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					   The Future of Automobiles:
Rolling Out the Next Generation of
        Advanced Vehicles



                 May 17, 2001
      World Environment Center Colloquium
                Washington, DC

                  Thomas J. Gross
 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
             U.S. Department of Energy
           U.S. Transportation Uses More Oil
            Than Is Produced Domestically
                                                      Highway Carbon Emissions
14                                                       (million metric tons)
                                                        1990 2000         2010      2020
12         Domestic Oil Production                       325 384           455       507

10                                                                                           Heavy Trucks

 8
 6                                                                                           Light Trucks

 4
 2                                                                                           Automobiles

 0
 1970                     1980                    1990                    2000                    2010                    2020
                                                                Actual            Projected

     Source: Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19, DOE/ORNL-6958, September 1999, and EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-
     0383(2000), December 1999
                                                                                                                                        2
         Closing the Oil Gap

 Increase the Supply of Oil
              AND
 Reduce the Demand for Oil
  • Improve the Fuel Economy of Vehicles
      (& other Oil Using Equipment)
  •   Replace Oil with Alternative Fuels
      (& Feedstocks)
  •   Reduce the Amount of Travel
      (& other Behavioral Changes)
                                           3
         Partnerships Are Key to Success

                            Bioenergy
                             Initiative




         US AMP

     Government-Industry            USABC
21st Century Truck Partnership


                                            4
           PNGV: A Historic Collaboration Between
                 Industry & Government
                                                                                 PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES




                                          Suppliers
                                         Universities
                                       Small Business
Daimler                                 Federal Labs
            Ford   GM
Chrysler                                                            DO         DOE           NSF                 DOT
                                   Capabilities   Technologies      C


                   Prioritized Needs
                                         Government          Technologies
                                          Industry                           Government
                     Resources           Partnership             Resources    Agencies
           USCAR    Technologies                                             (DOC Lead)
                                           (PNGV)

                          Goal 1:
                    Adv. Manufacturing
                                                                         DOD       EPA                 NASA
                              Goal 2:
                         Near-Term Vehicle
                          Improvements
                                   Goal 3:
                            Triple Fuel Efficiency
                                                                                                                                5
                               (up to 80 mpg)
              PNGV Technology Milestones
                Completed on Schedule
                                                                                    PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES




1993

Candidates for Development:




                                  Focus and Accelerate
•   Hybrid Vehicles                                      1997             2000                             2004
•   Fuel Cells, Fuel Reformers
•   CIDI Engines, Turbines
•   Low Emissions Technologies                                                     Three
                                                                 Three
•   New Materials                                                                Production
                                                                Concept
•   Advanced Design Simulations                                                  Prototype
•   Efficient Electronics and                                    Cars
    Electrical Devices
                                                                                    Cars
•   Advanced Batteries
•   Ultra-Capacitors and
    Flywheels


                                                                   Technology
              Technology Selection                               Concept Vehicles
              Decisions Completed
                                                                                                                                   6
                             Technology Portfolio
                             Continues to Evolve                                PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES




Engine/Power Sources             Systems Development
• Advanced Heat Engines          • Aerodynamics
   – DI Engines                  • Rolling Resistance – Tires
                                 • Accessory Loads – HVAC                  Fuels Utilization
   – HCCI
                                 • Powertrain Configuration                • Gasoline
   – VCR
                                    – Parallel HEV                         • Diesel Fuels and Blends
• Combustion and
                                    – Series HEV                             (<30 ppm sulfur)
  Aftertreatment
                                                                           • Natural Gas
   – Lean NOx Catalyst
                                                                               • Methanol
   – EGR
                                                                               • Fischer-Tropsch
   – Traps
                                                                               • Dimethyl Ether
• Fuel Cell
                                                                           • Ethanol
• Batteries
                                                                           • Hydrogen
   – NiMH Battery
   – Lithium Battery
• Pneumatic/Hydraulic
  Storage
• Power Electronics
   – Invertors/Controllers                                      Advanced Materials
   – Motors                                                     • Lightweight Materials
   – Ultracapacitors –                                             – Aluminum/Composite BIW
      Electric                                                     – Composite BIW
                                                                • Propulsion Materials
                                    Most promising options
                                    Other technologies                                                                         7
       2000 PNGV Concept Vehicles
                                                                      PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES




