Galileo positioning system by pengtt

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									Galileo positioning system
Fro m W ikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

http://www.wikipedia.co m/wiki/ Galileo+positioning+system

Galileo is a planned satellite navigation system, intended as a European alternative to the US GPS. It is currently under
consideration by the European Union and the European Space Agency. The system is intended to be prima rily for civil use,
unlike the US system. The US reserves the right to limit the signal strength of the GPS sytems so that non -military users can't
use it, or to shut down GPS co mpletely, in t ime o f conflict. The precision of the signal available to non -military users was
limited before 2000. The European system will not (in theory) be subject to shutdown for military purposes, will provide a
significant imp rovement to the signal available fro m GP S, and will be available at its full precision to all users, both civil and
military.

The European Co mmission had some difficu lty trying to secure funding for the next stage of the Gallileo project. Its states
were wary of investing the neccessary funds at a time where budgets were threatened across Europe. So me states, such as
France, strongly supported Galileo as a means of having technological independence fro m the Un ited States. Other states, such
as Germany, felt that it may be better to continue getting the service for free fro m the US, than paying for it themselves. The
United States, after the September 11 terrorist attacks against them, wrote to the European Un ion opposing the project since it
would defeat the usefulness of the US ability to shut down GPS in times of military operations. On January 17, 2002 the
spokesman for the project said that "Galileo is almost dead" as a result of this pressure.

The European Un ion and European Space Agency then agreed in March 2002 to fund the project, pending a review in 2003. At
a cost of €1.1 bn the required satellites will be launched between 2006 and 2008 and the system will be wo rking, under civ ilian
control, fro m 2008.

As well as a technological ach ievement and practical tool, Galileo will be a political statement of EU technological
independence fro m the Un ited States. In the technological independence aspect, a strong motivator is the policy of the US t o
accept only US co mpanies to deliver technology and equipment for the GPS.

External links:

        European Space Administration story
        Wired story
        BBC story on go-ahead for Galileo

Global Positioning System
(Red irected fro m GPS)

The Gl obal Positioning System, usually called GPS, and originally named NAVSTAR, is a satellite navigation system used
for determining one's precise location almost anywhere on Earth. A GPS unit receives time signal transmissions fro m mu ltip le
satellites, and calculates its position by triangulating this data. The GPS was designed by and is controlled by the United States
Depart ment of Defense and can be used by anybody for free. The cost of maintaining the system is appro ximately $400 mil lion
per year.

Technical description

The system consists of a 'constellation' of 24 satellites in 6 orbital planes. The GPS satellites were manufactured by Rockwell;
the first was launched in 1978 and the final (24th) satellite was launched in 1994. Each satellite circles the Earth twice every
day at an altitude of 20,200 kilo meters. The satellites carry ato mic clocks and constantly broadcast the precise time according
to their own clock, along with administrative informat ion, including the orbital elements of their own motion, as determined by
a set of ground-based observatories.

The receiver does not need a precise clock, but it needs to have a clock with good short -term stability and contact to four
satellites in order to unambiguously compute its own latitude, longitude, elevation and the precise time. The receiver starts
with an appro ximate time and co mputes the distances to the four satellites based on a comparison of their broadcast time
signals to the receiver's time. Fu rthermore, the receiver can calculate the precise locations of the fo ur satellites fro m the
broadcast information stream. The receiver should then be located at the intersection of four spheres, each with a radius equal
to the time delay between the satellite and the receiver mu lt iplied by the speed of the radio signals. In general, the 4 spheres
will not intersect however, because the initial local t ime was only appro ximate. The receiver then applies an offset to the local
time, until the co mputed four spheres intersect. That intersection point gives the precise location of the receiver, and the offset
gives the precise time. If elevation informat ion is not required, only three satellites need to be contacted.

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In order to allow a precise determination of the time delay between satellite and receiver, the satellite sends a repeating 1023
bit long pseudo random sequence?; the receiver knows the seed of the sequence, constructs an identical sequence and shifts it
until the two sequences match. Different satellites use different sequences, which allows them all to broadcast on the same
frequency, 1,575.42 M Hz.

The calculations are co mplicated by the fact that the speed of radio waves is not constant in the atmosphere and is affected by
atmospheric conditions and angle of entry, among other factors. The receiver contains a mathematical mo del to account for
these influences, and the satellites also broadcast some related information which helps the receiver in estimating the corre ct
speed of propagation.

A minor detail: the atomic clocks on the satellites are set to "GPS time", which is th e number of seconds since 24:00:00,
January 5, 1980. It is ahead of UTC because it doesn't follow leap seconds. Receivers thus apply a clock correction factor
(which is periodically transmitted along with the other data) and optionally adjust for a local time zone in order to display the
correct time.

