TOUR REPORT OF VISIT TO KERALA
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TOUR REPORT OF VISIT TO KERALA I visited Kerala State on 8th and 9th May, 2009. 8th May, 2009 Waste to Electricity Project: First visited Sreekariyam Gram panchayat where a waste to electricity project was installed by an NGO – Bio Tech. The project details are placed below. The advantage of this project is that it is located within the market compound thereby avoiding the problem of collection of waste. Fish, animal and vegetable waste is used to generate bio gas. The stored biogas runs a single-mode (does not use kerosene, diesel or petrol for starting or as additive) gas engine to generate electricity for about four hours daily in the evening to light the market and street. Every month about 100 kg. of slurry compost is removed and given to farmers free of cost. The Gram Panchayat gives Rs.90,000/- as O&M cost per annum to the NGO and they get the benefit of a clean environment and free electricity for market and the streets. It is a good model for replication in vegetable and fish markets in other places. The Director of Biotech Mr. Saji Das can be invited to the SLWM consultation by DDWS. The State Govt is considering a project to increase the capacity of the plant from 250 kgs per day to 750 kg. per day at a cost of Rs.10 lakh. Under TSC, the State Govt. has a policy of giving Rs.1.5 lakh for Solid & Liquid Waste management from the TSC fund based on proposals prepared by the panchayats. In this case for the expansion project, it is proposed to get Rs.1.20 lakh from TSC and the remaining from State plan funds. 226 semi- urban GPs have been identified for taking up Solid Waste management projects. Staffs of these GPs are being trained for solid waste management. Every household with more than 4 cents land would have its own decentralised compost pit. Projects would be sanctioned only where the GP plans for 100% coverage of households in a ward/GP with solid waste management both decentralised and centralised. Composting latrines (Ecosan): Next went to Adimalathurai, Kottakal GP. This is a village of mainly fishing households. About 120 houses have dry compost latrines here originally introduced by Mr. Paul Calvert under eco- sanitation programme. Originally ecosan toilets were given free of cost or at nominal cost to the households. Later they were asked to construct them on their own. They were paid Rs.2200/- subsidy from TSC and GP funds. The unit cost ranged from Rs.7, 000 – 12,000/-. Shri Selvaraju, constructed an ecosan toilet at a cost of Rs.4, 000/- because he used the existing roof of his house. Smt. Philome had constructed a water seal single pit latrine with a depth of 1 meter before Mr. Paul Calvert came here and has not faced the problem of water overflow so far. Smt. Selvi, Shri.Dasan, Smt. Lourdumary who have constructed ecosan toilets are satisfied with the toilets. They say that there is no fly or mosquito menace. Some of them have sold the compost sold for Rs.25 – Rs.100. However, I found that these toilets are yet to become very popular with the local people. They were constructed mostly by people who were personally motivated by Mr. Paul Calvert and the local church. On the seashore side of the road in the village I found many houses with no toilets and some with water-seal toilets constructed above ground with closed concrete chambers. The waste water-flow is sucked out by Municipal or private agencies. In this GP, there are 407 households without toilets, open defecation is present and the GP Secretary was told to cover these remaining houses to make the GP Nirmal. Balaramapuram vegetable and fish market Bio digester unit has also been installed by Bio Tech. The gas is used by the adjoining Ayurvedic hospital. Expansion is being planned to tackle additional waste and the power generated from this will light up the market and street. This GP has a very active and involved President who has, on his own initiative provided 150 households with household bio-gas units by providing Rs.9500/- per unit. But these are not linked to toilets and only use household waste. The GP has also assisted in setting up 150 vermi compost units. Unfortunately these units are not functional at present, the reason being lack of training of the beneficiaries and their adding inappropriate wastes. In the afternoon, I had a meeting with Secretary, Local Self Government, Shri Jose and addressed the District TSC Coordinators from all over the State. I made the following observations: 1. Kerala should aim to become Nirmal State by 2009 by providing the remaining IHHLs, school toilets, anganwadi toilets and sanitary complexes. 2. Govt. of India is looking towards Kerala for good models of solid and liquid waste management. The best models should be documented and sent to the Department for uploading on our website. 3. Liquid waste management models should be initiated. 