Hazardous Waste, Landfills, and Wastewater Treatment Lecture Powerpoint by jamesdauray

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Lecture Powerpoint for an environmental science class studying a unit on waste disposal. Includes a section on wastewater treatment.

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									Solid and Hazardous Waste




                            1
                      WASTE

•   According to EPA, U.S. produces 11 billion
    tons of solid waste annually.
      About half is agricultural waste.

      More than one-third is mining related.

      Industrial Waste - 400 million metric tons.

        - Hazardous/Toxic - 60 million metric tons.

      Municipal Waste - 230 million metric tons.

        - Two kg per person / per day.

            Waste Stream

                                                      2
U.S. Domestic Waste




                      3
         WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS
•   Open Dumps
     Open, unregulated dumps are still the
      predominant method of waste disposal in
      developing countries.




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5
     WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS CONT’D

•   Landfills
      Sanitary Landfills

        - Refuse compacted and covered

          everyday with a layer of dirt.
            Dirt takes up as much as 20% of

             landfill space.
                Since 1994, all operating landfills in

                 the U.S. have been required to
                 control hazardous substances.

                                                          6
Sanitary Landfills




                     7
                      Landfills
•   Historically, landfills have been a convenient,
    inexpensive waste-disposal option.
      Increasing land and shipping fees, and
       demanding construction and maintenance
       requirements are increasing costs.
        - Suitable landfill sites are becoming
          scarce.
            Increasingly, communities are
             rejecting new landfills.
                Old landfills are quickly reaching
                 capacity and closing.
                                                      8
Secure Landfills




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     WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS CONT’D

•   Incineration and Resource Recovery
      Energy Recovery - Heat derived from

       incinerated refuse is a useful resource.
        - Steam used for heating buildings or

          generating electricity.




                                                  10
Mass-Burn Garbage Incinerator




                                11
            Incinerator Cost and Safety
•   Initial construction costs are usually between
    $100 and $300 million for a typical municipal
    facility.
      Tipping fees for incinerators are often
       much higher than landfills.
•   EPA has found alarmingly high toxin levels in
    incinerator ash.




                                                     12
                 Incinerator Types

•   Refuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to
    remove recyclable and unburnable materials.
        - Higher energy content than raw trash.

•   Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major
    furniture and appliances loaded into furnace.
        - Creates air pollution problems.

•   Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%.
      Residual ash usually contains toxic

       material.
                                                    13
       HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTES

•   EPA estimates U.S. industries generate 265
    million metric tons of officially classified
    hazardous wastes annually.
      At least 40 million metric tons of toxic and

       hazardous wastes are released into the
       environment each year.




                                                      14
                 Hazardous Waste

•   Legally, hazardous waste is any discarded
    liquid or solid that contains substances
    known to be:
      Fatal to humans or laboratory animals in

       low doses.
      Toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or

       teratogenic to humans or other life-forms.
                                                o
      Ignitable with a flash point less than 60 C.

      Corrosive

      Explosive or highly reactive.
                                                      15
                    Love Canal

•   Founded by William Love, who was trying to
    design a city that ran off hydroelectric power.
      Began digging a canal to Niagara Falls, but

       ran out of money.
      Hooker Chemical bought the land and

       used the canal as a dumpsite for several
       hazardous chemicals.
      The dumpsite was buried, planted over,

       and eventually sold to the city of Niagara
       Falls for $1.
                                                      16
        Khian Sea waste disposal incident

•   In August of 1986, a cargo barge was loaded
    with 14,000 tons of toxic incinerator ash from
    Philadelphia.
      New Jersey no longer accepted their waste

       as of 1984.
      The barge was to be dumped on a man-

       made island on the Bahamas, but it was
       turned away.
        - Also turned away by the Dominican

          Republic, Honduras, Panama, Bermuda.
                                                     17
        Khian Sea waste disposal incident

•   In January of 1988, the barge was able to
    unload 4,000 tons in Haiti, claiming it was
    “topsoil fertilizer”.
      Greenpeace alerted Haiti officials that it

       was toxic ash. Haiti ordered the ash be
       reloaded, but the barge left.
      Attempted to unload the cargo in Morocco,

       Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, and Singapore.
        - Name of the ship was changed twice

      Eventually dumped into the Atlantic and

       Indian Ocean in November 1988.               18
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        HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL

•   Exporting Waste
     Although most industrialized nations have

      agreed to stop shipping hazardous and
      toxic waste to less-developed countries,
      the practice still continues.
       - Basel Convention in 1994 passed an

         agreement that banned the export of
         hazardous waste.


                                                  20
           Hazardous Waste Disposal

•   Federal Legislation
     Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

      (RCRA) - 1976.
       - Comprehensive program requiring

         rigorous testing and management of
         toxic and hazardous substances.
            Cradle to grave accounting.




