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FASTENERS AND HARDWARE

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					FASTENERS AND
HARDWARE

8th Grade Shop Skills
Sweet Springs R-7
What is a fastener?
 Any device used to hold two or more pieces
  of material together or in place.
 Nails
 Screws
 Bolts
 Nuts
 Washers
 Machine Screws
Nails
 A fastener that is driven into the material it
  holds.
 Unit of measurement is “penny” or “d”
  – Originally used to indicate the number of
    English pennies needed to purchase 100 nails of
    a given size
 Select nails by use, length and diameter.
Types of Nails
 Common – general construction
 Box – light construction, end grain
 Cut – tongue and groove flooring
 Finishing – interior finishing of buildings
 Roofing – rolled roofing and shingles
 Duplex – forms for concrete
 Siding – neopreme washer for steel siding
Nail Length
 2-10d                   12d = 3 ¼”
  –   d/4+1/2”            16d = 3 ½”
  –   2d/4+1/2”=1”        20d = 4”
  –   3d/4+1/2” = 1 ¼”    30d = 4 ½”
  –   4d/4+1/2” = 1 ½”    40d = 5”
  –   6d/4+1/2” = 2”      50d = 5 ½’
  –   8d/4+1/2” = 2 ½”    60d = 6”
  –   10d/4+1/2” = 3”
Screws
 A fastener with threads that bite into the
  material it fastens.
 Screws can be classified by:
  –   Materials they hold
  –   Metal they are made from
  –   Shape of their head
  –   Type of tool needed to turn them
Classification by Use
 Wood Screws – tapered flat head with top
  half of shank smooth and bottom half
  treaded.
 Sheet Metal Screws – Shank completely
  threaded
 Cap Screws – tread into thick metal with
  matching treads
 Lag Screws – structural timber or lead wall
  anchors
Classification by Metal
 Steel Screws – coated with blued,
  galvanized, cadmium, nickel, chromium or
  brass
 Brass Screws – rustproof, severe moisture
  problem
Classified by Shape of the Head
 Flat Head – tapered designed to fit into a
  countersunk hole in the material
 Round Head – half round with slot
 Pan Head – upside down frying pan
 Phillip Head – flat head with slots like +
 Lag Screw – square or hex shaped head
Classified by type of tool needed
to turn them
 Slotted Head Screw -


 Phillips Head Screw


 Allen Screw
Size of Screws
 Diameter is expressed by gauge numbers
  that run from 2 through 24
 Number 6, 8, and 10 are common sizes.
 Common lengths range from ¼” to 4”
Types of Bolts
 Machine Bolt – Square head or hex head
  with threads on just the last one inch or
  more of shank
 Cap Screw – 2” or shorter, treads into object
 Carriage Bolt – Round head over square
  shoulders
 Stove Bolt – Round headed with straight
  slot
 Plow Bolt – Square tapered head
NUTS
 A device with a threaded hole
 Square – four sided
 Hex – six sided
 Wing – winged extensions
TYPES OF NUTS
Types of Washers
HARDWARE
 Hinges
 Brackets
 Plates
 Miscellaneous Metal Objects
 Support doors, lock windows, anchor roofs