A.P. United States History 1. Name________________________Date_________Period________ Chapter 11. The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Democracy, 1800-1812. Theme 1: Jefferson’s effective, pragmatic policies strengthened the principles of two-party republican government, even though the “Jeffersonian” revolution caused sharp partisan battles between Federalists and Republicans over particular issues. Theme 2: Despite his intentions, Jefferson became deeply entangled in the foreign polic y conflicts of the Napoleonic era, leading to the highly unpopular and failed embargo that revi ved the moribund Federalist Party. Theme 3: James Madison fell into an international trap, set by Napoleon that Jefferson had avoided. Western War Hawks’ enthusiasm for a war with Britain was matched by New Englanders’ hostility. I Summary for Chapter. Read this section as you are reading the text, as these are the main ideas and concepts of the reading. It is also very important to look over all text inserts, cartoons, pictures, maps, charts etc. that are in the reading. (22 pgs.) 1. The ideological conflicts of the early Republic culminated in the bitter election of 1800 between Adams and Jefferson. The fierce rhetoric of the campaign, the peaceful “Revolution of 1800” demonstrated that the infant Republic could transfer power from one part to another. The election of 1800 also signaled the permanent decline of the conservative Federalist Party, which proved unable to adjust to the democratic future of American politics. 2. Jefferson, the political theorist, came to Washington determined to implement his Republican principles of limited and frugal government, strict construction, and antimilitarist foreign policy. But Jefferson, the practical politician, had to compromise many of these goals, thereby moderating the Republican-Federalist ideological conflict. 3. The sharpest political conflicts occurred over the judiciary, where John Marshall worked effectively to enshrine the principles of judicial re view and a strong federal government. Against his will, Jefferson also enhanced federal power through his war against the Barbary pirates and, especially, his dramatic purchase of Louisiana from Napoleon. The Louisiana Purchase was Jefferson’s greatest success, increasing national unity and cementing the republican party’s future to the West. 4. Nevertheless, Jefferson became increasingly entangled in the great European conflict between Napoleon France and Britain, which violated both American freedom of trade and freedom of the seas. Jefferson attempted to a void war through the embargo policy, which prevented war but stirred great political hostility, especially in New England. 5. Jefferson’s successor, James Madison, soon fell into Napoleon’s trap, and western “War Hawks” whooped the United States into a divisive war with Britain in 1812. The nation went to war totally unprepared, bitterly divided, and devoid of any coherent strategy II. Major questions & concepts for consideration. Write these out on a separate sheet of paper. These will be the topics of discussion and class participation. Look above in the summary of the chapter, as you answer the following conceptual questions : 1. Explain how Jefferson’s moderation and compromises turned the “Revolution of 1800” into a relatively smooth transition of party control from Federalists to Republicans. 2. Describe the conflicts between the Federalists and Republicans over the judiciary and the important legal precedents that developed from these conflicts. 3. Describe Jefferson’s basic foreign polic y goals and how he attempted to achieve them. 4. Analyze the causes and effects of the Louisiana Purchase. 5. Describe how America became entangled against its will in the turbulent international crisis of the Napoleonic Wars. 6. Describe the original intentions and actual results of Jefferson’s embargo and explain why it failed. 7. Explain the complex causes of the War of 1812. III. Significant names, terms, and topics : Know these terms etc. A.P. Jeopardy: Introduction 1. The Federalists waged a defensive fight for; 2. How did the Jeffersonians present themselves? 3. The Republicans were to learn that it is easier to: Federalists and Republican Mudslingers (Page 211) 1. What was a handicap for the Federalists? Why? 2. What was the most damaging blow to the Federalists? 3. What did the Federalists have on Jefferson? These issues do not come up today, right? Please read Examining the Evidence on page 213. Mr. Soward will have a recent article on this to share with the class. 4. To see how fearful some were to the Jeffersonian presidency see the document at the top of page 212. This is similar to some of the sound bites that sometimes occur in the political propaganda ads on TV today. Do you understand the references that Reverend Dwight refers to? Jacobin: Voltaire: Marat: If not ask in class. (Get those extra participation points that Mr. Soward awards.) Study the political cartoons on pages 212, 225, 227 and 231. The Jefferson “Revolution of 1800” (Page 214) See Fast track To A 5 pages 125-26. Study the e xcellent AP Tip on page 126. 5. Study the map and caption Presidential Election of 1800 on page 214. 6. How is a Presidential tie broken? 7. What is a political “Lame Duck”? 8. What was the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution (1804)? See Appendix A 43-44. 9. John Adams, the last of the Federalist Presidents 10. Election of 1800 a revolution? A return to the original spirit of the revolution. 