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Engineering Design College of Engineering Engineering


									      Reverse Engineering
  Product Dissection and Design

        Prerequisite for the course:

  Curiosity, eagerness to take things apart,
willingness to learn from mistakes, interest to
                work in a team

•   Dissecting a product
•   Understanding how it functions
•   Learn basic principles
•   Designing/building a new product
•   Communicating (oral/written)
             Mechanical Engineering

• Mechanical Engineering involves
• Conversion of energy (engine, turbine, motor, etc.)
•      Conversion of motion (gears, piston-cylinder, etc.)
•      Analysis of a structure (strength, stiffness, etc)
•      Choosing the correct material (metal, composite,
• Building a structure or machine (building components
  and assembly)
• Mechanical engineers play a major role in building
  everything (toys to cars to airplanes)
             Issues involved

•   Cost effective
•   Ergonomical
•   Aesthtically pleasing
•   Safe
•   Environment friendly
•   Cater to an existing market or create
    new market
                  Product Dissection

Last lecture involved Electro-magnetic shock design
to show a state of the art interesting project

However this is little too involved for a class project.

Also this course is meant for all engineering students, so
let us consider some common household items, dissect
them and then try to design a similar product.
           Study a familiar product

• Vacuum cleaner (or power drill or lawn mower)
• Following steps will be involved to study the

•    Disassemble the product
•    Identify each component
•    Understand their purpose
•    Obtain information about each component
         Why hands-on experience

• I hear, I forget
• I see, I remember
• I do, I understand
                      Safety Rules

•   Wear safety glasses
•   Do not work alone
•   Do not hurry
•   Do not work when tired or under the influence
•   Use common sense
•   Think before you act
•   Prevent accidents
                   Team Building

“If you can’t operate as a team player, no matter how
valuable you’ve been, you really do not belong at GE”
John Welch
 CEO, GE (1993)

Since working properly in a team is essential to the
success of the project following few slides are presented
to help functioning properly in a team.
                                                                           Teams out of Groups
               TEAM WORKSHOP

                             Code of Cooperation
             EVERY member is responsible for the team's progress and success.
             Attend all sessions and be on time.
             Listen to and show respect for the contributions of other members; be an
              active listener.
             Criticize ideas, not persons.
             Resolve conflicts constructively.
             Pay attention - avoid disruptive behavior.
             Avoid disruptive side conversations.
             Only one person speaks at a time.
             Everyone participates -- no one dominates.
             Be succinct, avoid long anecdotes and examples.
             No rank in the room.
             Attend to your personal comfort needs at any time but minimize team
             HAVE FUN.
             .....                                        Adapted from the Boeing
                                                          Commercial Airplane Group

Session I            Code of Cooperation
                                                                            Team1.ppt - 2
                                                                      Individuals vs Team
                 TEAM WORKSHOP

                                   Team Roles &
           Team Leader
            Leads team through problem solving process
            Invests appropriate amount of time on the project
            Maintains accurate records of team activities
             and results
            Prepares for each team meeting
            Provides structure and guidance to allow maximum participation
            Influences team decisions equally with team members

                   Roles & Responsibilities
Session II - 5                                                                 Team2.ppt - 5
                        Team Leader
                                                           Individuals vs Team
                 TEAM WORKSHOP

                   Team Roles & Responsibilities

            Team Member
             Invests appropriate time on the project
             Is committed and fully involved in project
             Participates equally in:
                   Defining problems
                   Investigating problems
                   Defining solutions
                   Documenting solutions

             Represents his/her organization’s interest

                   Roles & Responsibilities
Session II - 6                                                      Team2.ppt - 6
                    Team Member (Con’t)
                                                                      Individuals vs Team
                 TEAM WORKSHOP

                   Team Roles & Responsibilities
           Team Facilitator
            Assists team leaders in training team members
            Suggests alternative methods and procedures
            Functions as a coach/consultant to the team
            Assures understanding of the team process
            Remains neutral
            Monitors the process rather than the task
            Attends team meetings and provides feedback on team’s process and

                   Roles & Responsibilities
Session II - 7                                                                 Team2.ppt - 7
                       Team Facilitator
                                                                                              Individuals vs Team
                 TEAM WORKSHOP

                   Team Roles & Responsibilities
           Additional Team Member Roles
            Team Recorder
                   Writes down all the ideas and material generated during the working meeting
            Team Timer
                   Makes sure that team stays on its time budget for the various tasks
            Team Gatekeeper
                   Makes sure that all members of the team are participating
            Team Devil’s Advocate
                   Makes sure that opposing ideas are brought up and discussed
            Team Encourager
                   Makes sure that everyone on the team is getting positive recognition for their
            Team Resource Holder
                   This person holds team resources (e.g., calculators, instructions, paper & pencils,