Ford Prodigy    • Lightweight materials reduce      DaimlerChrysler ESX3
                  vehicle body structure weight
                  50%*
                • Integrated starter/alternator*
                • 33% reduction in aerodynamic
                  drag
                • Advanced diesel engine with
                  35% efficiency improvement
                  projected to exceed 70 mpg
                  (gasoline equivalent)*
                • High-power battery *           • Body system weighs 46% less*
                                                 • Efficient diesel engine, motor,
   GM Precept                                      and battery projected at 72 mpg
                                                   (gasoline equivalent)*
                                                 • Cost penalty halved to $7500
                    •   Vehicle body weight reduced 45% *
                    •   World’s most energy efficient vehicle lighting system
                    •   Lowest drag coefficient ever recorded for a 5-p sedan
                    •   Dual-axle parallel hybrid achieves 79.6 mpg (gasoline
                        equivalent)                      *Government supported technologies 8
     Many Research Facilities and Firms
    Are Working to Make PNGV a Success


      19                                                         2
                                2                           53
      5                              17                21    89
               8                          35                26
                           1                  343                    RI 2
                                      13              36 10
                                1               124      82
           1       6                      65 30     2 15
                           22     1    15       9
     79                                                7
                                             51
                                    4                2
               10          34           1
                                           3 4 10
1                               31
                                                      9
                       1

     1,201 Projects at 622 Sites, including
51 Universities and 21 Federal Labs in 47 States
                                                                            9
                                            DOE Support of PNGV Is Focused
                                            on Long-Range, High-Risk R&D
                                                2000                2004         2008                   2012
Research




                                                                    Goal 3:
                                                                     3X
                                                                   Research

                                                                                          DOE Support
                      Validation




                                                                                           of PNGV
                                                  Concept
                                                   Cars
                                                                    Productio
                                                                        n        Next
           Integration




                                                                    Prototype   Concept
                                   Production




                                                                    Vehicle
                                                                                    Productio
                                                                    Program
                                                                                        n
                                                                       s
                                                Government & Industry
                                                Industry                                                       10
                Difficult, but Surmountable, Research
                 Challenges Remain to Achieve Very
                          High Fuel Economy

 Hybrid Systems:      Parallel configuration offers best option to meet 80 mpg.
                       Series configuration may be used with fuel cells. Cost,
                       weight, and packaging remain as challenges.
 CIDI Engines:        Mature technology with 44% efficiency, but Nox and
                       particulate emissions remain challenges.
 Fuel Cells:          Lowest onboard emissions and potential for highest efficiency,
                       but cost, systems integration, and fueling infrastructure are
                       major challenges.
 Energy Storage:      Considerable progress in developing high-power battery; focus
                       now on cost and cycle life.
 Power Electronics:   Progress on cost, power-to-weight ratios, and efficiencies
                       needed.
 Light Materials:     Significant weight reductions achieved. Major issues are cost,
                       manufacturability, joining, recycling, and repair.
 Fuels:               Fuel impacts on infrastructure must be addressed. Thorough
                       evaluation is needed of the effects of fuel composition and physical
                       properties on CIDI and fuel systems’ performance.
                                                                                              11
        Technology Is Migrating into New
                 U.S. Vehicles

• Hybrid-electric drives scheduled for:
    –   Dodge Durango in 2003
    –   Ford Escape in 2003
    –   Chevrolet Silverado in 2004
    –   and Ford Explorer in 2005
• 412 pounds of lightweight aluminum
  in the 2000 Lincoln LS
• Aluminum used for door, deck, and
  hood panels for Cadillac, Oldsmobile,
  and Chevrolet vehicles
• 50-pounds lighter composite pickup
  truck box on the 2001 Chevrolet
  Silverado
• Production of a new, lighter, recyclable
  thermoplastic hardtop for the Jeep
  Wrangler in 2001                           12
           21st Century Truck Partnership

