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Heating and Hot Water Systems

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Heating and Hot Water Systems Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                          Electricity Tariff

        Heating and Hot                                          l select the local REC (unless a preferred
                                                                   supplier is in place)
        Water Systems                                            l if not listed pick ‘Other (not listed)’
                                                                 l select the appropriate tariff




                                                             1                                                 2




         Main and Secondary                                            Main and Secondary
               Heating                                                       Heating
  l Main heating system
        – the system supplying heat to most of the rooms           l Ignore open fires upstairs when selecting the
          and, preferably, providing hot water                       main or secondary heating system
        – if in doubt choose the non-room heater system
        – if in doubt choose the system heating the living
          room
  l Secondary system
        – any other system that is installed (eg gas fire,
          open fire etc)


                                                             3                                                 4




                 Heating Fuel                                          Main Heating Types
l Gas
  – mains gas, bulk LPG, bottled lpg                             l Boiler system
l Oil                                                            l Warm air
  – 35 second, 28 sec (kerosene)                                 l Room heaters
l Solid fuel
  – house coal, smokeless, anthracite, wood
                                                                 l Storage heaters
l Electricity                                                    l Other system types
  – on-peak, off-peak                                            l Community heating
l Community heating
  – with or without CHP (Combined Heat and
    Power)                                                   5                                                 6




                                                                                                                     1
                                                                            The majority of homes are
                Heating Types                                               heated with a boiler and
                                                                            radiators
      Other systems

                       15%
                                                                                          Other
     Other ch                                                                             systems
                10%
                                    63%        Gas Blr+rads                               30%       Boiler and
                                                                                                    Radiators
      Elec ch 8%
                                                                                                    70%
                  4%
   Gas other ch


                                                            7
                       Source: 1991 English House Condition Survey                                                     8




           Main Heating Types
 l Boiler and radiators
 l Storage heaters
 l Room heaters - gas, solid fuel
 l Underfloor heating - wet or electric
 l Warm air - gas, oil, electric
 l Ceiling heating - electric
                                                                             Boiler

                                                           9                                                          10




                                                                            Fully pumped system
                                                                              c
                                                                     ‘Supercal’ ylinder

Cylinder                                                             Cylinder
                                                                                                          Radiators
                                                                                                          Radiators




      Boiler                                                                 Boiler

                                                          11                                                          12




                                                                                                                           2
                                                              Fully pumped system
       Fully pumped system
‘Supercal’ ylinder
         c                                                   Fully pumped system
                                                               c
                                                      ‘Supercal’ ylinder

Cylinder                                              Cylinder
                                     Radiators
                                     Radiators                                                         Radiators
                                                                                                       Radiators




                     Pump                                                            Pump




        Boiler

                                                 13                                                                14




                                                                                                          stat.
                                                                                                     Room stat.

                                                                                    stat.
                                                                           Cylinder stat.

                                                                                            Zone
                                                                                            valves
                            TRVs




                                                 15                                                                16




                       Two channel
                       programmer




                                                       Three port valve




                                                 17                                                                18




                                                                                                                        3
                                          What does the flue gas
                                                contain ?
        Boiler Efficiencies




    What does the flue gas                What does the flue gas
          contain ?                             contain ?




     What happens in a                     What happens in a
    conventional boiler ?                 conventional boiler ?
                "                                   "
                    !                                   !

                                               Efficiency

!
    !
                              $
                                  #
                                      !
                                          !   7 / 10 = 70%        $
                                                                      #




                                                                          4
  SEASONAL BOILER EFFICIENCY                                                                  BOILER EFFICIENCY
                                          100                Condensing
                                                                                                  DIRECTIVE
                                                             boilers
       Efficiency based on gross CV (%)




                                           90                                          l EC Boiler Efficiency Directive 92/42/EEC

                                           80          High efficiency boilers



                                           70
                                                       Conventional
                                                       boilers
                                           60

                                                Typical average
                                           50   load over a season

                                                      50                    100   25                                               26
                                                  Boiler load (%)




                    BOILER EFFICIENCY                                                         BOILER EFFICIENCY
                        DIRECTIVE                                                                 DIRECTIVE
l EC Boiler Efficiency Directive 92/42/EEC                                             l EC Boiler Efficiency Directive 92/42/EEC
  implemented in the UK as                                                               implemented in the UK as
l Boiler (Efficiency) Regulations 1993                                                 l Boiler (Efficiency) Regulations 1993
                                                                                         and amended by
                                                                                       l Boiler (Efficiency) (Amendment) Regulations
                                                                                         1994

