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Physical Approaches to managing the negative effects of stress

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									    Physical Approaches to managing
     the negative effects of stress.
•   Psychotherapeutic drugs.

•   The drugs act directly upon the ANS.

•   In cases of chronic stress anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing drug)   more common
    names include diazepam (valium).

•   These drugs do carry side effects such as:
•   Drowsiness
•   Lethargy.

•   They may also cause physical dependence which manifest themselves when the
    drug is stopped:
•   Insomnia
•   Tremors
•   Convulsions

•   Therefore physical dependence + tolerance = drug addiction.
Physical Approaches to managing the
  negative effects of stress cont…
• Biofeedback
• Aims to provide some information so that we can
  bring internal physiological states under voluntary
  control.

• A biofeedback machine provides precise information
  about autonomic functions. The feedback is given
  auditory or visually.
• The person is then taught how to control these
  functions through psychological techniques or
  physiological responses.
            Biofeedback cont…
• Key study: Brady (1995)
• Aim: Investigate biofeedback.
• Procedure: Gave students seven 50 minute sessions of
  EMG.
• Also urged to practice bringing back muscle tension under
  control when free of headaches and when they felt them coming
  on.
• Compared with 2 others groups one who had no treatment, and a
  group who had ‘Pseudo meditation’.
• Findings: The EMG group produced significant reductions in
  muscle tension and headaches.
Disadvantages of biofeedback.
• Requires physiological feedback.

• Regular practice is required for
  beneficial results.

• May allow the individual to recognise
  signs of stress, however we still do not
  know exactly how biofeedback works.
 Physical Approaches to managing
  the negative effects of stress.
•     Exercise and workplace stress.
• Key study: Daley & Parfitt (1996)
• Aim: Investigate relationship between stress and exercise.
• Procedure: Measured mood states physical well being job
  satisfaction and absenteeism of a British food company.

• Findings: Those who were members of a health club scored
  highest on the suggestion of promoting work place health programmes,
  this would lead to beneficial effects for employees on physical and
  psychological well being.
Psychological approaches to managing
   the negative effects of stress.
•   Relaxation.
•   Meditation
•   Stress inoculation training.
•   Developing hardiness
•   Coping strategies
     Stress inoculation training.
• Meichenbaum (1977)

• Cognitive/behavioural techniques used to get
  people to analyse and evaluate the
  effectiveness of their own coping strategies,
  and devise more effective means of coping.

•   This theory consists of 3 stages:
•   Cognitive preparation
•   Skill acquisition and rehearsal
•   Application and follow through.
     Stress inoculation training.
• Cognitive preparation
• No negative statements
• Don’t worry
• What is it you have to do?
• Skill acquisition and rehearsal
•   Relax you’re in control.
•   One step at a time.
•   Don’t think about the fear.

• Application and follow through
• You did it!
• When your in control…you control your fear.
   Hardiness…Kobasa (1979)
• Individuals taught to recognise stress.
• Increase belief in own ability.
• View life changes as challenges not
  threat.

• Those who were hardy were seen as
  healthier, even though they were
  exposed to same stressful situations.

								
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