11. Jefferson wanted to check: Jefferson also wanted to halt the decay of virtue that he felt had occurred under the Federalist rule. Remember in your readings on page 122-3 they spoke of both the stability of society and the authority of the government depended on the virtue of the citizenry—its capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency and courage, and especially its appetite for civic involvement. See also page 144 “citizen virtue” fundamental to any successful republican government. See page 168 “civic virtue” and the role of republican motherhood. 12. The key to the “Revolution of 1800” was the peaceful transfer of power accepted by both parties. This concept is reinforced by the document Philadelphia Woman on page 216. 13. Partisan bitterness did not lead to guns in the streets and the experiment in democracy worked. Responsibility Breeds Moderation (Page 216) 14. Jefferson’s inaugural address was a classic statement of democratic principles. Read it carefully. “The will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, but that will to be rightful must be reasonable; the minority possess their equal rights, which…: Also read the document The Toleration of Thomas Jefferson on page 216. What does this mean? Does this concept speak to us today? 15. “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” What did he mean by this statement? See Inaugural Pitcher on page 216 What promise did Jefferson make for foreign affairs? Study the picture and caption Jefferson at Monticello on page 217. 16. Jefferson unconventional, why did he do this? 17. Sending messages to Congress to be read by a clerk. Who broke this precedent? 112 years later. 18. Jefferson was “consistently inconsistent.” What does this mean? Can you give e vidence for this? 19. How did Jefferson demonstrate moderation, especially in regard to the spoils of office? 20. Jefferson was denied the power to dispense patronage. What does this mean? What was the result of this? Jeffersonian Restraint (Page 218) See JFK’s assessment of Jefferson in the document at the top of page 217. A fine example of JFK’s humor. 21. Why did Jefferson let the Alien and Sedition Acts e xpire? What was the new naturalization Act 1802? 22. Repeal of the excise tax resulted in: 23. Albert Gallatin Secretary of Treasury. National debt reduced and balancing the budget. The “Death Clutch” of the Judiciary (Page 218) 24. “Deathbed” Judiciary Act of 1801 created how many new federal judges? “Midnight judges” Court Packing with Federalists. The new Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 in 1802. 25. Chief Justice John Marshall his Federalist Ideology: Strengthen the power of the Federal government. Appointed for life how many years did John Marshall serve? 26. The Marbury v. Madison (1803) case is one that you must know, so study it carefully, as it set the foundation and relevance of the Supreme Court. We may have a short film on this case; or complete the worksheet: Lessons on the Constitution Marbury v. Madison. Also see Fast Track 5 page 129 The Marshall Court. 27. Marshall ruled that a part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. How was this significant? Carefully study John Marshall’s reasoning behind his decision in the document on page 219 28. Jefferson’s Kentucky resolutions (1798) gave unconstitutionality to whom? Also see page 207. 29. What is the significance of “judicial review”? Why is Judicial Review the keystone to the Supreme Court’s power? 30. Samuel Chase Impeachment case (1804). Voted for b y the House of Representatives and to be tried by the Senate. “judge breaking” What important precedent was set? We will see later an attempt to control the Supreme Court under the Franklin Roosevelt administration. See F.D.R. Court Packing pages 792-93. If nothing more study the cartoon on page 793. Do you see the connection? What is the problem? Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior (Page 219) 31. The U.S. would set an example of “peaceful coercion”. What was he trying to win? Distrust of standing armies as an invitation to: 32. What harsh realities change Jefferson’s principles? 33. Pasha of Tripoli showdown (1801) “To the Shores of Tripoli” Study the map Four Barbary States on page 220. Peace treaty Tripoli 1805 34. Jefferson’s gunboats . Why did he see these boats less dangerous than armies? Ask Mr. Soward about Eisenhower’s advice near the end of his Presidency. The Louisiana Godsend (Page 220) 35. Napoleon’s France takes over Louisiana. Right of Deposit withdrawn and consequences : 36. Jefferson the pacifist and anti-entanglement position vs. a strong French presence. A real dilemma. 37. James Monroe and James R. Livingston go to Paris. What were their instructions? 38. Why would the United States make an alliance with its old enemy? 39. Napoleon sold Louisiana: (Why?) Toussaint L’Ouverture (See the picture and the caption on page 221) Yellow Fever “Damn sugar, damn coffee, damn colonies.” 40. How did problems in Europe helped U.S. diplomacy? 41. The Ceding of Louisiana took place April 30, 1803. What was the cost? The U.S. “Bought a wilderness to get a city.” 42. Jefferson’s dilemma: strict constructionist vs. the realist. What was Jefferson’s decision? Information: When U.S. Diplomats James Monroe and Robert Livingston asked the French minister Charles Maurise Talleyrand what were the boundaries of the purchase? Talleyrand replied, “I can give you no direction, you have made a noble purchase f or yourselves, and I suppose you will make the most of it.” American Sphinx, The Character of Thomas Jefferson, by Joseph J. Ellis, page 247. Why all the evasiv eness and downright untruthfulness on the part of Talleyrand? The answer is that Napoleon was playing the crafty old game of divide and conquer. He hoped that boundary disputes would embroil Spain and the United States and that he could play one antagonist off the other to his advantage…” “His fondest dreams in this regard were abundantly realized. The tw o decades that followed were enlivened by much bickering and quarreling, notably with Spain over West Florida, with Spain over Texas and the Southwest, and with England over the vast reaches of the Louisiana territory. A Diplomatic History of the United States, 10th edition, Thomas A. Bailey, page 110. See the dis puted territory outlined in the map on page 224. Louisiana in the Long View (Page 222) 43. Jefferson’s ideal of an agrarian republic the” Valley of Democracy.” Precedent: “the acquisition of foreign territory and peoples by purch ase.” How did this purchase contribute to Washington’s isolationist principles? 44. Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and Sacajawea See pictures and caption on page 223. A two-and-one-half year expedition. Study the map and caption on page 224. If time we will study a power point on the expedition. 45. Zebulon M. Pike explored to the headwaters of the Mississippi (1805-06) The Aaron Burr Conspiracies (Page 224) 46. Burr and Federalist plot for New England and New York secession. Hamilton exposed and foiled the conspiracy. 47. Burr Hamilton duel 48. Burr-Wilkinson plan for a new confederacy (1806) Separate the West from the East and expand… 49. Aaron Burr Treason Trial proof of overt acts of treason. Precarious Neutrality (Page 225) 50. Jefferson’s reelection 1804 over Federalist candidate Charles C. Pinckney Second term dominated by foreign affairs. 51. Battle of Trafalgar Horatio Lord Nelson British supremacy on the Seas : 52. Battle of Austerlitz: Napoleon defeated the Austrian and Russian armies. Battle of the Three Emperors “The Tiger and the Shark” 53. What were the Orders in Council (1806)? Answered by Napoleon’s Berlin (1806) and Milan Decrees (1807) seizing all American merchant ships that entered a British port. Study the cartoon Intercourse or Impartial Dealings on page 225. 54. What did Impressment involve? 55. What was the fate of the U.S.S. Chesapeake (1807)? The Hated Embargo (Page 226) 56. Embargo Act of 1807 (Lasted 15 months) no exportation and peaceful coercion. Economic results to America: Why did the embargo fail? Also see the cartoon The Embargo on page 227. 57. Repeal of the Embargo. What was the Non-Intercourse Act March 1, 1809? 58. What were the multiple factors that caused Jefferson’s embargo to fail? Underestimated stubborn determination of the Overestimated dependences of British and Bumper crop in Revolutionary Latin America North controlled most French seized U.S. ships Miscalculated unpopularity of the Embargo Embargo not long enough nor enforced enough. Study the cartoon document A Federalist Circular on page 228. 59. The real foundations of modern America’s industrial Might was the Protective wall of the Embargo. Wh y was this ironic? Madison’s Gamble (Page 228) Study the picture and caption of James Madison on page 229. 60. The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was about to expire in 1810 61. Macon’s Bill No. 2. replaced it. What were the conditions of this bill? 62. What was Napoleon’s answer to this bill? How did Madison’s gamble fail? Tecumseh and the Prophet (Page 229) 63. Who were the War Hawks? Why did they want war? Read the document Tecumseh’s Speech on page 229. 64. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa confederacy: For more on Tecumseh see Union 1812, by A.J. Langguth pages 157-171 and 259-70 Study the picture of Tecumseh and two document on page 230 65. William Henry Harrison and the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811). Battle of the Thames (1813) significance: Mr. Madison’s War (Page 231) 66. What was the underlying motive to take Canada and Florida? 67. Madison and the Republicans rationale for war Assertion of American Demonstrate the viability of and of democracy The discredit of republicanism 68. Close vote for war demonstrated a dangerous split both sectional and partisan. Congress declared war June 1, 1812. House vote: Senate vote: Sectional and partisan split South and West position: Federalists in North and South: New England’s position: 69. The position of New England Federalists: 70. One can see the danger of leading a divided country into war. Study the cartoon and caption The Present State of Our Country on page 231. See Thought Provoker # 4 below. *** Does this apply to today? Study the chronology on page 232. IV. Thought Provokers: (Or questions for class discussion) 1. In what sense, if any, is the idea of a” Revolution of 1800” justified? (Note that Jefferson himself always considered that his election was a genuine “revolution” that ushered in the rule of the common person in American politics.) 2. How did Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase transform America’s understanding of herself and its future? What were the short- term and long-term consequences of the acquisition of Louisiana? 3. How does the period 1800-1812 look if viewed through American Indian eyes? Could the attempt of Tecumseh and the Prophet to unite western Indians against American expansion have created a different dynamic in white- Indian relations? 4. Was Jefferson’s embargo, even though unpopular, a wiser foreign policy than Madison’s blundering into war? Should a president (like Madison) ever lead the nation into war when there is deep politic al division over its purposes? *** V. Past A.P. Questions from this area of study: 1. With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? In writing your answer, use the documents and your knowledge of the period, 1801 -1817. See D.B.Q. documents for the 1998 test. 2. To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer, be sure to address the political, social, and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. D.B.Q. 2005. (10 Documents) VI. For overview study See Mr. Soward’s Pictotext 17 Jefferson’s Administration and Fast Tack 5 pages 127-128.