                                                                                  27                                               28




                    BOILER EFFICIENCY                                                         BOILER EFFICIENCY
                        DIRECTIVE                                                                 DIRECTIVE
l Introduction of higher efficiency standards                                          l Part load efficiency must be within 3% of full
 (e.g. 88% nett for a 100kW boiler)                                                      load efficiency
l Introduction of a 30% load test
l All boilers up to 400kW from 1st Jan 1998
l ‘Conventional’ boilers have effectively
  disappeared
l High Efficiency boilers are now the minimum
  standard                                 29                                                                                      30




                                                                                                                                          5
       BOILER EFFICIENCY
                                                                  SEDBUK
           DIRECTIVE
                                                     l Seasonal Energy Efficiency of Domestic
l Part load efficiency must be within 3% of full
                                                       Boilers in the UK
  load efficiency
l these are still ‘bench’ efficiencies (measured
  by the manufacturer)
l eg 30% figure is arrived at by firing the boiler
  and getting a temperature lift which is 30% of
  maximum
                                            31                                                  32




               SEDBUK                                              SEDBUK
 l Seasonal Energy Efficiency of Domestic            l Classify the boiler
   Boilers in the UK                                 l Get the full load and 30% efficiencies
 l Developed by boiler manufactures and              l Convert to gross efficiencies
   BRE to give a seasonal efficiency which           l Calculate the seasonal efficiency
   can be used with SAP



                                            33                                                  34




                                            35                                                  36




                                                                                                     6
                                                      37                                         38




      SEDBUK Efficiencies
                                                                 SEDBUK Database
                                                           l NHER Builder will has the facility to
                                                             download the latest SEDBUK database
                                                             from the web
                                                           l SEDBUK is updated every month.
                                                             Assessors is responsible for ensuring
                                                             they are using the latest version
                                                           l The program will prompt you to
                                                             download the latest database
                                          2002 Part L 39                                         40




                Gas Boilers
l Enter detail of the boiler into boiler database
   – manufacturer
   – model name
   – model number
l If no manufacturer enter generic details
   – normal / combi / condensing / back boiler (serving
     rads)
   – open / balanced / fan flues
   – floor or wall mounted
                                                      41                                         42




                                                                                                      7
43   44




45   46




47   48




          8
                             49                                                         50




                                                   Gas Boilers
                                   l Enter as much detail on the boiler as possible
                                     – manufacturer
                                     – model name
                                     – model number
                                   l Also record
                                     – normal / combi / condensing / back boiler (serving
                                       rads)
                                     – open / balanced / fan flues
                                     – floor or wall mounted
                             51                                                         52




 Other Wet Central Heating
                                                      it!




        Systems
                                          s
                                       is




l LPG
                                     tm




l Oil
l Coal
                                   n’




l Electric
                                  Do




                             53                                                         54




                                                                                             9
Worcester                              Electric
Hoppermate                             Boiler
solid fuel boiler




                                  55              56




    Central Heating Controls
 l Room Thermostats
 l Programmer
 l Thermostatic Radiator Valves
 l Zone control
 l Intelligent thermostats
 l Time delay thermostats
 l Cylinder Thermostat            57              58




                                  59              60




                                                       10
61   62




63   64




65   66




          11
                                         67                                  68




      Main Heating Types                               Storage Heaters
l Boiler and radiators                        l Old - large
l Storage heaters                             l New - slimline
l Room heaters - gas, solid fuel              l Automatic - charge control
l Underfloor heating - wet or electric        l Fan assisted
l Warm air - gas, oil, electric
l Ceiling heating - electric

                                         69                                  70




                                         71                                  72




                                                                                  12
                                                                                        Time switch
                                           E7 DUAL
                1234550                    TARIFF                         1234550                       877080

                                                                        ON PEAK METER                 OFF PEAK METER
                 8342110
FUSE




                                                          FUSE
                            Time / tele
                                              CONTACTOR
                            switch




       L    L P P   P C W           S     S S W                  L    L P P   P C W               S   S S W
                                                   73                                                                  74
           ON & OFF PEAK         OFF PEAK ONLY                       ON PEAK ONLY               OFF PEAK ONLY




                                                   75                                                                  76




                                                          Fan assisted storage heater


                                                                                        On and off-peak supplies




                                                          Grille




                                                   77                                                                  78




                                                                                                                            13
                                      79   80




            Storage Heaters
               Controls
 l Manual
 l Automatic charge control
    – local to the heater
    – central