The accuracy of GPS can be improved in a nu mber of ways:

        Using a network of fixed ground based reference stations. These stations broadcast the difference between the
         location given by GPS and their real location, and clients can then correct their position by the same amount. This
         method is called Di fferential GPS or DGPS. The accuracy of DGPS without degradation of GPS is less than a meter.
         DGPS was especially useful when GPS was still degraded (via the "Selective Availability" described above), since
         DGPS could nevertheless provide 5-10 meter accuracy. The DGPS network has been mainly developed by the Finnish
         and Swedish maritime ad min istrations in order to improve safety in the archipelago between the two countries.

        The Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS). This uses a number of additional satellites to transmit correction
         data, including info rmation on ionospheric delays, individual satellite clock d rift, and suchlike. Although only a few
         WAAS satellites are currently available (in 2002), it is hoped that eventually WAAS will provide sufficient reliability
         and accuracy that it can be used for critical applications such as GP S-based instrument approaches in aviation
         (landing an airplane in conditions of litt le or no visib ility).

        A Local-Area Augmentation System (LAAS). This is similar to WAAS, in that similar correction data is used. But in
         this case, the correction data is transmitted fro m a local source, typically at an airport or another location where
         accurate positioning is needed. This correction data is typically useful fo r only about a thirty to fifty kilo meter rad ius
         around the transmitter.

Applications

The primary military purpose is to allow imp roved command and control of forces through an enhanced ability to accurately
specify target locations for cruise missiles or troops. The satellites also carry nuclear detonation detectors.

The systems is used by countless civilians as well, who can use the GPS's Standard Positioning Service worldwide free of
charge. Lo w cost GPS receivers (price $100 to $200) are widely available. In the past, the civilian signal was degraded, and a
more accurate Precise Positioning Serv ice was available only to the Un ited States military and other, mostly government users .
However, on May 2, 2000, Bill Clinton announced that this "Selective Availability" would be turned off, and so now all users
enjoy nearly the same level of access, allowing a precision of position determination of less than 20 meters. For military
purposes, "Selective Deni ability" may still be used to, in effect, jam civ ilian GPS units in a war zone while still allowing
military units to have full functionality. Military (and selected civilian) users still enjoy some technical advantages which can
give quicker satellite lock? and increased accuracy.

Other system s

For a list of other systems, see satellite navigation system.

External links:

        Peter H. Dana: Global Positioning System Overv iew, http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html
        The FAA has more informat ion on GPS, WAAS, LAAS, and DGPS at http://gps.faa.gov/FAQ/index.ht m
        U.S. Army Co rps of Engineers manual: NA VSTAR HTM L and PDF (328 pages)
        Greg Goebel: "Navigation Satellites and GPS", http://vectorsite.net/ttgps.html

See also:

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         Allan variance
         Geocaching
         Degree Confluence Project

Satellite navigation system
Fro m W ikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Satellite navigation systems use radio time signals transmitted by satellites to enable mobile receivers on the ground to
determine their exact location.

An early predecessor was the ground based Loran system, which d idn't use satellites. The first satellite navigation system was
Transit, a system deployed by the US military in the 1960's. Transit's operation was based on the Doppler effect : the satellite
travels on a well-known path and broadcasts on a well known frequency. The received frequency will differ slightly because of
the movement of the satellite with respect to the receiver. By mon itoring this frequency shift over a short time interval, th e
receiver can determine its location.

Modern satellite navigation systems requires the reception of signal fro m several satellites, all of which broadcast the satellite's
location, and precise time signals. The satellites carry ato mic clocks. The receiver characterizes the time-o f-flight of the signals
fro m several satlites and computes its location. It can also co mpute the precise time.

The best known satellite navigation system is the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). As of 2002 the GPS is the
only fully functional satellite navigation system.

The Russian counterpart to GPS is called GLONASS and was used as a backup by some co mmercial GPS receivers. Ho wever
the GLONASS constellation is currently (as of 2001) in very poor repair, rendering it almost useless as a navigation aid.

The European Un ion and European Space Agency have agreed (March 2002) to introduce their own alternative to GPS, called
Galileo, pending a review in 2003. At a cost of about $ 2.5 b illion (2.5 · 109 dollars) the required satellites will be launched
between 2006 and 2008 and the system will be working, under civilian control, fro m 2008.




http://www.esa.int/export/esaSA/GGGMN850NDC_navigation_0.html

What is Galileo?




Galileo

 Galileo will be Europe’s own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global
positioning service under civilian control. It will be inter -operable with GPS and GLONASS, the two other global
satellite navigation systems. A user will be able to take a position with the same receiver from any of the satellites
in any combination. By offering dual frequencies as standard, however, Galileo will deliver real -time positioning

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accuracy down to the metre range, which is unprecedented for a publicly availabl e system. It will guarant ee
availability of the servic e under all but the most extreme circumstances and will inform users within seconds of a
failure of any satellite. This will make it suitable for applications where safety is crucial, such as running tr ains,
guiding cars and landing aircraft.

The first experimental satellite, part of the so-called Galileo System Test Bed (GS TB) will be launched in late 2004.
The objective of this experimental satellite is to characterize the critical technologies, which are already under
development under ESA contracts. Thereafter up to four operational satellites will be launc hed in the timeframe
2005-2006 to validate the basic Galileo space and related ground segment. Once this In -Orbit Validation (IOV)
phase has been completed, the remaining satellites will be installed to reach the Full Operational Capability (FOC)
in 2008.

