MUS 3050 notes, Page 1 of 4 Indonesia Notes 2: Java Javanese gamelan: tuned to slendro (5 notes, equidistant intervals), and pelog (7 notes, large and small intervals). Gamelans are built to play either in slendro or in pelog. Larger gamelans may have “double instruments,” meaning that there are two of the same type of instrument, usually arranged at 90 degrees to one another. One of the instruments is tuned to slendro and the other is tuned in pelog. INSTRUMENTS • “soft” style – includes xylophone, flute, zither and fiddle listen: Titon #3-4, Ladrang “Wilujeng” (soft playing style) • “loud” style – includes keyed metallophones, gongs, and gong chimes. Listen: Titon #3-2 Bubaran “Kembang Pacar” example of loud-playing style using the pelog scale (here is uses tones 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 with an occasional 4 and no 7). This is an example from Central Java and is here played by musicians associated with the royal court. This is also an example of royal court music. - rebab – two-stringed lute related to the Middle Eastern rebab. It is played with a bow, and the strings are tuned a fifth apart. It often opens the gending of each composition and provides a counterpoint to the balungan throughout the composition. It can be tuned for either slendro or pelog tuning. - Picture Credit: Dr. Han Kuo-Huang - Celempung – zither with 26 or 28 strings in double courses. It is plucked with thumbnails and plays an ornamented version of the balungan. MUS 3050 notes, Page 2 of 4 Wesleyan Virtual Instrument Museum, http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/vim/cgi-bin/instrument.cgi?id=35 - Siter – zither with fewer strings than the celempung. It also is plucked with thumbnails and plays an ornamented version of the balungan. - Suling – end-blown bamboo flute (same as the one found in Bali). It also ornaments the melody. - Kendang gending – double-headed drum with either a conical or rounded cylindrical shell. The drummer who plays this drum also conducts the ensemble. It is played both with the hands and with wooden mallets, and it rests in a lightly pitched tray. - Kendang ketipung – a small version of the kendang gending. Picture Credit: Dr. Han Kuo-Huang - Ciblon (also batangan) is a medium-sized drum used to accompany dance. - Bedug – larger barrel-shaped drum suspended from above in a wooden frame, played with a wooden mallet. Wesleyan Virtual Instrument Museum, http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/vim/cgi-bin/instrument.cgi?id=59 - Saron – Metallophone that plays the balungan in the ensemble. MUS 3050 notes, Page 3 of 4 Wesleyan Virtual Instrument Museum, http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/vim/cgi-bin/instrument.cgi?id=21 - Gender – A metallophone similar to the saron, this one is responsible for elaborating on the melody (stratification). - Bonang – similar to the Balinese reyong or trompong, kettle gong. This instrument also elaborates on the melody. Wesleyan Virtual Instrument Museum, http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/vim/cgi-bin/instrument.cgi?id=33 - gambang – xylophone with bamboo keys. This instrument usually has a wider melodic range than the metallophones and is often used in a manner similar to instruments like the rebab or suling. Wesleyan Virtual Instrument Museum, http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/vim/cgi-bin/instrument.cgi?id=42 - hanging gongs – including the gong ageng. A kettle gong is also used to mark each beat within the colotomic structure. Watch: video: Gamelan Music of Java: An Introduction. CU-Boulder videocass (Media Library) 94-298, time 29 minutes MUS 3050 notes, Page 4 of 4 JAVANESE GAMELAN CATEGORIES (not inclusive) - royal court gamelan tradition – has a defined repertoire, (moving, stately, contemplative), uses mostly metallophones and large bronze gongs (largest is more than three feet in diameter) o listen: Java: Court Gamelan #1, “Ketawang: Puspawarna” (Kinds of Flowers). This piece would be performed for the entrance of a prince into the reception hall. Any composition already in progress would stop and the rebab would play the introduction to this piece. The text refers to two kinds of flowers, symbolizing the nine rasas (aesthetic states) of Hindu-Javanese philosophy. - wayang kulit – gamelan used in shadow-puppet plays. The puppeteer, dalang, is responsible for creating all voices of the puppets, including singing and special sound effects, and for manipulating the puppets as well. o Listen: 3. “Playon Lasem.” This excerpt is taken from an all-night performance. This example begins in the soft style but speeds up and gets louder by the end of the first gongan (a phrase marked off by the sound of either the largest gong or the slightly smaller gong siyem). INDONESIAN POP MUSIC • remember that gamelan is very popular and part of a vibrant tradition when defining “pop” • the creation of a national Indonesian identity (after the Dutch are forced out), the spread of a national language (Indonesian) helps spread pop music, which is able to cross borders between various ethnic groups. [Brief history lesson: the Dutch take over the last and most powerful Indonesian kingdom, Klungkung in 1908. Gamelan gong kebyar emerges in 1915. In the 1940s the Japanese take over Indonesian, displacing the Dutch briefly. In 1945 the Dutch try to regain control after Japan withdraws, and four years of revolution occur, but the Dutch are forced out by the end of 1949.] • Radio, TV and film are controlled by the state for the most part, but cassette tapes played a large part in the dissemination of Western pop music •A lot of pop combines Western and Balinese influences listen: Kroncong music: Langgam Di Bawah Sinar Bulan Purnama (By the Light of the Full Moon). J’s CD 1/22. • Earliest Indonesian popular music, believed to have been strongly influenced by the music brought by Portuguese sailors in the 16th c. In the 19th c. it developed into an urban folk music, and then, due to radio, into pop music in the 20th c. This excerpt includes Hawaiian guitar, melody guitar, European flute, ukulele, banjo, cello and bass. Note that it also demonstrates the influence of the gamelan by using stratified polyphony. listen: Titon #3-9, Dangdut music: Begadang II (1978) by Rhoma Irama and his Soneta Group. • This type began in the 1960s when Western rock was banned in Indonesia. Rhoma aimed to create a popular music that would sound Indonesian, similar to the ways that Indian film music makers try to make a popular music that sounds Indian. Some of Rhoma’s songs are about love and partying, but others are about Islam, freedom of speech, human rights, and other political issues. • This song was the theme song for the movie of the same title. The lyrics talk about dancing and partying all night in spite of having little money (it is meant to be dance music for working-class youth).