                                      81   82




Storage heaters with charge control




                                      83   84




                                                14
                                               Main Heating Types
                                         l Boiler and radiators
                                         l Storage heaters
                                         l Room heaters - gas, solid fuel
                                         l Underfloor heating - wet or electric
                                         l Warm air - gas, oil, electric
                                         l Ceiling heating - electric

                                    85                                            86




       Gas Room Heaters
l Old
l Modern - post 1970
l Condensing - rare
l With back boiler not doing rads




                                    87                                            88




                                    89                                            90




                                                                                       15
                                             Condensing
                                             lfe gas fire




                                        91                                             92




       Solid Fuel Heaters
l Open fire or closed room heater
l With or without a back boiler
l NB the back boiler does not do rads




                                        93                                             94




                                                    Main Heating Types
                                              l Boiler and radiators
                                              l Storage heaters
                                              l Room heaters - gas, solid fuel
                                              l Underfloor heating - wet or electric
                                              l Warm air - gas, oil, electric
                                              l Ceiling heating - electric

                                        95                                             96




                                                                                            16
                                          97                                             98




      Main Heating Types
l Boiler and radiators
l Storage heaters
l Room heaters - gas, solid fuel
l Underfloor heating - wet or electric
l Warm air - gas, oil, electric
l Ceiling heating - electric

                                          99                                            100




                                                     Main Heating Types
                                               l Boiler and radiators
                                               l Storage heaters
                                               l Room heaters - gas, solid fuel
                                               l Underfloor heating - wet or electric
                                               l Warm air - gas, oil, electric
                                               l Ceiling heating - electric

                                         101                                            102




                                                                                              17
                                           103                                              104




        Secondary Heating                               Secondary Heating
l Gas flame effect in fireplace                  l Gas flame effect in fireplace
l Gas flame effect in front of fireplace         l Gas flame effect in front of fireplace
l Other gas fires                                l Other gas fires
l Solid fuel open fire                           l Solid fuel open fire
l Solid fuel closed fire                         l Solid fuel closed fire
l Fixed electric heaters                         l Fixed electric heaters

                                           105                                              106




 Gas Flame Effect Fires




Flued                  Open to the chimney
                                           107                                              108




                                                                                                  18
        Controls in Zone 2                              Hot Water Systems
 l Credit is given for systems which give         l From boiler / main heating
   good time and temperature control in           l Dual immersion
   zone 2                                         l Single immersion (on- or off-peak)
 l How many storage radiators / rooms             l Electric instantaneous
 l How many TRVs                                  l Gas instantaneous single point
                                                  l Gas instantaneous multi point
                                                  l Kitchen range
                                            109   l Gas circulator                           110




           Cylinder Jacket                                   Cylinder Size
 l None                                           l Normal (80 - 130 litre)
 l Insulating jacket                              l Medium (130 - 170 litre)
 l Spray foam                                     l Large (more than 170 litre) E7 usually




Dual
Immersion




                                            113                                              114




                                                                                                   19
                                                     Single Immersion
                                            l Do not count it if it is simply a back-up
                                              for the central heating system
                                            l Usually fed from the on-peak supply but
                                              sometimes only has off-peak supply
                                              which is difficult to spot



                                     115                                             116




                                           Gas
        Hot Water Systems                  singlepoint
  l From boiler / main heating
  l Dual immersion
  l Single immersion
  l Single immersion (off-peak)
  l Gas instantaneous single point
  l Gas instantaneous multi point
  l Kitchen range
  l Gas circulator                   117                                             118




Gas                                        Kitchen
multipoint                                 Range
serves more
than one tap




                                     119                                             120




                                                                                           20
Gas
circulator                                 Hot Water Systems
                                     l From boiler / main heating
                                     l Dual immersion
                                     l Single immersion
                                     l Single immersion (off-peak)
                                     l Gas instantaneous single point
                                     l Gas instantaneous multi point
                                     l Kitchen range
                              121    l Gas circulator                   122




                                    Thermal
                                    Store

                                                                         BOILER

   Combi with thermal store                                              FLOW




                                           TO RADIATORS

                                                                        BOILER
                                                                        RETURN

                              123                                       124




CPSU

                                         Heating and Hot
             Pic of cpsu                 Water Systems
                                                     The End

                              125                                       126




                                                                                  21

				
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