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CONTRACTING Powered By Docstoc

Chapter 9
Think big but do small.

    In assessment and
     contracting this is a good
     principle to follow.

    What does this statement

   assessment          contracting

 Assessment naturally flows into contracting.
Assessment                       Contracting

  There is a natural flow in the process that
   moves into the contract phase.

  Remember…the assessment and contract
   phase never really cease until termination.
   Both are ongoing.
 Assessment: Identifying Issues
 Listening for dominant issues/themes
   Summarization & try to verify the theme which
    allows the client to assume ownership
      Tentative stem + review of summaries + distillation of a
       dominant theme + check out the accuracy
          Ex. We seem to be talking about your current
           relationship from different angles:
              You report being depressed around your boyfriend
              You feel your friends‟ boyfriend treat them better,
               and you think you can do better.
              Seems like all of these things are pointing in the
               direction of not wanting this relationship.
              Is that correct?
 Reflecting An Issue
 Demonstration of your
  understanding of the client view
  of an identified topic of concern.
 The identified topic may not
  remain the focus of work but it
  is a place to start.

 “As I understand it, the issue that you would like to
   address in our work _____________.”
Exercise: Reflect the Client‟s Issue

  I am terribly concerned over my wife. She has this
   feeling she has to get out of the house and see the
   world and get a job. I am the breadwinner, and I
   imagine I have good income. I don’t know what to
   say to her. She is asking for my input and advice. I
   am afraid to give it.
  As you see it, there is(are)….major issues…you
   would like to address in our work. Together…
Identifying An Issue
 You might feel compelled to
  identify an issue which the client
  has not identified as a focus of

 Example:
    From the discussion I have been wondering
    What do you think about_________? Is this an
     issue we should consider.
Identifying an issue...

  Remember…identifying an issue is the
   instance where you have detected an issue for
   work that the client has not directly indicated.
 Clarifying Issues for Work
 Extract these issues from those the client has identified,
  those you have contributed, or some negotiated
  combination of the two.
 I think we agree about the main issues we need to work
  together on. Let‟s review them as I write them down.
    First, there is the issue of __________.
    Second, there is ________________.
    The last thing we identified was ____.
 What do you think? Is this an accurate list of the issues
  that we'll address together?"
 NOTE: Always include the client's opinions on a course
  of action

 Can be anything the client wants to work
  on, either short or long term.
 They might include something the client
  wishes to attain in the future, but does not
  wish to or cannot work on right now.
Write down what you think are
some of the most „typical client
goals‟ encountered in social
work practice
Typical, Loosely Defined Client Goals
  Learn to relax
  Change or control negative emotions in response to a
   particular situation, event (loss of a job), or belief
  Prepare for changes they are likely to have to deal with in
   the future (children leaving home, parent moving)
  Eliminate or reduce undesirable behaviors (smoking,
  Cope with difficult situations (a difficult boss)
  Learn new and desirable behaviors (assertiveness)
  Become more motivated (doing homework between
   therapy sessions) in dealing with their problems
  Experiment with ways to manage stressful or anxiety-
   producing situations (giving a presentation in public)
  Cope with family members, issues and/or problems
Establishing Objective Goals
Use the SMART format for objectives:
 Specific
 Measurable
 Achievable
 Realistic
 Timely
Goal: Spending more time with kids…
   S = Specific
       “I‟d like to spend quality time with my kids more often”
   M = Measurable
       “I‟d like to spend at least a half an hour a day”
   A = Attainable
       “I can work up to spending a half an hour a day over the next
   R = Realistic
       “I will spend 30 minutes on Monday, Thursday and Friday
        this week”
   T = Has a Time Frame
       “I will start by spending 30 minutes three days this week and
        then work up to five days in two weeks”
 Effective Goals
 Stated as accomplishments
 Stated in clear and specific terms
 Stated in measurable or verifiable terms
 Realistic - have a reasonable chance of actually
 Adequate. If achieved they will improve the situation.
 Congruent with the client.
 Time-specific. There is a realistic time frame or agenda.
Well-Defined Goals
Well-defined goals include goals that:
 Are in the client‟s language,
 Are worded in the positive,
 Outline the process to achieve them,
 Are in the here and now,
 Are as specific as positive, and
 Are in the client‟s control.

