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DVR Networking

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					DVR Networking
Information Seminar


 Prepared by Panorama Security
      Date: June 29, 2009
                   AGENDA
   WAN and LAN Networks
   IP Network Terminology
   Dynamic vs. Static IP Address
   Network Components
   Simple Network Examples
   Common Network Problems
   Step by Step network setup for DVR
     LAN setup, test LAN connection
     Router setup for WAN access, test WAN connection
 DDNS setup and example

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                                                       …
     Local Area Network        Local Area Network                     Local Area Network


Location #1               Location #2                                            Location #N




         WAN / INTERNET



                                  Local Area Network   School Board Admin Office

                                                       Using the Central Management
                                                       Software, user can
                                                       - monitor multiple cameras from
                                                       different schools
                                                       - control P/T/Z cameras located in
                                                       different schools
                                                       - playback and archive images
                                                       - change DVR settings
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              DVR


                                         Switch                        WAN / INTERNET
                           LAN
                                                  Router with
                                         Hub      firewall

Location #1 Admin Office
                                                            PC/Laptop

                                                                Remote monitor and
                                                                playback through internet.



           Central Management Software



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                           Terminology
•   MAC address is the physical address of a network interface.
     – Example: 00:19:DB:3E:C1:FC

•   IP address is a number used for identifying a network interface/port.
     – A network device such as PC, DVR, router, mail server, etc. can have one or
       more network ports.
     – IP address is expressed as four numbers, separated by dots. The number
       must each be in the range from 0 to 255.
     – Some IP addresses are reserved for special uses. For example,
         • 127.0.0.1 is an IP address used by a network device to test its own port.
         • 192.168.XX.XX addresses can only be used in internal networks (LAN).

•   Gateway is a network device (router) that helps direct your messages to
    other network devices.

•   Subnet Mask or Netmask is used for setting up sub-networks in your LAN
    and it helps network devices route messages.
     – Example: 255.255.255.0 is commonly used.


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  Dynamic vs. Static IP Address
There are two types of WAN (external) IP address: Static and Dynamic

Static IP Address
- Internet Service Provider provides a fixed public IP address for your
    connection.
- This IP address will not change over time.
- Static IP addresses are ideal for servers, DVR, etc.

Dynamic IP Address
- ISP maintains a pool of IP addresses. When you connect to your ISP, ISP
    takes a IP address from the pool and assigns it to your connection. When
    you log off, your IP address is returned to the pool.
- A different IP address can be assigned to you every time you connect to the
    ISP.
- Your ISP can change your IP address at anytime.



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              Network Components
•   A hub simply connects all the devices that are
    attached to its "ports" together.

•   A switch is a bit smarter; it gives devices a switched
    connection when they want to talk to each other.

•   A router is used to connect networks together. It
    stores the routing table and directs data from one
    network to other networks. Another function of a
    router is to provide a firewall for your network,
    preventing outside access to your internal network.
    Router’s virtual ports have different addresses and so
    each port can belong to different networks.

•   A modem allows internet data to be carried on the
    cable or phone line.


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Network Cable



                          The crossover cable is used to connect
                          two computers to each other without the
                          use of a hub or switch, or to connect two
                          hubs or switches together. A crossover
                          cable has its send and receive wires
                          crossed.


                          When connecting a computer to a hub or
                          switch, you can use a straight-through
                          cable.




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Simple Network Example 1

                               CROSSOVER
                                 CABLE




  IP Address: 192.168.1.2                  IP Address: 192.168.1.1
  Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0               Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
  Gateway:     192.168.1.1                 Gateway:     192.168.1.1



       Valid IP address range: 192.168.1.1 – 192.168.1.253

       192.168.1.0 and 192.168.1.255 cannot be used.




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    Simple Network Example 2
                                     WAN / INTERNET




                  WAN IP Address
                   209.188.66.45



                  LAN IP Address
                  192.168.123.254




IP Address:  192.168.123.203        IP Address:  192.168.123.101   IP Address:  192.168.123.102
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0          Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0     Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway:     192.168.123.254        Gateway:     192.168.123.254   Gateway:     192.168.123.254

      DVR IP address range: 192.168.123.1 – 192.168.123.253
      192.168.123.0 and 192.168.123.255 cannot be used.
      192.168.123.254 is being used by router.
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              Common Problems
If you've tried to set up a network and it didn't work, you should check
      the following:

1.   Are you using a valid IP address for the DVR? For instance,
     192.168.0.0 or 192.168.0.255 cannot be used. Any address
     between 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.0.254 should work just fine.

2.   Does your network devices have the same IP address?

3.   Is the default gateway address and subnet mask set correctly?

4.   Are you using the correct network cable? Is there a problem with
     the cable or connector?

5.   Is the cable plugged in? Is the cable in the right port?

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 Gathering Network Information
Use a PC on the LAN to determine the IP address for the router.
a) Start->Run->cmd or Start->Run->command. Open a DOS window.

b) Type in the DOS command “ipconfig” at the prompt and hit “Enter”.

c) The Default Gateway is the LAN IP address of your router. In this
    example, it is 192.168.123.254. IP Address is the address of your PC.




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              Connecting DVR to LAN
Step 1. Connect DVR to a LAN port on the
    router.

