ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING by gjjur4356

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									    PROBLEM SOLVING
      AND DECISION
     MAKING (PS/DM)
  AT THE EDGE OF THE
    3rd MILLENNIUM
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
 AN INVALUABLE CAREER
       PLATFORM
 AND ―KNOWLEDGE BASE‖
     AT THE EDGE OF
   THE 21ST CENTURY

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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
                   PS/DM:
 A PROCESS OF LOGICAL
 THINKING TO ASSIST IN
    IDENTIFYING AND
  SELECTING OPTIMUM
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
     OF ANY NATURE
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
– PS/DM PROCESS –
• A SYSTEMATIC METHOD
• A PATH—NOT A GUARANTEE!
• SUCCESS RELIES ON THE
   CRITICAL THINKING OF THE
   PS/DM TEAM!

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 Problem Solving/ Decision Making
 • WHAT IS A PROBLEM?
 • WHY DOES A PROBLEM
         EXIST?


      OPINIONS PLEASE!
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
WHAT IS A PROBLEM?

 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
 TWO SITUATIONS (STATES)
  — ―WHAT IS!‖
  — ―WHAT SHOULD BE!‖
     i.e. The ―Objective‖ or ―Goal‖
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
THE ―WHAT IS‖ STATE
• A Collection of existing conditions
requiring change (or elimination) related
to a specific area (e.g MEDICARE)
• EXAMPLE: Long line-ups in hospital
emergency wards.

  The ―WHAT IS‖ situation is evidence of a
  ―PROBLEM‖—not the problem itself!
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 Problem Solving/ Decision Making
THE ―WHAT SHOULD BE‖
       STATE
           i.e. THE OBJECTIVE

 • Developing a new ―WHAT IS‖
 which will provide the required
 objective (the ―WHAT SHOULD
 BE‖)
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
  PROBLEM STATEMENT

    A written statement expressing
     clearly the required transition
       from the ―WHAT IS‖ to the
    ―WHAT SHOULD BE‖ situation
     within a desired time interval.

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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
     AGREEMENT ON THE
  ―WHAT IS‖ AND ―WHAT
   SHOULD BE‖ POSES A
               CHALLENGE!

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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
  WHAT ―CAUSES‖ A
    PROBLEM?

 THAT WHICH PREVENTS
  ATTAINMENT OF THE
  ―WHAT SHOULD BE‖
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
PROBLEM vs OPPORTUNITY

 A Problem is not an Obstruction
 but rather an Opportunity—a
 condition to be reached when a
 selected objective (WHAT SHOULD
 BE) is realized.

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 Problem Solving/ Decision Making
                  SURPRISE!
Solving Math Problems does not assist
 in an overall understanding of the
           PS/DM process!

                      WHY NOT?

The ―Problem Statement‖ is already
provided. Developing the ―Problem
Statement‖ is the ―Most Crucial‖ phase
in any PS/DM process.
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
    PROBLEM ANALYSIS
THE PROCESS:
— RECOGNIZING AND SPECIFYING A
 ―PROBLEM‖
— IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM
 ―CAUSES‖
 AN ANALYTIC APPROACH WHOSE
 SUCCESS DEPENDS UPON CAREFUL AND
 SYSTEMATIC USE OF INFORMATION
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
WHAT IS A SOLUTION?

   AN ACTION TO PERMIT
REALIZATION OF THE ―WHAT
  SHOULD BE‖ SITUATION

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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
 PROBLEM COMPONENTS
• A PROBLEM AREA may consist of several (e.g
N) ―WHAT IS‖ states
• Each ―WHAT IS‖ state requires its own ―WHAT
SHOULD BE‖ objective. The result is ―N‖
problems—each requiring a unique solution.
                       —line-ups: hospital space   1
                       —shortage of beds           2
      Problem area
           e.g         —shortage of nurses         3
       MEDICARE        —shortage of doctors        4
                       —            •••            •
                       —------------               N

                           N ―WHAT IS‖ States          16
 Problem Solving/ Decision Making
Set of n possible                    ―WHAT SHOULD BE‖
solutions (n paths)                  —THE OBJECTIVE—

                                      B



                                           IDEAL SOLUTION
                                              PATH ―S‖


                  A

           ―WHAT IS‖
     —THE STARTING POINT—


          THE PROBLEM = B—A
      CHALLENGE: SELECTING THE
      OPTIMUM SOLUTION, PATH ―S‖                        17
  Problem Solving/ Decision Making
―OPTIMUM SOLUTION‖

 1. Transforms the ―WHAT IS‖
    situation into the ―WHAT SHOULD
    BE‖ objective
 2. Satisfies the ―Three-Question
    Check‖

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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
THREE QUESTION CHECK
 –FOR EACH POTENTIAL
      SOLUTION –
1. WILL IT: accomplish the
  "objective"?
    – i.e ―The What Should Be‖
2. IS IT: feasible to implement?
3. DOES IT: have a minimum number
    of "adverse consequences"?
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
       DECISION MAKING
1 Select the ―optimum‖ solution for
  the identified problem
2. Make a commitment to carry out
  the ―optimum‖ solution.
3 Move from the ―What Is‖ to the
  ―What Should Be‖ (the Objective)

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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
THE CORPORATE CHALLENGE
―WHAT IS‖
A relatively small % of employees are familiar
with, and apply, the PS/DM principles and are
aware of its Corporate advantages.
Very few can define the term ―Problem‖.

―WHAT SHOULD BE‖
All employees, at all times, must
understand and apply the PS/DM process.
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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
    USE THE TEAM
     APPROACH!
   Brainstorming is a crucial
     stimulant for PS/DM
           success

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Problem Solving/ Decision Making
                  SUMMARY
• CLARIFY: ―WHAT IS‖ and ―WHAT SHOULD
  BE‖ situations
• DEVELOP: ―Problem Statement‖ in writing
• IDENTIFY: problem ―Causes‖
• DETERMINE: possible ―solutions‖, i.e.
  ―alternative‖ courses of action
• MAKE THE DECISION: select ―optimum‖
  solution via ―Three–Question Check‖
• IMPLEMENT: the solution
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 Problem Solving/ Decision Making
     COMMENTS AND

           QUESTIONS?


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Problem Solving/ Decision Making

								
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