4. Toilets for fishermen should be constructed in collaboration with other agencies like Fishery Development Corporation, religious leaders, etc. 5. The District Coordinator of Wayanad said that solid waste management is being done in the district by convergence with NREGA. Household compost pits are provided to BPL families under NREGA paying one man-day’s wage. Next they propose to provide household soak pits at a cost of Rs.300 – 400/- with 2 man-day’s wages and material. This is a good model of convergence and can be replicated by other States. Next, visited Attingal Municipality which is a model of good solid waste management. The Municipality has two arrangements for Solid Waste Management. Wastes from markets and public places are taken for Windrow composting. Wastes from households are taken for vermicomposting. As regards windrow composting a lessee who engages women SHGs is entrusted the work of collection with vehicles provided by the Municipality, segregation, composting. 14 women are engaged for segregation and composting. Wastes are also collected directly from shops by the women members of SHGs. The shops are charged Rs.50/- per month. The SHG has been given a lorry and 2 pick up vans by the municipality. The compost from windrow composting is sold at Rs.2/- per kg. The income for the women is from monthly charges, sale of compost. The running costs are to be met out of this income and the net income per woman comes to about Rs. 80/- per day. The second type of system is for household wastes The wastes are collected in two auto rickshaws from 1500 households and houses are charged @ Rs.40/- per month. The vermi-compost is sold to the Agriculture Dept. outlet at Rs.8/- per kg. 24 SHG members are involved in this work and they earn around Rs.2000 – 3000 p.m. Plastic shredder is being installed for plastic waste. Household waste is more profitable because it can be vermi- composted. Hence segregation of biodegradable household waste at household level can be more profitable for the municipality/GP. Households follow this if they are constantly made aware and reminded. 9th May, 2009 Anganwadi toilet: On 9th May, visited an anganwadi toilets in Kalavoor village, Mararikulam G.P., Alleppy district which cost Rs.9600/- of which Rs.5000/- came from TSC and Rs.4600 from panchayat. This is a prefabricated unit with three rings underground below the toilet unit. 219 similar units have been installed so far in the district. It is child friendly, easy to install and looks quite durable. It is a good model for replication. Earthworm farming unit: Visited earthworm farming unit of Shri Regunatha Karta, Thuravoor. He earns about Rs. 6 – 7 lakh p.a. by earthworm farming by using plant wastes mainly harvesting of water hyacinth. This is a very profitable model and if the farmers are trained, can serve as a good income generating vocation. Visited waste water treatment and rain water harvesting system in Sarovaram Hotel. Ms. Latha Jaigopal, the architect who designed this explained the design. There are 3 piping systems – one for drinking and cooking purpose from municipal water, one for washing and flushing etc. from rain water harvesting tanks and the third pipe is for treated waste water which is used for gardening. The rainwater harvesting is done over the entire hotel area and filtered into a lined groundwater water body. The cost came to Rs.0.45 per litre as against Rs. 2-4 per litre for conventional rainwater harvesting methods. Land is required but the end result is a beauty spot in the hotel premises. The hotel waste water goes through a septic tank, a baffled reactor, a root zone treatment tank and then a pond with duckweed before it is pumped out for gardening. The cost of the waste water and rain water harvesting system was recovered by the hotel in three years by saving on the water cost they would otherwise have paid to the municipality. I requested Ms. Jaigopal to take up a research and development project on waste water treatment in one or two GPs in Ernakulam district. She can be invited to attend our SLWM workshop to share her experiences. Community toilet complex, Eloor GP, Ernakulam: The complex consists of 2 toilet seats and 2 bathrooms and is used by 16 families. They are charged Rs.50/- p.m. The income goes to the care taker who is a widow. Water & electricity bills are paid by GP. A Solid waste management plant is also being run by the GP. 14 women and 3 men are employed covering 700 families. Each household is charged Rs.30/- pm. and shops Rs.50/- pm for collection. The women get an income of around Rs.1300 – 1500/- per month. This plant was not as well organised as the other one seen in Attingal. Girl friendly toilet- Muppathalam, Kadungallur GP: Three units of one toilet, urinal and incinerator each costing Rs.55, 000/- of which Rs.20, 000/- is from TSC and Rs.35, 000/- from the panchayat have been constructed. The sanitary pads are disposed from within the toilet through a chute into an external incinerator and burnt with firewood. Similar model of girl friendly toilet has been set up in a number of higher secondary schools.