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First 'high-res' satellite spy photograph

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First 'high-res' satellite spy photograph Powered By Docstoc
					    High
 resolution
  imagery
   Intro:

authorised by
Clinton, 1993

First Soviet
 ‘high-res’
spy satellite
   ~1960
  Zenit 2
         High res imagery and Hollywood


"MI2" and "Enemy of the State" play off a Hollywood
  myth: that satellites are just cruising in space,
  available at a moment's notice - or at least a few
  minutes' wait. In reality, satellites are almost never
  where they need to be during a crisis.

• The best resolution of an American spy satellite, was
  reputed to be about 2 1/2 inches. This means that the
  smallest visible object would be the size of a baseball,
  not the thin letters and numbers on a license plate.
           Spy satellites and British based movies

Movie
a. How satellites figure in the plot.
b. What it got right.
c. What it got wrong.

ICE STATION ZEBRA (1968)
a. A capsule of 16mm film from a satellite falls in the Arctic and superpowers
    race to find it (based on a true story)
b. Early satellites did drop their film to Earth/Resolution of images about right
c. The resolution of 16mm film isn't good enough to see anything

THE WORLD IS NOT ENOUGH (1999)
a. British spy satellite photographs James Bond in the sack with beautiful scientist
b. Not much
c. When did the British get a spy satellite?
• Does Hollywood ever get it right? The film that has come closest is
  Patriot Games. Harrison Ford plays Jack Ryan, an ex-CIA analyst
  helping track down a rogue group of Irish Republican Army terrorists.

• Using satellite imagery, Ryan tries to determine who is in the camp.
  They can see people, but not faces, using a microscope.
• They identify a woman by her cleavage and a man by his bald head.

• All of this is reasonably accurate. Indeed, the filmmakers
  demonstrate their knowledge of the cat-and-mouse game of
  reconnaissance: The IRA terrorists know exactly when American
  satellites will be overhead and hide in their tents to escape detection.

• To counter this move, Ryan asks that the satellites be reprogrammed
  so they can look sideways, off their orbital track. "Do you have any
  idea how big a deal it is to retask the satellites?" a senior CIA
  official asks him. "Yes," Ryan answers bluntly.

• This was an example of the screenwriter getting something right and
  wrong. Satellites rarely fly directly over their targets, so they
  normally take images slightly off of their orbital track. If Ryan had
  asked that the satellite orbit be altered so that it appeared overhead
  the film would have been more accurate.
• Moving a satellite's orbit is indeed a big deal.
And now for the good stuff …..
    ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite) 2006
        National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)
        Altitude 692km                           orbit angle 98.2
                  Resolution       2.5m panchromatic
                                   10m multispectral
           Band                                           Resolution
                               Wavelength Region (µm)
PRISM                                                     (m)
           PAN                 0.52-0.77                  2.5
       Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping


AVNIR-2
Band                                                               Resolution
         Wavelength Region (µm)
                                                                   (m)
1        0.42-0.50 (blue)                                          10
2        0.52-0.60 (green)                                         10
3        0.61-0.69 (red)                                           10
4        0.76-0.89 (near-IR)                                       10
2.5m DEM
2.5 m colour composite
                        ALOS references

The contribution of the European Space Agency to the ALOS PRISM /
   AVNIR-2 commissioning phase.
http://earth.esa.int/pub/ESA_DOC/ALOS014.pdf

Revising 1:25,000-Scale Topographic Maps Using ALOS/PRISM Imagery
http://www.gsi.go.jp/common/000048819.pdf

Verification of Topographic Road Centerline Data Using ALOS/PRISM Images
http://www.gsi.go.jp/common/000048821.pdf
Geomatica OrthoEngine v10.2 Tutorial Orthorectifying ALOS PRISM
 Data
http://www.pcigeomatics.com/support/tutorials/pdfs/Geomatica_v102_OrthoEn
   gine_Tutorial_PRISM.pdf
    • America’s first reconnaissance satellite program designed to take photos of
     the Soviet bloc countries
    • Corona missions were officially top secret until 1992
    • Photos became declassified on February 22nd, 1995

    • 144 Corona satellites were launched and 102 returned usable photos
    • 860,000 images of the earth's surface collected between 1960 and 1972
http://www.nrojr.gov/teamrecon/res_his-Highgrnd.html
SYSTEM             KH 1-4       KH-4A       KH-4B       KH-5         KH-6

