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Physical Approaches to managing the negative effects of stress. • Psychotherapeutic drugs. • The drugs act directly upon the ANS. • In cases of chronic stress anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing drug) more common names include diazepam (valium). • These drugs do carry side effects such as: • Drowsiness • Lethargy. • They may also cause physical dependence which manifest themselves when the drug is stopped: • Insomnia • Tremors • Convulsions • Therefore physical dependence + tolerance = drug addiction. Physical Approaches to managing the negative effects of stress cont… • Biofeedback • Aims to provide some information so that we can bring internal physiological states under voluntary control. • A biofeedback machine provides precise information about autonomic functions. The feedback is given auditory or visually. • The person is then taught how to control these functions through psychological techniques or physiological responses. Biofeedback cont… • Key study: Brady (1995) • Aim: Investigate biofeedback. • Procedure: Gave students seven 50 minute sessions of EMG. • Also urged to practice bringing back muscle tension under control when free of headaches and when they felt them coming on. • Compared with 2 others groups one who had no treatment, and a group who had ‘Pseudo meditation’. • Findings: The EMG group produced significant reductions in muscle tension and headaches. Disadvantages of biofeedback. • Requires physiological feedback. • Regular practice is required for beneficial results. • May allow the individual to recognise signs of stress, however we still do not know exactly how biofeedback works. Physical Approaches to managing the negative effects of stress. • Exercise and workplace stress. • Key study: Daley & Parfitt (1996) • Aim: Investigate relationship between stress and exercise. • Procedure: Measured mood states physical well being job satisfaction and absenteeism of a British food company. • Findings: Those who were members of a health club scored highest on the suggestion of promoting work place health programmes, this would lead to beneficial effects for employees on physical and psychological well being. Psychological approaches to managing the negative effects of stress. • Relaxation. • Meditation • Stress inoculation training. • Developing hardiness • Coping strategies Stress inoculation training. • Meichenbaum (1977) • Cognitive/behavioural techniques used to get people to analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of their own coping strategies, and devise more effective means of coping. • This theory consists of 3 stages: • Cognitive preparation • Skill acquisition and rehearsal • Application and follow through. Stress inoculation training. • Cognitive preparation • No negative statements • Don’t worry • What is it you have to do? • Skill acquisition and rehearsal • Relax you’re in control. • One step at a time. • Don’t think about the fear. • Application and follow through • You did it! • When your in control…you control your fear. Hardiness…Kobasa (1979) • Individuals taught to recognise stress. • Increase belief in own ability. • View life changes as challenges not threat. • Those who were hardy were seen as healthier, even though they were exposed to same stressful situations.
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