The fully deployed Galileo system consists of 30 satellites (27 operational + 3 active spares), positioned in three
circular Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) planes in 23616 km altitude above the Earth, and at an inclination of the orbit al
planes of 56 degrees with reference to the equatorial plane. Once this is achieved, the Galileo navigation signals
will provide a good coverage even at latitudes up to 7 5 degrees north, which corres ponds to the North Cape, and
beyond. The large number of satellites together with the optimisation of the constellation, and the availability of the
three active spare satellites, will ensure that the loss of one satellite has no discernible effect on the user.

Two Galileo Control Centres (GCC) will be implemented on European ground to provide for the control of the
satellites and to perform the navigation mission management. The data provided by a global net work of twenty
Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS) will be sent to the Galileo Cont rol Centres through a redundant communications
network. The GCC’s will us e the data of the Sensor Stations to compute the int egrity information and to
synchronize the time signal of all satellites and of the ground station clocks. The exchange of the data between the
Cont rol Centres and the satellites will be performed through so -called up-link stations. Five S-band up-link stations
and 10 C-band up-link stations will be installed around the globe for this purpose. As a further feat ure, Galileo will
provide a global Search and Rescue (SA R) function, based on the operational Cospas -Sarsat system. To do so,
each satellite will be equipped with a trans ponder, which is able to transfer the distress signal s from the user
transmitters to the Rescue Co-ordination Centre, which will then initiate the rescue operation. At the same time, the
system will provide a signal to the user, informing him that his situation has been detected and that help is under
way. This latter feature is new and is considered a major upgrade compared to the existing system, which does not
provide a feedback to the user.

Last update: 5 April 2002


Why Europe needs Galileo




Galileo

 Satellite navigation users in Europe today have no alternative ot her than to take their positions from US GPS or
Russian GLONASS satellites. Yet the military operat ors of both systems give no guarantee to maintain an
uninterrupted servic e. Satellite positioning has already become the standard way of navigating on the high seas: in
the near future, its use will spread to land and air. If the signals were switched off tomorrow, many ships’ crews
would be hard pressed to revert to traditional navigation methods using almanacs and sex tants. In a few years'
time, when the use of satellite positioning has spread, the implications of a signal failure will be even greater,
jeopardising not only the efficient running of transport systems, but also human safety.

As far back as the early 1990s, the European Union saw the need for Europe to have its own global satellite
navigation system. The conclusion to build one was taken in similar spirit to decisions in the 1970s to embark on
other well-known European endeavours, such as the Ariane launc her and the Airbus. The European Commission
and European Space Agency joined forces to build Galileo, an independent system under civilian control which will

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be guaranteed to operate at all times, bar the direst emergency. Galileo is now at the point of mo ving from
definition to full-scale development.

European independence is the chief reason for taking this major step. However, other subsidiary reasons include:

         By being inter-operable with GPS and GLONASS, Galileo will be a cornerstone of the Global Navigation
          Satellite System (GNSS). This system will be under civilian control and will allow positions to be
          determined accurat ely for most places on Eart h, even in high rise cities where buildings obscure signals
          from satellites low on the horizon. This is because the number of satellites available from whic h to take a
          position more than double.
         By placing satellites in orbits at a greater inclination to the equatorial plane than GPS, Galileo will achieve
          better coverage at high latitudes. This will make it particularly suitable for operation over northern Europe,
          an area not well covered by GPS.
         With Galileo, Europe will be able to exploit the opportunities provided by satellite navigation to the full
          extent. GNSS receiver and equipment manufacturers, application providers and service operators will
          benefit from novel business opportunities. Under request from the European Commission,
          Pricewat erhouseCoopers (PwC) prepared a study on the business plan for the Galileo programme.

    Last update: 11 March 2002


Who's involved in Galileo?




Galileo sate llite

Galileo is a joint initiative of the European Commission (E C) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

The EC is responsible for the political dimension and the high-level mission requirements. The EC initiated in
particular studies on the overall architecture, the economic benefits and the user needs. These include the GALILE I
studies that address the local archit ectures, interoperability and signals and frequencies. Moreover, they provi de a
market observatory and cater for investigations into legal, institutional, standardisation, certification and regulatory
issues.

