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					  PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS,
  STRESS AND HEALTH AND
    THE WORLD OF WORK
                   Presented By
                  Matthew M Ncube
ILO Specialist Working Conditions and Environment
Public Service Employee Health & Wellness Indaba V
               9th-12- October 2005
    SCOPE OF PRESENTATION
 Background, Introduction and Objectives,
 Definition of Stress,
 ILO Safework Infocus Programme on Working
  Conditions and Environment,
 Stress in the World of Work,
 Proactive Interventions Against Stress,
 Prevention of Stress,
 Recommendations,
 Conclusion
    Objectives, Background, and
            Introduction
 To  highlight the adverse impact of stress in
  the world of work,
 To motivate for the development and
  implementation of proactive strategic
  responses against psychosocial factors in the
  world of work,
 To provide information on the ILO response to
  HIV/AIDS in the World of Work in the context
  of psychosocial factors.
          MOTIVATIORS
 IF WE ALWAYS DO WHAT WE HAVE ALWAYS
  DONE WE WILL GET WHAT WE ALWAYS HAVE
  “NOTHING” NO PROGRESS AT ALL,
 WE NEED TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE PLATEAU
  OF SATURATION THROUGH INNOVATION FOR
  OUR SURVIVAL AND FUTURE”
 “WE SPEND OUR TIME PREPARING TO LIVE
  AND WHEN ARE WE GOING TO LIVE”
      DEFINITION OF STRESS
 A force which deforms bodies,
 Body’s general plan for adapting to all exerted
  influences , changes, demands and strains,
 Plan comes into action once the body is
  exposed to the strain factors that range from
  violence, exposure to hazards at work,
 Stress factors include physical, mental and
  psychosocial elements,
 Stress is response of the body to strenuous
  factors, influences and demands.
      Definition of Stress……
 Stress affects the wear and tear of the body,
 Background stress is desirable as a source of
  motivation,
 Stress fuels the body’s activity,
 The response of the body to stress depends
  on a number of factors of the individual,
 Adverse effects are exerted when the body is
  subjected to excessive levels of stress.
ILO SAFEWORK INFOCUS
     PROGRAMME


           GOVERNMENT



            WORLD OF
               WORK   WORKERS
  EMPLOYERS
                    0RGANIZATIONS
 ORGANIZATIONS
               COMMUNITY
        ILO Safework Infocus
         Programme on OSH
 ILO Conventions on Safety and Health,
 Hazard Profiling,
 Health Risk Assessments,
 Proactive Operational Programmes for
  Occupational Safety and Health,
 Psychosocial Factors in the World of Work,
 Action at National and Enterprise Levels.
       ILO Safework Infocus
        Programme on OSH
 Prevent occupational non-disabling and
  disabling injuries,
 Prevent occupational illnesses and diseases,
 Prevent downgrading factors on the economy or
  business processes,
 Responsible care concept regarding community
  responsibilities.
   HAZARD PROFILING AND
  HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
 What are the      HEALTH EFFECTS?
                                      HAZARDS:
   Hazards?
   Exposure
                                      Chemicals,
Characteristics?                       Physical,
  Acute and                          Engineering,
Chronic Effects?                      Biological,
 Evaluation of                       Ergonomics,
   Hazards?                          Psychosocial
Prevention and
  Protection?
 PROACTIVE OSH PROGRAMMES
 Occupational  Safety,
 Occupational Health Services,
 Occupational Hygiene Services,
 Occupational Safety and Health Promotion,
 Occupational Safety and Health Training,
 Integrated proactive intervention approach.
    Stress in the World of Work
 Management attributes and techniques,
 Prevailing psychosocial conditions,
 Person and environment fit,
 Social, Emotional and Physiological Approach,
 Social Support,
 Sexual harassment,
 Violence in the World of Work,
 Unemployment and Insecurity.
    Stress in the World of Work
 MANAGERIAL STYLE,
 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE,
 ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND CULTURE,
 PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND
  COMPENSATION,
 STAFFING ISSUES,
 ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION,
  STRESS IN THE WORLD OF
           WORK
 CAREER  STAGES,
 SELF ESTEEM
 GENDER, JOB STRESS AND ILNESS,
 ETHNICITY,
 ERGONOMICS
 SHIFT WORK.
         STRESS IN THE WORLD OF WORK



