear to have more than the
average level of confidence in this area. All Americans, regardless o f race, have
less confidence in the police‟s ability to protect them from violent crime.




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Nearly three-quarters of the American public is at least confident that the police
can solve crime, but the figures are slightly lower for Hispanics and considerably
lower for African-Americans; refer students to the second panel of Figure 7-2 for
more information in this area.

When it comes to the issue of whether or not the police can prevent crime, the
American public is overall skeptical, with approximately one-third stating little or
no confidence in the police‟s ability to prevent crime. The differences in opinion
between minority groups are not as pronounced here as in other topics.

Figure 7-3 on page 234 carries the subject further to cover honesty and ethical
standards, and the text further discusses the police‟s treatment of citizens. To
discuss all of these topics in class, you can ask students:

• Why are there differences between whites and nonwhites in their perceptions
of the police? Why are there differences between the perceptions of Hispanics
and African-Americans?
• Why do people seem to feel that the police are less able to protect them from
violent crimes than from other crimes? Is it the nature of the crime, or a reflection
on the police?

2. Explain how the three I’s of police selection (intelligence, integrity, and
interaction skills) relate to the success of a police officer.

Answer: The three I‟s of police selection are:

• Intelligence: Police officers need to be bright enough to complete rigorous
training.
• Integrity: They should be honest enough to resist—and have a lifestyle that
allows them to resist—the temptation of corrupting influences in law enforcement.
• Interaction skills: In addition, they should also be able to communicate clearly
and get along with people of diverse backgrounds.

This also needs to be accompanied by common sense, compassion, and quick
thinking. You can ask students:

• Under Integrity, the text mentions that police should have a lifestyle that allows
them to stay honest. Do you think that the salaries that police earn are enough to
allow a comfortable lifestyle? Why or why not?
• Under Interaction Skills, the text states that police should get along with people
of diverse backgrounds. This includes not just racial minorities, but also women,
people from different income levels, children, and the elderly. In general, why do
you think the breakdown in communication occurs when it does?




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3. What are some advantages of hiring college-educated police officers?

Answer: College-educated police officers are one example of the ways in which
police administrators are trying to professionalize the ranks. Police officers with a
college education offer the following advantages:

1-Better written reports
2 -Enhanced communication with the public
3 -More effective job performance
4 -Fewer citizen complaints
5 -Wiser use of discretion
6 -Heightened sensitivity to racial and ethnic issues
7 -Fewer disciplinary actions

Remind students of the following text examples:

• Minnesota‟s Peace Officer Licensing Commission now requires a four -year
college degree for licensing.
• The Peace Officer Council in Ohio now has over a dozen college academies.
In these college academies, students pursue a program that integrates an
associate‟s degree curriculum in law enforcement or criminal justice with the
state‟s required peace officer academy training.

4. What are some arguments in favor of and opposing the reduction of
police discretion?

Answer: You will first want to make sure that students fully understand the
concept of discretion, which is essential to a full understanding of police
functions. Discretion is the exercise of individual judgment, instead of formal
rules, in making decisions. Discretion is used constantly in po licing, because no
list of policies and procedures could possibly guide police officers through all of
the situations in which they find themselves.

Police discretion can be very controversial, and the argument for increased and
decreased discretion is as follows:

• Reduction of discretion: Many point to abuses in the use of discretion, such as
physical abuse of citizens or unequal application of the law in making arrests.
• Increase in discretion: Others argue that society should acknowledge that
officers operate with great discretion and should not attempt to limit it. They
believe that better education and training would help officers exercise their
judgment more wisely.

You can ask students:




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• Given the level of education and training that most officers receive now, do
they have too much or too little discretion?
• When does discretion lead to abuses, such as ignoring certain victims or
harassing innocent people? What can be done about this?
• Can an ideal level of discretion be agreed upon for all officers? Why or why
not?

5. Why do police generally not like to respond to domestic violence calls?

Answer: You will want students to understand that police have long neglected
domestic violence and other types of family violence because of misperceptions
that any type of family violence is a personal matter, and therefore it is not “real”
crime. In addition, the behavior of victims can be erratic and emotional, which
confuses police and makes them less sympathetic, especially over long periods
of time when the victim refuses to press charges.

You can ask students:

• What role does sexism play in the police‟s long -standing refusal to get involved
in domestic violence cases? How is this problem being addressed?
• How do mandatory arrest laws for domestic abusers help solve previous
problems with discretion? Do you feel that they work?
• How can the problem of police who ignore domestic violence calls be solved
once and for all?

6. What is racial profiling in law enforcement, and what are some of the
methods that have been prescribed to stop it?

Answer: Racial profiling is a law enforcement infringement on a citizen‟s liberty
based solely on race. The most common examples of this are when African-
Americans and other minorities are stopped for traffic violations and field
interrogations in numbers disproportionate to their representation in the
population. Many of these stops are pretext stops, where the stop is justified by a
minor equipment or moving traffic violation that might otherwise be ignored. At
the root of such a practice is racial stereotyping and prejudice.

Examples of how to stop racial profiling that were mentioned in the textbook
were:

• An ACLU national project to eliminate racial profiling, which includes giving
citizens a “Bust Card” that tells them how to interact with the police even when
falling victim to racial profiling
• Racial and cultural diversity training for police personnel
• Strong discipline for errant officers
• Videotaping of all traffic stops




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• Collecting data on the race of stopped motorists and pedestrians and the
disposition of the encounter
• Having police officers distribute business cards to all motorists and pedestrians
they stop. The business card may reduce race-based stops because it would
allow an officer to be easily identified at a later time.