ESA’s responsibility covers the definition, development, and in-orbit validation of the space segment and related
ground element. Work on new technologies needed for the constellation and the ground segment has been
continuing at ESA's technical centre, ES TEC in the Net herlands since a number of years already. These critical
technologies include the development of high precision clocks to be installed on-board the satellites (applying
rubidium and passive hydrogen maser frequency standards), on -board timing units for steering the individual clocks
to a common Galileo System Time, signal generat ors to produce the positioning s ignals that the Galileo spacecraft
will broadcast; power amplifiers, radio -frequency multiplexers and antennas and telecommand & telemetry
transponders. In parallel, work is progressing on the Galileo System Simulation Facility (GSSF) to test strategies
for coping with contingencies when the full system is up and running and on the Galileo Signal Simulation Facility
which supports of the fine-tuning of the Galileo signal design. In addition, ESA has started working on technologies
needed for Galileo receivers. Good progress has also been made with the first version of the Galileo System Test
Bed (GS TB V1) which will allow engineers to validate Galileo-specific control algorithms, such as clock
adjustments, and procedures for predicting individual satellite o rbits, before the full system goes into operation. The
second phase of the GS TB will comprise a test satellite and will allow critical technologies to be tested in medium
Earth orbit.
 Last update: 11 March 2002


Market prospects and business opportunities

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Galileo conste llation

Galileo is facing a market with huge opport unities for growth in the next few years.

The Global Navigation Satellite Services (GNSS) market will be derived from the value -added services and
products provided by satellite radio navigation for transport by road, rail, air and sea, fisheries and agriculture, oil
prospecting, civil protection activities, building and public works. The telecommunications sector will be
revolutionised with the introduction of Galileo allied with GSM or UTMS and will provide the market with combined
communication and position determination services of a very -high level.

According to a recent study, this window of opportunity gives Galileo an estimated worldwide GNSS market size of
1.800 million users in 2010 and 3.600 users in 2020.

Galileo will allow European industry to directly benefit from the evolution of the GNSS market, which will definitely
become an asset for the European economy.

The existence of Galileo will provide considerable amount economic and social benefits to the world in general, and
to Europe in particular. These benefits are also generated due to the introduction of complementary capabilities in
the GNSS by Galileo.

A recent analysis indicates a cost/benefit ratio of 4.6, which is higher than any other infrastructure project in Europe
and does only take into account benefits from the air and sea transport sectors.

Nevertheless, other studies support the case that further benefits will arise from route guidanc e, improved personal
emergency, management of taxis and ambulances, less pollution by reduction of travel times and creation of 140
000 jobs. An estimate of all benefits for the period 2000 and 2020 is illustrated below. Economic benefits 62.000
million Euros Social benefits 12.000 million Euros Total benefits 74.000 million Euros The total investment cost for
the Galileo operable system is some 3,2 billion Euros. From 2008 onwards the annual cost will be around 220
million Euros including operations, maintenanc e and replenishment.

These values assume a constellation 30 Medium Earth Orbit Satellites and global, regional, and local distribution.

Galileo involves three phas es as follows:

         Development and validation phase (2001-2005)
             1. Cons olidation of Mission Requirements;
             2. Development of satellites and ground -based components;
             3. Validation of the system “in orbit”.
         Deployment phase (2006-2007)
             1. Construction and launch of satellites;
             2. Installation of the complete ground segment.
         Commercial operation phas e (from 2008)

The Design, development and In-Orbit Validation Phase is to be co-funded by the European Space Agency and by
the European Commission.

While funded by public resources, Galileo remains open to partners originating from the private sector particular ly
for the operational phas e.




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The complexity of the programme and in particular the interactions between the various technical and
programmatic aspects require clear understandings on the responsibilities of the parties involved. The rules to be
applied for the deployment and operations phase will be dependent on a number of factors, some of them not
being fully known yet. They will be defined in parallel with the preparation of the public private partnership.

During the interim period the European Commission will continue overseeing the programme in all programmatic
and political aspects and the European Space Agency will assume responsibility for the development of the Galileo
infrastructure.

Last update: 11 March 2002


Europe GPS Plan Shelved
By Steve Kettmann

http://www. wired.com/news/politics/0,1283,49778, 00.html
2:00 a.m. Jan. 17, 2002 PDT
BERLIN -- Exasperated European officials say U.S. pressure appears to have torpedoed a $3 billion project to build
a European version of the U.S. global positioning system, which uses signals from orbiting sat ellites to track
geographical position wit hin 36 meters.

The proposed system, dubbed Galileo, was intended to give Europeans more autonomy, both industrially and
militarily. That's no small concern, since the United States can selectively block access to GPS, as it has during the
military campaign in Afghanistan.

Also, European plans to develop a rapid-reaction military force will become muc h more credible with their own GPS
in military operations.

But U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz sent a letter to all 15 European Union defense ministers last
month, urging them to influence their governments not to proc eed with Galileo. That deferred any decision on the
project, and now looks to have brought its moment um to a halt.

"Galileo is almost dead," Gilles Gant elet, spokesman for Loyola de Palacio, the European commissioner in charge
of the project, said.

"We expect that we could have the decision by March at the latest. If there is no decision in March, then we could
consider Galileo ... dead."

Wolfowitz's rationale, according to Gantelet and published reports, was that the Unit ed States Defense
Department, which funds and operates GPS, plans to upgrade the system's capabil ities and use more frequencies
for signals. The European system, Wolfowitz reportedly cautioned, could interfere with that.