The table on the next slide summarizes these criteria
  with sample goals that either meet or do not meet
                     these criteria
     Criteria            Doesn’t Meet Criteria                    Meets Criteria
1. In client’s       “Meet all the requirements of    "Get done with my probation officer.”
    Language           probation by June 10, 2004”
2. Worded            “Not use drugs or alcohol.”      “Will continue doing activities that
    Positively                                           support a drug and alcohol free

3. In the here and   “Will stay clean.”               “Will”

4. Specificity       “I will avoid or learn to cope   “I will drive my own car to any
                      with high risk situations”          gathering where I feel that alcohol
                                                          or drugs will be present, so I may
                                                          leave if I feel I may use.”

5. In the client’s   “My probation officer will       “I will have done everything I can to
    control           leave me alone.”                    get my p.o. to leave me alone.”

6. In process form “I‟ll just quit.”                  “I will be spending more time playing
                                                          guitar and finding a job.”
Making Goals Specific: Client Worksheet
Facilitating Goal Setting
   Empower the client to see where
    he/she wants to do to change.
      Tentafier + feeling word +
       perceived limitation + possible

Ex. It sounds like…you are feeling depressed …because
you can‟t leave the relationship… because and you are
afraid to be alone and you want to be able to . . .
Client belief in possibility of change is an important motivator.
You can help clients look at both the benefits and costs of
change. The table below provides an example.
Goal Setting Worksheets
 The following tools may assist you in setting goals
  with your clients
Developing an Action Plan

    The action plan is
     developed from the goals.

    You will also need to
     define your role, or roles,
     that you will play in the
Identifying Action Steps

  Often the goals are too large to accomplish in
   a single action. In that case you identify with
   the client small steps or task which progress
   toward the goal.
Planning for Evaluation

  Professional social workers are responsible
   for evaluating their practice.

  Regardless of the setting it is possible to
   formulate some evaluation method that will
   measure effectiveness of practice.
Planning for Evaluation

  Goal - Attainment Scaling
                        Kiresuk & Sherman, 1968

  This is a practical scale and one that you are
   encouraged to adopt, in some form, in your
   professional practice.
Goal-Attainment Scaling
Goal Attainment Scale

                        Goal 1   Goal 2   Goal 3   Goal 4   Goal 5
1. Most unfavorable
2. Less than expected
3. Expected level
   of success.
4. More than expected
5. Most favorable
Summarizing the Contract
Contract Section of the Description, Assessment, and Contract
  (DAC) Model

III Contract
    A. Issues.
      1. Client-identified issues
      2. Worker-identified issues
      3. Issues for Work. These are issues that both parties agree
      to address.
    B. Goals. Related to the issues for work these are the final
      outcomes that you will be striving for.
The DAC Model continued...
 C. Plans
   1. Action Plan. In this section summarize that actions that
   you and the client have planned. Note who, what, when,
   where, and how.
   2. Client Task or Action Steps
   3. Worker Task or Action Steps
   4. In-Session Tasks or Action Steps
   5. Maintenance Task or Action Steps. Outline tasks or
   activities that will occur on a regular ongoing basis.
   6. Evaluative Plan. Outline the means and process by which
   progress will be evaluated.
Contracting Summary
“During the contracting phase of
  social work practice, you, on
  the basis of the assessment and
  in conjunction with the client,
  attempt to define clearly the
  issues and goals for work and
  to develop plans likely to
  resolve the identified issues and
  achieve the final goals.”
This chapter covered the following main skills for
  Reflecting an issue      Developing an action
  Identifying an issue      plan
  Clarifying issues for    Identifying action steps
   work                     Planning for evaluation
  Establishing goals       Summarizing the