Introduction to Psychology: Exam 3 rough study guide
Thinking and intelligence: Chapter 9
Attention – multiple uses. What is bottom-up/top-down processing? Serial search
Limitations to attention – divided attention, selective attention, limited capacity
What is inattentional blindness, change blindness, the Stroop effect?
Decision making – Difference between deductive and inductive reasoning. What causes difficulties in
reasoning (negative info, abstractness, confirmation bias, mood, beliefs, social context, mental
models, framing, hindsight bias)? Heuristics – what are they? Representativeness – definition, and
errors that occur due to using the heuristic (gambler’s fallacy, conjunction fallacy). Availability
heuristic, anchoring and adjustment.
What is intelligence? How many factors are involved.
Know the various theories of intelligence we discussed – Spearman’s g versus s, Cattell’s crystallized vs.
fluid, Gardner’s theory (you don’t need to memorize the types)
Intelligence testing – Binet’s IQ test – how it was measured, etc. How is IQ measured today? What is a
norm? Know about Wechsler’s tests as well as the Raven’s progressive matrices
Personality – Chapter 13
What is personality? Personality traits vs. situational behavior. Schools of thought concerning
personality: psychodynamic approach, humanistic approach, learning approach, trait approach.
Freud’s view of personality: general approach (conflict between conscious and unconscious, etc).
Know his stages of development. What happens if the person becomes fixated at that stage? Know
Freud’s structure of personality and what each 3 are responsible for. Know the defense mechanisms
mentioned in the lecture: repression, identification, projection, denial, and rationalization.
Trait approach – Know the big 5: neuroticism, extraversion/introversion, openness to experience,
agreeableness, conscientiousness. If someone were high or low in one of them, how would that
person act? Other traits – authoritarianism, Machiavellianism, narcissism, locus of control, sensation
Personality testing – Objective tests – MMPI, 16PF, NEO-PI-R. What is each test used for?
Projective tests – Rorschach, TAT. Know the following terms: Barnum effect, social desirability bias,
From the book: know the following definitions: Jungian archetypes, heritability
Development – Chapter 14
How is development studied (longitudinal vs. cross-sectional)?
Nature vs. Nurture. What is a cohort?
What is a critical period? What is a teratogen? Know the ones we discussed: rubella, toxoplasmosis,
What is a reflex? Temperament?
Piaget’s cognitive development (know the stages and the major milestones at each stage including
object permanence, egocentricism, and conservation). What is a schema? Difference between
assimilation and accommodation.
What is attachment? What did Harlow find? How is attachment studied? What types of attachment
are there, and what behaviors do the children tend to show? Secure, resistant, avoidant, and
What are the long-term consequences of attachment?
I want you to know a couple of definitions from the book as well. 1. authoritarian vs. authoritative
parental styles 2. gender identity 3. transsexual 4. identity crisis