                      Roles & Responsibilities
Session II - 8              Other Roles                                                                   Team2.ppt - 8
         Potential Problems

  Since this may be the first course in your
  engineering curriculum, be aware of the
potential problems of working a group and try
                to avoid them
                                                            Establishing corrective norms
              TEAM WORKSHOP

                Problems of Student Project Teams - 1

           Interpersonal Relations
              personality conflicts
              close mindedness, stubborn-ness, lack of flexibility
              bossy people
              bad communication skills
              lack of positive reinforcement from team members
              selfish behavior
              bad attitudes
              group members don’t like each other

Session III                                                                      team3.ppt - 3
                                                      Establishing corrective norms
              TEAM WORKSHOP

                Problems of Student Project Teams - 2

           Goals and Motivation
              varying levels of commitment among members
              different priorities
              not everyone wants to get an A
              people not willing to pull their weight
              lack of motivation, interest
              lack of responsibility
              no clear goals
              there may be tasks that no one wants to do

Session III                                                                team3.ppt - 4
                                                      Establishing corrective norms
              TEAM WORKSHOP

                Problems of Student Project Teams - 3

           Scheduling
              scheduling problems, finding common meeting times
              varying course loads and other commitments among members
              weeks with lots of tests
              working over long distances
              interruptions during meeting times
              bad weather, fatigue, dinner getting in way
              rushing to get done may cause group to miss something

Session III                                                                team3.ppt - 5
      Back to Dissection

  Now that you have formed a
group successfully, proceed with
 dissection of a vacuum cleaner
          Initial Observation
• Let us explore how a vacuum cleaner works
• First identify the vacuum cleaner: type,
  manufacturer, model#, and performance
• Read the instruction manual
• Plug the vacuum cleaner and run it
• Listen to the sound
• Feel how it runs
• Record your observations
• Wear safety glasses
• Unplug the vacuum cleaner
• Disassemble it as far as possible
• Put all parts in a bin (with label of your group)
• Note each part and their purpose (e.g. belt and
  pulley mechanism, types of bearings/bushings,
  motor, etc.)
• Are there any other alternatives of these
• Now reassemble your vacuum cleaner
• Suggest any design changes to make
  reassemble easier
• Once all parts are assembled, plug it in and run
  it (make sure you have your safety glasses)
• If it does not sound or feel like before or smoke
  comes out, unplug immediately and try to fix the
                           Big Picture

• Understand how different issues are addressed
•     Conversion of energy (120V power supply to motor providing
•       Torque
•     Conversion (Belt and pulley system)
•     Safety issues (Child proof)
•      Environmental issues (quiet but not too quiet, hepa filter)
•      Ergonomic (Carry up the stair, notice the cg location at the
•       stair grip)
•      Material choice (Plastic cover, metal rod for the roller axle)
•      Cost ($50 to $800!)
•      Market (household, commercial)
              Your project
• Your group project
• Build a mini vacuum cleaner, which can
  suck a paperclip
• with constraint of material cost no more
  than $50 including the motor
                  Some Equations

• Even a small or toy vacuum cleaner operating principle
  involves some equations
• Conversion of electrical power (watts = volt * ampere) to
  mechanical energy
• Mechanical power = force * velocity
• Power imparted to impeller = torque * angular velocity
• In case of pump (vacuum cleaner)
  required power = mass flow rate * change in pressure

Now change of duct size and many other factors would
govern the required pressure increase by the impeller.
Commercial ones
I want to conclude this lecture with a note that just
designing and manufacturing a part or a component
is not enough. Ultimately you have to interact with
other people whether it is personnel within your own
company or outside your company. You may work for
a company or agency which either sells a product or
buys a product and you need to be aware of a very
important issue – Ethics
NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers
   Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of
   this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest
   standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital
   impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services
   provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and
   equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health,
   safety, and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of
   professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest
   principles of ethical conduct.
Fundamental Canons

Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties,
1. Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the
2. Perform services only in areas of their competence.
3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful
4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or
5. Avoid deceptive acts.
6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically,
   and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and
   usefulness of the profession.
                     Case Studies

• Personal Conflict (helmet design)
• Corporate Conflict (Chrysler odomoter case, selling of
  damaged cars)
• Government Ethics (editorial in Des Moines Register)
• Boeing defense contract (hiring of defense employee)
• Pressure from own supervisor (compromise results)

• MEEP (The manufacturing engineering education
  partnership), J. Lamancusa et. al, PSU, 2004.
• Society of Professional Engineers

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