To initiate further discussion on this, you can ask students:

• What can be done in the selection and hiring of officers to eliminate racial
profiling?
• How should racist officers be handled?
• What can victims of racial profiling do to try to ensure that it does not happen to
them again?

7. What are some of the conditions that can lead to police job stress?

Answer: Job stress is defined as the harmful physical and emotional outcomes
that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities,
resources, or needs of the employee. Stress is a fact of life in police work, and
police officers must often juggle several different stressors on any given workday.
Some day-to-day examples of stressors (you may want to define this term to the
class as “causes of stress”) are:

• Intervening in personal emergencies and great tragedies
• Working extended shifts
• Working prolonged assignments, such as undercover assignments where
one‟s life is at risk

Some deeper examples of stress involve the nature of one‟s job or organization:

• Design of tasks—heavy lifting, long hours without breaks, and monotonous
repetition of dangerous maneuvers
• Management style—lack of participation by workers in decision making, poor
communication, and lack of family-friendly policies
• Interpersonal relationships—poor social environment and lack of support from
coworkers and supervisors
• Work roles—conflicting or uncertain job expectations, wearing too ma ny hats,
and carrying too much responsibility

8. What is meant by copicide?

Answer: Copicide or “death by cop” is a form of suicide in which a person gets
fatally shot after intentionally provoking police officers. According to one author,
“dozens of times each year during jittery hostage dramas and routine traffic
stops, desperate people lure police officers into shooting them in a phenomenon
known in law enforcement circles as „suicide by cop‟.”



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You can ask students:

• How can police cope with people who provoke them into copicide?
• Do you think that copicide is less or more common than the estimates given in
your textbook? Why?

9. What is meant by excessive force?

Answer: Excessive force is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to
control participants in a conflict. It is a controversial issue in policing because it
leads to lawsuits and a decrease in public confidence in the police.

Emphasize to students that excessive force is a lose-lose situation, because
police may face criminal and civil prosecution in such cases, citizens grow to
resent the police, and law enforcement agencies pay out millions of dollars in
damages while losing the community‟s respect.

Some topics to start student discussions are:

• What did you think of the excessive force used against Abner Louima? From
most accounts, he was an innocent victim; however, many NYPD supporters
accused him of lying and being unreliable. What are your opinions? Do you feel
that Justin Volpe‟s 30-year sentence was just?
• Why do you think the four officers who shot and killed Amadou Diallo were
acquitted? How did this acquittal affect the public‟s view of the NYPD?
• Why are so few brutality complaints substantiated? What different factors could
be involved here?

10. What are some types of police misconduct?

Answer: The text gives many examples, including:

• Police officers buying their positions and promotions
• Police officers selling protection
• Police officers violating the law for money

In addition, the Knapp Commission, which in 1972 issued a report on corruption
within the NYPD, offered descriptions of the two basic types of police who
engage in corruption:

• “Grass eaters” are officers who occasionally engage in illegal or unethical
activities, such as accepting small favors, gifts, or money for ignoring violations of
the law during the course of their duties.




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• “Meat eaters” actively seek ways to make money illegally while on duty. For
example, they would solicit bribes, commit burglaries, or manufacture false
evidence for a prosecution.

In addition, Ellwyn Stoddard identified and defined the “blue-coat code,” which
covers a wide range of corruption:

1 -Bribery: accepting cash or gifts in exchange for non-enforcement of the law.
2 -Chiseling: demanding discounts, free admission, and free food.
3 -Extortion: the threat of enforcement and arrest if a bribe is not given.
4 -Favoritism: giving breaks on law enforcement, such as for traffic violations
committed by families and friends of the police.
5 -Mooching: accepting free food, drinks, and admission to entertainment.
6 -Perjury: lying for other officers apprehended in illegal activity.
7 -Prejudice: unequally enforcing the law with respect to racial and ethnic
minorities.
8 -Premeditated theft: planning burglaries and thefts.
9 -Shakedown: taking items from the scene of a theft or a burglary that the officer
is investigating.
10 -Shopping: taking small, inexpensive items from a crime scene or an
unsecured business or home.

You can ask students if the suggested solutions for corruption, which are listed in
the textbook, are feasible ones. Can they think of any other ways?



Answers to Critical Thinking Exercises           p. 262

Police Academy

Students‟ answers will vary depending on whether they believe the pros outweigh
the cons. There are many pros and cons to this sort of training. Two pros are the
length of the training and its intensity; after this, proponents believe, police
recruits will be ready for anything. Opponents, however, feel that this will create
overly aggressive and militaristic recruits; most notable is this training program‟s
lack of emphasis on communication, community relations, and dealing with
diverse populations.

Regarding the effects that such training would have on recruiting, students‟
answers will vary. Many will state that officers do need physical stamina and
alertness, but may state that this training is too one -sided. Also, it may eliminate
people who have excellent communication skills but who may not be able to
stand the rigors of military-style training.




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To further a discussion on whether this kind of training is needed in American
society, you can ask them:

• How would this style of police training benefit officers working in a small town?

In affluent suburbs? In the working-class or poor community of a large city?

• Will such training create officers skilled at working with the community?
• For what kind of police work is this training best suited?

Stress

Answers will vary, but all should indicate a clear step-by-step plan on how to
approach stressors in the workplace. This plan could include communicating
clearly with the officers suffering from stress, implementing changes in the
department and in coworker relations that will reduce stress, and making other
organizational changes that would reduce stress. Some students will point out
that the commander should also eliminate the stress associated with change by
clearly stating why these changes are being made and how they will help
everyone.




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