     HAZARDS                    SELF ESTEEM


                                ORGANIZATIONAL
   SOCIAL                        SOCIALISATION

                                 STAFFING ISSUES
    GENDER

                                    SEXUAL
                                  HARASSMENT
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
 1. Management Attributes and
         Techniques
 Non defined operational policies and
  procedures,
 Poor interactive synergies and feedback,
 Lack of social dialogue,
 Lack of defined job processes,
 Autocratic and disregard for employees,
 Poor involvement of employees.
   2. Prevailing Psychosocial
 Conditions ILO Resolution (1975)
 Work  should respect workers lives and health,
 Leave them time for rest and leisure,
 Provide opportunities to serve society,
 Provide for development of personal
  capacities for self-fulfilment,
 Workplace should provide for social support
  and recognition,
 We need to relate our work to social life.
         3. SOCIAL SUPPORT
 Lack  of support from peers,
 Lack of support from social groups,
 Lack of support from immediate family,
 Lack of support in the workplace,
 Interactive variables that include psychosocial
  psychobiological and individual psychological
  stress reaction provoke final outcome of
  physical illness.
    4. SEXUAL HARASSMENT
 Applies  to both female and male employees,
 Supervisor and subordinate interrelationships,
 Sexual remarks and comments,
 Sexual favours for rewards,
 Posterity packages.
 Both verbal and physical specifically directed.
 It is unwelcome, undesirable and variable.
5. VIOLENCE IN THE WORLD OF
           WORK
 Verbal  abuse,
 Abusive language,
 Physical violence,
 Derogatory language,
 Demographic attributes also feature with
  individual characteristics,
 Control at organization level has been very
  poor.
             6. INSECURITY
 Security of employment uncertain,
 National economic performance,
 Retrenchments,
 Social Protection,
 Employment opportunities,
 7. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
 Ambiguous   organizational structure,
 Poor communication characterized by
  rumor mongering,
 Lack of clearly defined operational policies and
  procedures,
 Lack of clearly defined management
  systems,
 Lack of organizational character,
 Workers feel insecure with little information.
 8. ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND
            CULTURE
 Organization lacks motivation,
 Workers do not belong and do not have
  identity,
 Every one does whatever they fee like
  because the system does not care,
 Executives and management operate in
  cocooned stratified levels,
 What is our mission and vision and is it
  known?
         9. ORGANIZATIONAL
            SOCIALIZATION
 Does  the organization provide for
  opportunities for social staff interaction?
 Do we recognize the important role of
  promoting employee interaction?
 Promoting accommodation of all
  employees through sharing of problems
  and challenges,
 TEAM building together everyone achieves
  more.
 10. PERFOMANCE MEASURES
      AND COMPENSATION
 No  clearly defined corporate functional
  objectives,
 Employees do not know how they fit into the
  organizations goals and objectives,
 Individual functional objectives not set and fully
  explained to all employees,
 Measures of performance are not defined,
 Appraisals are not comprehensive,
       11. STAFFING ISSUES
 Inadequate  staffing levels,
 Lack of clear organ gram with properly
  assigned functional staffing levels,
 Overloading employees with unrealistic
  targets and goals,
 Staff and skills development,
 Proper job assignment,
 Lack of a comprehensive promotional system.
        12. CAREER STAGES
 No  clearly defined career development policy,
 Succession planning and preparedness,
 Promotion system,
 Access to equal opportunities,
 Recognition and identification of high flyers,
 Effective recruitment system.
           13. SELF ESTEEM
 Favourability individuals typical of self
  evaluation,
 Low esteem highly susceptible to
  environmental stressors,
 Highly esteemed cope better with stresses,
 Self esteem is actually self evaluation and
  perception,
 Measure of self confidence very essential
    14. GENDER, JOB STRESS AND
             ILLNESS
 Effectsof stress on women still need further
  comprehensive research,
 Coronary heart disease prevalence has
  been found to be high among men,
 Women need to cope with demands of
  pregnancy,
 Women therefore are highly susceptible
  than men however further investigations
  are needed regarding job placement.
            15. ETHNICITY
 Cross  cultural aspects,
 Aspects of poverty, economic marginality,
  inadequate housing, unemployment, crime
  and discrimination,
 Not usually and traditionally identified,
 Prejudice and discrimination are the
  notable stressors,
 Influences assignment with regard to
  allocation of favourable conditions.
              16. SHIFT WORK
 Circadian rhythms,
 Immune system,
 Adaptation considerations,
 Health environment,
 Recuperation period,
 Proper management of shift work,
 Evaluation of effects of shift work.
           17. ERGONOMICS
 Design  of work stations,
 Design and specification of jobs,
 Standard job procedures,
 Assignment of job tasks,
 Synchronization of operational procedures,
 Review of operational procedures,
 Introduction of new technology or innovations.
           IMPACT OF STRESS
 Raised heart beat,
 High blood pressure,
 Increased muscle tension,
 Electrodermal (sweat gland activity),
 Disturbance of cardiac output,
 Disturbed breathing patterns,
 Modifications in gastro intestinal activity,
 Disturbed immune functional system.
       IMPACT OF STRESS
 Disturbed   hormonal responses of the
  cathecolamines (adrenaline and
  noradrenaline and cortisol),
 Effects on blood clotting,
 Release of reserve energy from adipose
  tissue,
 Blood pressure during working time than
  leisure time.
           IMPACT OF STRESS
o   Increased alcohol and substance abuse,
o   Reckless and irresponsible sexual behaviour,
o   High susceptibility to illnesses,
o   Compromised immune system,
o   Burn out that leads to deprived and
    compromised illhealth,
o   High risk to occupational accidents,
o   Low productivity.
     BURN OUT!! BURN OUT!!!