Camera Type        Single      Double**    Double**    Frame       Single***
                 Panoramic    Panoramic    Panorami               Panoramic
                                              c
Film Width         70 mm        70 mm       70 mm      127 mm       127 mm
Focal Length       61 cm        61 cm       61 cm      7.6 cm      167.6 cm

Enlargement         < 10x        16x         16x         8x           16x
capability

Best Ground        7.6 m        2.7 m       1.8 m       140 m        1.8 m
Res.
(Approx.)
Altitude          165 – 460     185 km      150 km     320 km       170 km
                     km
Scale on Film     1:275,000   1:305,000    1:247,000 1:4,250,00    1:100,000
                      to                                  0
                  1:760,000
Date launched*   Jun 1959 –   Aug 1963 –   Sep 1967   Feb 1961    Mar 1963 –
                 Dec 1969     Oct 1969     –          – Aug       Jul 1963
                                           May 1972   1964
http://www.bukisa.com/topics/reconnaissance-satellites-of-the-united-states




   Pentagon National Reconnaissance Office




                                                                              A JC-130 recovery aircraft of the U.S. Air Force retrieves a
                                                                              Corona satellite film-return capsule, also known as a
                                                                              “bucket,” over the Pacific Ocean.
                                                                              Photo credit: CSNR collection.



                                                                       Images can be ordered from EROS Data Center:
                                                                       http://edc.usgs.gov/products/satellite/corona.htm
  The Israeli Dimona nuclear reactor complex.
  Photographed by Corona satellite on
  November 11th, 1968.                                                 EarthExplorer from USGS:
                                                                       http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/NewEarthExplorer/
                             Past, Current and Future Uses of Corona Photos
                                  • Military purposes
                                  • Photo-geologic mapping
                                  • Identification of natural resources
                                  • Agricultural land-cover classification
                                  • Archaeological studies


Literature:
A repository of earth resource information – CORONA satellite programme
Dashora, A., et al. 2007.

Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images
Altmaier, A. and C. Kany. 2002.

Satellite imagery and archaeology: the example of CORONA in the Altai Mountains
Goossens, R., et al. 2006.

Detection of archaeological crop marks on declassified CORONA KH-4B intelligence
satellite photography of southern England
Fowler, M.J.F and Y.M. Fowler. 2005.
 Cartosat-1                                           2005-Present
                                                                      Aft
  Sensors:
  Stereoscopic PAN 2.5m; Fore+26° aft-5°; 500-850nm
  Swath: 30 km stereo, 55 km mono
  Data: 10 bits per pixel

  Satellite
  Altitude: 617.9 km; Scan at 10:30
  Orbits per day: 15
  Max. wait for revisit: 5 days                                        Fore
  Orbit: 97.87°
  Geolocation accuracy:250 meters




Hansen
                                                 (Rome; Baltsavias et al 2008)
 Cartosat-1                                     2005-Present
 Affiliation: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
 http://www.isro.org/
 Cartosat 2, 2A, & 2B: each has <1m mono PAN; 9.6 km swath
 Cartosat 3: will be launched this year. Mono PAN .25m, 500-750
          nm multispectral <1m; 16 km swath

 1 stereo 27.5 km X 27.5 km Cartosat-1 =12,000 rupees
 (currently $264 USD)




Hansen
   Cartosat-1                                                      2005-Present
Z-axis residuals from highly accurate
DSM derived from three separate
sensors and a dense grid of ground
control points (Baltsavias et al 2008),
where each shade represents 3 m.
                                          DSM of Fuzhou, China, created
                                          from Cartosat data (EastDawn)




Hansen
 Cartosat-1                                             2005-Present

 Technical Specifications:
 http://www.gisdevelopment.net/technology/rs/techrs023.htm
 Pricing:
 http://www.nrsc.gov.in/Data_price_(final)-1.pdf
 Data User Handbook:
 http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in/PDF/cartosat1.pdf
 DSMs:
 http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in/PDF/cartosat1.pdf
 Technical Assessment:
 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1477-9730.2008.00492.x/pdf
 Use of Cartosat-1 DSM in delimiting Temple Ruins:
 http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul252007/136.pdf


Hansen

				
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