                                               21
Cradle to Grave




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               Federal Legislation
•   Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).
     Also known as the “Superfund”

     Aimed at rapid containment, cleanup, or
      remediation of abandoned toxic waste
      sites.
       - Enacted in response to the Love Canal
         disaster



                                                 23
                     CERCLA

•   Government does not have to prove anyone
    violated a law, or what role they played in a
    superfund site.
      Anyone associated with a site can be held

       responsible for the entire clean-up cost.




                                                    24
          Superfund Sites in Lake County

•   Petersen Sand and Gravel
    (Libertyville)
      Site of illegal dumping of

       paint and solvents.
      Cleanup completed,

       redeveloped as
       Independence Grove
•   Yeoman Creek Landfill
    (Waukegan)
      Improperly lined landfill
                                           25
          Superfund Sites in Lake County
•   Johns-Manville Corp. (Zion)
      Asbestos disposal site




•   Waukegan Harbor (Waukegan)
     Multiple contaminated sites – hydraulic fluid

      contamination in the harbor, waste from
      coke plant in the soil

                                                  26
         Superfund Sites in Lake County
•   H.O.D. Landfill
     Improperly sealed, vinyl chloride entering

      groundwater.
     Retrofitted with methane collection, used to

      heat nearby high school.




                                                     27
         Superfund Sites in Lake County
•   Vulcan-Louisville / Fansteel
     Former smelting plant, used for industrial

      waste disposal.




                                                   28
       SHRINKING THE WASTE STREAM

•   Recycling
     Recycling is the reprocessing of discarded

      materials into new, useful products.
       - Currently, about two-thirds of all

         aluminum cans are recycled.
           Half of all aluminum cans on grocery

            shelves will be made into another can
            within two months.


                                                    29
                     Recycling
•   Potential Problems
     Market prices fluctuate wildly.

     Contamination

       - Most of 24 billion plastic soft drink
         bottles sold annually in the U.S. are
         PET, which can be melted and
         remanufactured into many items.
           But a single PVC bottle can ruin an
            entire truckload of PET if melted
            together.

                                                  30
U.S. Recycling Rates




                       31
                Recycling Cont’d

•   Benefits
     Saves money, raw materials, and land.

     Encourages individual responsibility.

     Reduces pressure on disposal systems.

       - Japan recycles about half of all

         household and commercial wastes.
     Lowers demand for raw resources.

     Reduces energy consumption and air

      pollution.
                                              32
                 Recycling Cont’d

•   Benefits Example
     Recycling 1 ton of aluminum saves 4 tons

      of bauxite, 700 kg of petroleum coke and
      pitch, and keeps 35 kg of aluminum
      fluoride out of the air.
        - Producing aluminum from scrap instead

          of bauxite ore cuts energy use by 95%.
            Yet still throw away more than a

             million tons of aluminum annually.

                                                   33
       SHRINKING THE WASTE STREAM
•   Composting
     Biological degradation of organic material
      under aerobic conditions.
•   Demanufacturing
     Disassembly and recycling of obsolete
      consumer products.




                                                   34
    SHRINKING THE WASTE STREAM CONT’D
•   Producing Less Waste
     The cheapest and most effective way to
      reduce waste is to not produce it at all.
     Excess packaging of food and consumer
      products is one of our greatest sources of
      unnecessary waste.
       - Paper, plastic, glass, and metal
         packaging material make up 50% of
         domestic trash by volume.


                                                   35
             Wastewater Treatment
•   Human sewage is a waste product that is
    unavoidable, but it can be treated to
    minimize environmental impacts.
•   Screening removes any trash or large
    objects that may have entered the sewage
    stream.




                                               36
              Wastewater Treatment
•   Primary treatment holds the sewage in a
    large containment vessel.
      Heavy solids that sink to the bottom are
       removed.
      Grease and oils that float to the top are
       also removed.
      May also be aerated to remove as much of
       the smell as possible.
•   The sludge that is leftover from these
    treatments is decomposed with bacteria or
    composted.
                                                   37
              Wastewater Treatment
•   Secondary treatment adds bacteria to
    decompose the dissolved organic matter.
      The bacteria must then be killed once the
       process is complete. This is usually done
       with chlorine.
•   Tertiary treatment is any additional
    treatment, such as the removal of nitrates
    and phosphates.



                                                   38
Wastewater Treatment Plant




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                  Sewer Overflow

•   Sewage treatment plants have a limited
    amount of water that can be processed at
    any given time.
•   If a flood, snow melt, or other excess water
    event occurs, raw sewage may be dumped
    directly into the nearby water body.

                                   Sewage overflow plume in
                                   Milwaukee Harbor



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