But Gantelet questions that claim. He said the Europeans have communicat ed to the U.S. government plans to
avoid any technical problems with operating two systems.

"We consider all the technical aspects to have already been dealt wit h or easy to overcome," he said. "We think it's
mainly now a political decision."

But it's also possible that U.S. pressure helps give European governments cover so they can shy away from such
an expensive project. That was the view Turkey 's ambassador to NA TO expressed on Monday.

"I know there are some problems with (Galileo)," said Onur íymen, whose count ry is a member of NA TO, but not
the EU. "We can perhaps not expect to have everything at onc e."

"The important thing is to have an awareness that if the European Union wants to have its contributions to
European defense, they have to spend money for that. I can't say that the Europeans are reluctant in improving
their militaries, but whet her their budgets are enough for that, it's an open question."

The politics of the project -- and the bitterness likely to be generated by its demise -- are not without their sense of
drama.




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President Jacques Chirac of France was quot ed in the International Herald Tribune as saying that if Europe did not
pursue Galileo and other space projects, the failure "would lead inevitably to a vassal status, first scientific and
technical and then industrial and ec onomic."

Timing is a major issue for Galileo. The Europeans believe the project can earn significantly more than it will cost,
but only if Galileo moves forward in the near term. They say it must be up and running by 2008 to turn a profit.

"One advantage of Galileo is that it will be better than the current GPS system, and it will arrive on the market
before the new generation of American system," said Gantelet. "But if the delay is too long, there will be no interest
from consumers in using it."

Most frustrating for the Europeans is that, in essence, the Americans don't trust them with so powerful a tool. The
Europeans argue that it makes sense for the Western community to have more than one system, just in case.

"It's import ant for Europe to develop its system, and important for all the Western countries to develop another
system that is not a competitor to GPS, but could be alongside it," said Gantelet. "With tough times that are
starting, you don't know that there will be no terrorist attacks against the GPS. It's more reliable to have two
systems."

That argument has not, so far, swayed the thinking at the Pentagon.

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See also:

Military Wary of Map's Release
New Weapons for a New War
Row, Row, Row Your GPS Boat
E very body 's got issues in Politics

Related Wired Links:
Military Wary of Map's Release De c. 12, 2001
Row, Row, Row Your GPS Boat Nov. 17, 2001
Quest for Future-Car Standards Nov. 9, 2001
Solar System on a Floppy Nov. 7, 2001
Where's E911? Nowhere to Be Found O ct. 18, 2001
New Weapons for a New War O ct. 9, 2001

Tuesday, 26 March, 2002, 15:58 GMT
Green light for Galileo project
http://ne ws.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1893022.stm




The mone y for Galileo is re leased in stages
Europe is to press ahead with plans to build a network of navigational satellites.
The Galileo system will send precise data to drivers, sailors, mobile phone and computer users, allowing them to
find their exact locations on the surface of the planet. European Transport ministers gave the green light to the
project at a meeting in Brussels.
Galileo will be a rival to the existing Global Positioning System (GPS) run by the United States - although the EU
says the two networks will be compatible.

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Galileo will cost 1.1 billion euros (Ł0.7bn) of E U money to move from the design phase into space. The investment
will allow researchers to test technology in orbit before the entire net work of 30 satellites is deployed.
The final roll-out of Galileo will require substantial further funds.


Security issue s
EU Transport Commissioner Loyola de Palacio told a news conference on Tues day: "We now have a 'yes' for
Galileo which signifies Europe's wish to be present in the international scene in the areas of research, technology
and industrial development."
She was speaking after EU transport ministers signed off 450 million euros ($396 million) Why have Galileo?
of funding.
This will pay for the next phase of the development programme. The money comes on             Expected to be more
                                                                                              than 400 million sat-
top of the 100 million euros already authorised and 550 million euros committed to the
                                                                                              nav users by 2015
project by the European Space Agency (Esa).
Galileo will lead Europe int o conflict with the US, which has security c oncerns about the   European aerospace
                                                                                              and electronics firm s
building of a navigational net work to rival its own system.
                                                                                              say it will create more
GPS, like the Russian Glonass system, is a military -run network and can be downgraded
or taken offline if an enemy attempts to use the data to launch guided missiles, for          than 100,000 jobs
                                                                                              Rescue service s will
example.
                                                                                              be able to pinpoint a
By contrast, Galileo will be a civilian -run operation that will be guaranteed in all but the
direst circumstances so services that are safety -critical - landing planes, for ex ample -   driver's exact location
                                                                                              if they are involved in
can rely on the data.
                                                                                              an accident
"Only the realisation of this civil system will allow the beginning of the development of the
use of satellite navigation in conditions which are suitable for Europeans," French           Will allow someone to
                                                                                              find their way in an
Trans port Minister Jean-Claude Gayssot said in a statement.
                                                                                              unfamiliar city using
"It will allow the European Union to liberate itself from depen dence on the American GPS
system," he added.                                                                            their mobile phone