                                                                  DOE/EE/OTT
                                                                  Heavy Vehicle
                                                    Department of Technologies R&D
                                                         Energy

                                                                                                         Army/TACOM
                                                                                                         NAC Military
                                                                                                         Vehicle R&D
        Industry Participants                        Department of
                                                       Defense
Allison Transmission   General Motors
BAE SYSTEMS Controls   Honeywell                                                                         Intelligent Vehicle
Caterpillar            International Truck                                                               and Highway
Cummins                    and Engine                                                                    Safety R&D
                                                     Department of
DaimlerChrysler        Mack Trucks                   Transportation
Detroit Diesel         NovaBUS                                         UN
                                                                             S
                                                                         ITED TATE




                                                                                     S
                                                          EN




                                                                                                GEN CY
Eaton Corporation      Oshkosh Truck                                                                       Vehicle
                       PACCAR                          VI R ON M




                                                                                             NA
Freightliner                                                       N                                       Emissions


                                                                                     IO
                                                            E
                                                                       TA                T
                                                                            L P ROT EC
                       Volvo Trucks North America                                                          Regulations
                                                      Environmental
                                                                                                                          13
                                                    Protection Agency
      21st Century Truck Partnership
            Declaration of Intent

Develop production prototype vehicles that:
    Improve fuel efficiency, specifically, by 2010;
         Double the Class 8 long-haul truck fuel efficiency*;
         Triple the Class 2b and 6 truck (delivery van) fuel efficiency*;
          and
         Triple the Class 8 transit bus fuel efficiency*;
   Exceed expected emissions standards for 2010;
   Meet or exceed motor carrier safety goal of reducing
    truck fatalities by half in ten years; and
   Enhance affordability, and maintain or enhance
    performance.
   * On a ton-mile per gallon basis
                                                                             14
        Many Federal Roles in Promoting
              Advanced Vehicles

           Area                       Example

•   Research & Development   •   PNGV
•   Demonstration            •   U.S. Postal Service
•   Deployment               •   Energy Policy Act
•   Incentives & Funding     •   TEA-21
•   Regulation               •   Clean Air Act


                                                       15
        Selected Transportation Policies


  Policy      Year       Regulations   Financial    Information
                             &         Incentives
                          Standards
EPCA
              1975                                     
(CAFE)

AMFA          1988                                     

EPACT         1992                                    

ISTEA &
           1991 & 1996                    
TEA-21
                                                                  16
            Selected Proposals to Promote
             Clean and Efficient Vehicles


                       Types of Incentives/Inducements
             AFVS    Hybrids     Fuel              HOV      Federal
Bill                                    Stations
              EVs   Fuel Cells   Use               Lanes   Agencies
S. 389
                                                        
Murkowski
S. 597
                                                            
Bingaman
S. 760
                                                        
Hatch


                                                                      17
       Federal Agencies Can Have A Role


• Number of vehicles in the Federal fleet – 578,000
• Number of alternative fuel vehicles – 55,000
• Estimated annual purchases – 55,000
    Sedans ~ 17,500
    Light trucks, vans, SUVs ~ 22,500
    Medium, heavy-duty vehicles ~ 15,000
• Average cost for Federal vehicles is low
    Compact sedans @ $12,000; light trucks @ $13,000
• Fleets are located all over the country, including rural areas
                                                                   18
         Executive Order 13149
                    April 2000




Goals and Requirements:
  – 20% Petroleum Reduction in Covered
   Federal Fleets in FY 2005 Compared to FY
   1999 Baseline
  – Use of Alternative Fuel in AFVs by FY 2005
  – Increased Average Fuel Economy of New
    Light Duty Vehicle Acquisitions
                                                 19
                     In Summary


Federal role
   – Energy supply and demand are national issues
   – Federal efforts can support industry marketing
      – Testing and evaluation; consumer education; Clean Cities
      – Federal agency demonstrations
Comprehensive program
   – Multiple market segments (e.g., light and heavy duty)
   – Multiple technology options and fuels
Coordination and partnership are critical
Long term commitment is necessary
                                                                   20

				
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