Step 2. Configure the DVR network setting.

a) Go into the network setting screen of the DVR.

b) Set the IP address. In this example, we pick
    192.168.123.203 as the IP address. Make
    sure the IP address is not used by another
    machine on your network.

c) Set the subnet mask to 255.255.255.0

d) Set the Gateway address to the LAN IP
    address of the router as in Step 2 above (e.g.
    192.168.123.254)

e) Set the port to 80. Make sure that port 80 is
    not being used on your network. Also, ISP
    may sometimes block the use of port 80. If
    needed, choose another port for your DVR.

f) Save the setting and reboot the DVR.
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            Testing LAN Connection
Determine if you can access the DVR
   through the LAN.

a) Type in the DOS command “ping <DVR IP
    address>” at the prompt and hit “Enter”.

b) Using a PC on the LAN, open the Internet
      Explorer. Type the DVR IP address (e.g.
      http://192.168.123.203) into the “Address Bar”
      and click GO.
   If port 83 is used, http://192.168.123.203:83

c) If the login screen comes up, this means you can
      access the DVR within the LAN. You can enter
      the username and password when prompted,
      and test out the DVR features.

d) If the login screen does not show up, please
      check your DVR and router settings.



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                  Configuring Your Router
1. Log into the router.

a) Open the Internet Explorer. Type the router IP
    address (e.g. http://192.168.123.254) into
    the “Address Bar” and click GO.

b) Enter the username and password when
     prompted.


2. Configure Port Forwarding on the router.

a) Go to the Port Forwarding or Virtual Server
    page on the router. This varies from router
    to router, so check the router user manual.

b) Set the service port to the port number that the
     DVR is using (e.g. 83).

c) Set the IP address to the LAN IP address of
     the DVR (e.g. 192.168.123.203).
     Service Port     IP Address        Enable
        83         192.168.123.203       yes

d) Save the setting and logout of the router.



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   What is my WAN IP Address?
1) At the Router Status page, find the WAN IP
        address. This address will be used for
        accessing the DVR from the internet.




2) Another way to find your WAN IP address is go
       to the website http://www.whatismyip.com.




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         Testing WAN Connection
Determine if you can access your DVR from the Internet.

a) Make sure you can access the internet from a PC on the LAN.

b) Using a PC on the LAN, open the Internet Explorer. Type the WAN IP address (e.g.
    http://209.188.66.45) into the “Address Bar” and click GO.
    If the DVR is not using port 80, the port number should be appended to the address.
    If port 83 is used, http:// 209.188.66.45:83

c) If the login screen comes up, this means you can access the DVR from the internet.
     You can enter the username and password when prompted, and test out the DVR
     features.

d) If the login screen does not show up, please check your DVR and router settings.




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                          Why DDNS?
Problem:
• Each time you connect to the Internet, your Internet Service Provider (ISP) assigns
   an IP Address to your connection. But each time you connect, there is the potential
   of your ISP assigning you a different IP address (i.e. Dynamic IP Address). To
   access to your DVR, someone else needs to know your IP address, but your
   address keeps changing.

Solution:
• DDNS Service (www.dyndns.com or www.no-ip.com): DDNS service provider
   assigns a name that you choose to your computer or router and that name doesn't
   change even when your IP address changes. The NO-IP servers maintain a link
   between the name you've chosen and the IP address your ISP has currently
   assigned you.

•   There are routers that can update the DDNS server. Once you have set up an
    account with a DDNS service provider, you can put your account information
    (hostname, email, and password) into the router. When the WAN IP address
    changes, the router will send an update to the DDNS server. Using a router has
    the added benefit of having a firewall to protect your LAN from hackers and
    allowing multiple machines in your LAN to access the internet.


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                         DDNS Example
CREATE NO-IP ACCOUNT
1.  Go to www.no-ip.com
2.  To sign up, you need to provide your
    email address and password.
3.  Wait for the confirmation email from no-
    ip.com.
4.  Click the link in your confirmation email
    and activate your account.
5.  Remember your email address and
    password. You will need them in the
    router setting.




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                     ADDING A HOST
CREATE A HOST
1.   Go to www.no-ip.com
2.   Logon to your no-ip account using
     your email and password.
3.   Select “Add” under “Hosts /
     Redirects”.
4.   Enter the dynamic IP address that
     your ISP assigned to you.
5.   Create a hostname, select the DNS
     host type.
6.   Click “Create Host” at the bottom of
     the page.




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    DDNS SETTING IN ROUTER
Step 1: Logon to your router (SMC)
-   Open you web browser
-   Enter the IP Address of the router in the
    address window (192.168.2.1 is the default IP
    for SMC routers).
-   Enter password (smcadmin by default).


Step 2: Click on the Advanced button on top
    and then click DDNS on the left.




Step 3: Enable Dynamic DNS.
-   Select DDNS Service: No-IP.com or
    DynDNS.org
-   Enter Hostname.
-   Enter Username and Password of your DDNS
    account.




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                                       Notes
Things you should be aware of:

•    Make sure the firmware on your router is up-to-date.

•    Not all router support DDNS update to www.dyndns.com.

•    Ensure the port used for DVR does not conflict with another service running in your network.
     For example: If you have two DVRs on your network, you need to configure the DVRs to use
     different ports. For instance, you can open port 80 for the first DVR and then open port 81
     for the other DVR.

•    If your DVR needs multiple ports open, you can make multiple entries or alternately have a
     look at the DMZ option.

•    USE CAUTION if you intend to experiment with the DMZ option as it essentially exposes all
     the ports on the DVR to the Internet.

•    Remember that opening and forwarding ports on a router effectively exposes your internal
     network to the Internet. You should only open the ports that are needed to get your
     applications to work and always make sure your computers have all the latest patches and
     security updates applied.



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