Future horizons
Ministers also agreed on the structure of a new management company to oversee Galileo's development.
EU governments want to see private enterprise involved in the project but exactly how this should be co-ordinated
has yet to be decided.
Privat e firms will not be allowed to join the Galileo management board at least until after it has finished putting
projects out to tender.
Galileo should be fully operational in 2007. Some critics have ques tioned the need for another satellite navigation
network when GPS seems to serve most users' needs perfectly well.
But proponents argue that navigational services will become increasingly lucrative in the coming years, especially
with the emergence of new mobile phone and pocket computer applications.
Also, because Galileo will be inter-operable with GPS and Glonass, satellite navigation services should become
more accurate and reliable in those areas that have been poorly served so far - and this includes some areas of
Nort hern Europe.
In addition, many see a political need to be independent of the US on major projects. It was just this kind of thinking
that led to the Ariane space rocket programme and the Airbus consortium of European plane manufacturer s.

What is Galileo?
Europe's own global satellite navigation system
Will work alongside US GPS and Russian Glona ss system s
Promise s real-time positioning accuracy down to one metre
Guaranteed under all but most extreme circumstances
Suitable for safety-critical system s - can run trains, guide cars and land planes




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Quo Vadis Galileo?
http://www.galileosworld.co m/galileosworld/article/art icle Detail.jsp?id=30908
GNSS 2002 Keynote Address
July 1, 2002
By: Vidal Ashkenazi

At long last, it happened! As they say in French, “Mieu x vaut tard que jamais” or, in English, “Better late than never!”. On 26
March 2002, the Council of EU Transport Ministers agreed to launch the Development Phase of the Galileo Project, and
requested the European Commission to set up the Joint Undertaking without delay, in cooperation with the European Space
Agency. Co ming after a great deal of hesitation and procrastination over a period of nearly 15 months, the added qualificatio n
of “without delay” was remarkab le, even by the normal standards of politicians. Need less to say, the dec ision follo wed the
corresponding unanimous conclusion of the heads of EU governments (the EU Council) which met in Barcelona two weeks
earlier.

The Transport Ministers also re-affirmed that Galileo is a civilian programme under civil control, and released the €450 million
earmarked for financing the Development Phase, together with a similar amount allocated by the European Space Agency
(ESA), wh ich took a positive decision on Galileo last year. The Transport Council expects the European Co mmission to info rm
the Council on the „tendering procedure‟, which will be put in p lace by the Joint Undertaking (JU), wh ich incidentally may
also include in its composition large private co mpanies subscribing €5 million or more. Th is will happen by the end of 2003,
when the Transport Council will decide on the release of Co mmunity funds for the final Deploy ment and Operation phases of
the project, to guarantee the continued sound financial management of the Galileo Programme. The Transport Council also
made a key technical demand. It specifically stated that it expects Galileo to be „inter-operable‟ with the existing satellite
navigation systems, and particularly with the current GPS and its potential successor system(s). This should be achieved
through an EU–US agreement to be negotiated as soon as possible. Finally, it instructed the Joint Undertaking, in collaboration
with all interested parties, to prepare a proposal for the optimal integration of EGNOS into the Galileo programme.

Let me dwell on the issue of “interoperability with GPS”. Over the last couple of months, I had the rare privilege of briefings
over the apparent gulf separating the European and American perceptions of Galileo. Like all d iscussions between two good
friends, two close colleagues or a co-habiting couple, who hold apparently diametrically opposed views on a certain issue, this
occasionally degenerated fro m passionate argument to breaking of contact, and even name (and adjective) calling. At the end
of February this year, I was invited by the US Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB) to talk about a topic of my choice in
Washington DC. I chose a harmless and non-controversial topic, entitled “Galileo: Friend or Foe?”. To my amazement, th is
was accepted. Subsequently, when I was informed that the au dience would consist of 30 to 40 people representing US
government departments, such as the Department of Co mmerce, the Depart ment of Transportation, the Department of Industry,
the Department of Defense, the State Depart ment and the CIA, I panicked and tried to give it up. I was reassured that all would
be well, and that there was not the remotest chance of having to extend my v isit to Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. I relented and
accepted the invitation.

To prepare myself for this presentation, I read all the available material on the Trans -Atlantic Galileo controversy, and I also
received a high level briefing on these issues from the Co mmission. It soon became clear to me that the single most
controversial issue was the US point of v iew that some aspects of Ga lileo, most notably the proposed “Public Regulated
Service” (PRS) presented a serious security risk in times of crisis. In total contrast, the European perception was that “security
was not the main issue, but rather the US desire to protect its economic and commercial interests”. Surely, this is a very wide
gap between the two points of view across the Pond (the Atlantic Ocean), almost as wide as the argument about the “half -fu ll
versus the half-empty bottle of wine”.