BODY HAS EXCEEDED    HIGH BODY EXHAUSTION
CAPACITY TO RESIST

                         REDUCED IMMUNE
 ILL HEALTH                  SYSTEM
   EFFECTS


HIGH RISK SEXUAL
   BEHAVIOUR             MOBILE TIME BOMB
         IMPACT OF STRESS
 Body  has a limited capacity to deal with
  stress,
 Break point,
 Recuperation,
 Fair wear and tear of the body,
 High risk behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS
  responsible and proactive behaviour.
      IMPACT OF STRESS
Gastro  intestinal effect,
Irregular eating habits,
Poor nutrition,
Poor state of wellness,
Disturbed eating patterns and
 habits.
  PROACTIVE INTERVENTIONS
 Identify causes of stress,
 Identify sources of stress,
 Develop and implement effective
  proactive interventions,
 Review policies of corporate
  organizations,
 Redesign jobs,
  PROACTIVE INTERVENTIONS
 Improve   communication system,
 Review of personnel policies,
 Cascade decision making process to lower
  levels,
 Conduct periodic stress audits,
 Establish a comprehensive monitoring system
  for stress in the world of work through stress
  audits as a means of regular monitoring.
 PROACTIVE INTERVENTIONS
 Monitoring   system for stress focusing on the
 following:
   Job content,
   Work scheduling,
   Physical working conditions,
   Employment terms and expected outputs,
   Relationships to work,
   Communication systems and reporting
    protocol.
 SECONDARY PREVENTION OF
STRESS IN THE WORLD OF WORK
 Develop and implement stress management
  courses to enhance recognition of stress,
 Include simple relaxation techniques,
 Change of life style,
 Time management,
 Development of personal stress management
  techniques,
 Return to work preparation of employee
  programme very essential.
    ILO RESPONSE TO HIV/AIDS
 ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS in World of Work,
 Ten Key principles:
    Recognition of HIV/AIDS as a Workplace Issue,
    Non-discrimination,
    Gender equality,
    Healthy work environment,
    Social dialogue,
    Screening for purposes of exclusion from work,
    Confidentiality,
    ILO CODE OF PRACTICE ON
            HIV/AIDS
o   Continuation of employment relationships,
o   Prevention and proactive initiatives,
o   Care and support.
o   Programme implementation strategies and
    operational activities,
o   Comprehensively defined measures of
    performance?
        RECOMMENDATIONS
 We need to develop and implement effective
  measures to monitor stress in the world of work,
 We need to recognize the impact of stress on
  HIV/AIDS initiatives,
 We need to develop proactive effective
  management systems for stress in the world of
  work,
 We need to address the hazards of stress in the
  world of work through proactive interventions.
         THE WAY FORWARD
 HIV/AIDS poses the single greatest challenge to
  the survival of humanity,
 We need to make a difference in each and every
  day that we have as an opportunity,
 The proactive approach is not a luxury but a
  must,
 The role of the Public Service in driving national
  economic development needs to be
  acknowledged and provide leadership.
            CONCLUSION
 Each  and every one of us need to
  acknowledge that we are a potential
  resource of opportunity for change.
 What can we contribute to the KHOMANANI
  National Initiative?
 Employees make an important contribution to
  national economic development in our member
  states.
            REFERENCES
 ILO Encyclopaedia on Occupatioanl Safety
  and Health,
 Integrated Occupational Occupational Safety
  and Health Management ISSA Publication 154
  of 2003 Matthew M Ncube and Edwin Kaseke.
 www.issa.org
 www.ilo.org (website)