In my presentation, I concentrated on the substantial contribution Galileo would make and the clear advantages a dual-satellite-
navigation-system would bring, co mpared to the present GPS only system. A fully interoperable GPS-Galileo configurat ion
would provide much higher positioning accuracies, a significant increase in system integrity, for safety critical applications,
and an alternative operational system in case of crit ical failu re of the single satellite navigation system. I illustrated th is last
point, not only by quoting from the John Vo lpe Centre Report on the “Vulnerab ility of Transportation Infrastructure Relying
on GPS”, but also by listing a series of publicly acknowledged instances of faulty GPS navigation message data, numerous
scheduled and unscheduled GPS outages, as well as analogies to some public failures of so-called totally safe systems, such as
the computer system of the London Stock Exchange, wh ich failed so spectacularly one bright day in April 2001 and caused
havoc in the financial world.

In the discussion period, which fo llo wed my presentation, I was very surprised to notice that most of the all -A merican
audience seemed to agree with me that Galileo would be a good thing for GPS. In one intervention, a US industrialist pointed
out that he could not understand the argument that Galileo would harm the US economic and commercial interests. He
suggested that, just as the best dual GPS-Glonass receivers were built in the US, so would the best GPS-Galileo receivers. He
may or may not be right with this prediction, but he seemed to welco me the challenge. This presentation in the US Depart ment
of Co mmerce, and the subsequent discussion, was an eye-opener for me. It was obvious that Galileo was seen as a welcome

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addition to satellite navigation, provided that it will be interoperable with GPS, especially considering that all these benefits
would be derived without any contribution to costs from the long suffering US taxpayer. That can‟t be bad.

I was also asked several questions from the floor about the proposed financing of Galileo, which I did my best to answer.
Unfortunately, although I prepared myself well, I d id not feel very co mfortable on this issue, even though my co mpany NSL
was part of the consortium led by PricewaterhouseCoopers, which carried out a study on the economic viab ility of Galileo. The
Consortium produced a report in November last year, wh ich was entitled “Inception Study to Support the Development of
Business Plan for the Galileo Programme”. This was a thick report, with a 17 -page Executive Su mmary which I read a couple
of times (the Su mmary, not the Report). It contained all the usual terms you would expect to find in similar reports by
management and financial consultants, which are retained by government, business organisations and even by universities
these days.

Public-Private-Partnership, projected revenue streams, cost benefit ratios, concession company models, the lot. I said I did not
feel co mfortable with these issues, firstly, because I am not a financial expert, and also because, frankly, I think that
considering what is at stake, all this pales into insignificance. I understand that the projected cost of Galileo of €3.6 b il lion is
the price of 150 km of semi-urban motorway, or just one track of the main tunnel for the proposed high -speed rail link between
Lyon and Torino.

As someone said before, could you possibly visualise a similar debate taking place in Washington DC, in the early 1970‟s,
when the US was considering the deployment of GPS? Had a cost benefit analysis been carried out then, I am sure GPS would
have never seen the light of day. After all, it was just designed for military navigation, with modest accuracy and hardly an y
integrity requirements. Technically, the system was to provide the user with continuous positioning and time, by u sing a
modulation of pseudoranges. Differential GPS, carrier phase GPS, aug mented GPS, safety critical integrity, etc,… were not
even mentioned, simply because they did not exist. The system was planned to become a so -called fo rce-enhancer, capable of
adding to the combat effectiveness of the US fo rces, and those of its NATO allies. Who could then predict the emergence of
literally hundreds of civilian applications in geodesy, geophysics, oceanography, surveying and mapping, timing, meteorology,
civil engineering, offshore explo ration, fleet management, agricu lture and fisheries, space and leisure? Luckily there was no
cost benefit analysis, and GPS went ahead. Incidentally, wh ile we are on the subject of management and financial consultants,
I could not miss this opportunity, now that I am in Copenhagen, of asking my Danish friends if Arthur Andersen, who founded
that famous company, is related to your wonderful storyteller Hans Christian Andersen, or is it just a coincidence?

Let us now try and look into the short and mediu m term future. As we heard, accord ing to the timetable for the Galileo
programme the Develop ment and Validation Phase, wh ich has just begun, will last until about 2005, when the first Galileo
satellites are ready for launch. This will be fo llo wed by the Deployment Phase in 2006–2007, and finally the Co mmercial
Operation Phase, which is due to begin in 2008. The Jo int Undertaking, wh ich is tasked to manage the programme, will
initially have representatives only fro m the European Co mmunity (the Co mmission) and the European Space Agency. Later
on, representation may be broadened to include other organisations, such as the European Investment Bank and private
companies willing to pay a membership fee. The assumption here is that these companies will clearly see an opportunity for
themselves in the emerging Galileo pro ject, and will be willing to invest in its development, in the hope of future profits. I
think the only companies that will clearly benefit fro m the Develop ment and Deploy ment phases of Galileo will be those
specialising in putting together satellite systems, ie co mpanies building the required space and ground infrastructure for th e
system, and those involved in launching the satellites into orbit. I cannot see how these specialist c ompanies can convince their
shareholders that, once Galileo is up and running, they will immediately start collecting large revenues. Of course, this is
theoretically possible, if such companies change their mainstream business model, fro m building space a nd ground systems, to
operating a service-oriented concession or to developing new revenue producing applications. However, if you study the
history of GPS over the last 30 years, you will realise that this is highly unlikely. GPS was designed, built, serv iced and
upgraded by a succession of well known US specialist space companies, which were awarded government contracts in
competitive tenders. Throughout this process, the system was managed by the Department of Defense, later joined by the
Depart ment of Transportation, representing civil interest in the utility.

In the early days, civilian use of GPS was restricted to the downgraded SPS (Standard Positioning System), which offered
users a free navigation tool, with a positioning accuracy of 30 to 50 metres. It did not take long before human ingenuity
interfered, and the Differential GPS (DGPS) technique was developed, leading to relative positioning accuracies of 1 to 2
metres. However, the real breakthrough came in the early 1980‟s, when two radio astrono mers fro m MIT, Shapiro and
Counselman, proposed using the carrier frequency phase rather than the pseudorange modulation, for GPS measurements, just
as they did in Very Long Baseline Interfero metery (VLBI), with signals fro m ext ra -gallactic radio sources (or as someone said,
“God‟s own GPS”). This was the beginning of centimetric (or even millimetric) GPS. Hundreds of civilian applications
followed in science, engineering, co mmerce and industry. The rest is history. This is important, because history usually repeats
itself. What I am referring to now are the young inventive researchers and scientists, who will emulate Shapiro and
Counselman, or Javad Ashjaee (who fell upon the first „roving‟ carrier phase receiver without realising it, when he used to
work as a young engineer at Trimble) or Ben jamin Remondi (who first proposed an ingenious way of solving the „integer
amb iguity‟ problem). These original and inventive solutions did not come about by decree or design, nor were they proposed
by a committee after a long debate. Surely, the naming of the European satellite navigation system as Galileo, must carry a
certain intellectual responsibility. Hopefully, over the next few years, there will be several new and orig inal ideas which w ill
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do to Galileo and to the dual satellite navigation system what carrier phase did for GPS. Equally, one would hope that new
concepts will be developed, wh ich will make the current concepts of „local and wide area aug mentations‟ and „integrity
techniques‟ seem outdated.

Finally, the real challenge will be when the current concept of satellite navigation, based on heavy GPS-like M EO (M iddle
Earth Orb it) satellites, first proposed in the early 1970‟s, will give way to other solutions, involving the much cheaper min i
(<1000 kg), micro (<100 kg), or even nano (<10 kg) satellites, in LEO (Lo w Earth Orb it), IGSO (Inclined Geo -Synchronous
Orbit ) or other configurations. Is this going to upset the Galileo Programme, now that all has been decided? I can assure the
European Co mmission and the European Space agency that this is unlikely to happen this year, next year, or even before 2008,
when Galileo will become operational. Of course, one has to be very careful when expressing contrary opinions, especially
when these border on heresy. You will recall that, as an Astronomer, Galileo Galilei was an ardent believer in Copernican
theories, and had a marked tendency to use all his astronomical discoveries as evidence of Copernicanis m, and he did so with
great verbal and mathemat ical skill. The Copernican theory suggested that everything goes around the Sun which, as we all
know, is contradictory to the Scriptures which profess a Geo-Centric Universe. Inevitably this attracted the attention of the
Inquisition, which was rampant at the time, and in 1616 Galileo was summoned to Ro me, under suspicion of heresy, and
condemned to house arrest for life, at h is Villa Arcetri near Florence. He was also forb idden to publish. By the standards of the
time, he got off rather lightly. We don‟t want that, and Brussels is not Florence.

So when is the next novel satellite navigation system going to happen? 2015? 2020? Well, scientific prediction is a risky
business, and I shall conclude this presentation with a few examples of famous predictions by some equally famous men, t wo
Europeans and two Americans.

“Heavier than air fly ing machines are impossible.”
- Lord Kelv in, President of the Royal Society (1895)

“Aeroplanes are interesting toys, but of no military value.”
- Maréchal Ferd inand Foch, Professor of Strategy at the Ecole Supérieure de Guerre (1908)

“There is no likelihood that man can ever tap the power of the atom.”
- Robert Millikan, Nobel Prize winning physicist (1923)

“While theoretically and technically television may be feasible, co mmercially and financially I consider it an impossibility. ”
- Lee de Fo rest, Inventor of the vacuum tube (1926)

Ladies and Gentlemen, I hope our predict ions on the future of Galileo and satellite navigation will be a little mo re accurate.
Thank you.

__________________

Professor Vidal Ashkenazi is Ch ief Executive of Nottingham Scientific Limited (NSL). He has the degrees of Dr of Philosophy
and Dr of Science fro m the University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Eng ineering, and has acted as a
Consultant to a large number of government and commercial organisations.

Professor Vidal Ashkenazi CEO, Nottingham Scientific Ltd University Park, Nottingh am NG7 2RD Un ited Kingdom
vidal.ashkenazi@nottingham.ac.u k



Further links at:
http://www.cpgps.org/links/Links.html




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