Non Criteria Atmospheric Pollutants International Perspectives - PowerPoint

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					ORIGIN OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
VICTORIAN TIMES TO BATTERSEA POWER STATION
CONTROLLING AIR POLLUTION

   Legislative
      Extramurality, zoning, timing
      Fuel controls

   Technical
      Chimney heights
      Combustion controls – burn your own smoke
      Filters, traps etc
    BURN YOUR
    OWN SMOKE
 Benjamin
  Franklin advised
  Boulton and Watt
 Smoke as waste
  fuel (lost profit)
 Early attempts to
  control engine
  smoke ~1800
  Manchester
LANCASHIRE BOILER

 …and its skilled operation




 RAKE IT OVER
EMERGING SANITARY ACTS
    19th C PUBLIC HEALTH REFORM

 Huge transitions - portrayed heroically
  as individual determination: e.g in UK
  Chadwick, Farrar
 Preoccupation with sewers, housing,
  but smoke clauses
 Focussed on key professionals

          Sanitary or smoke inspectors weak and
          subordinate to Medical Officer
          ...focus on organic disease
     SANITARY OFFICERS
   1823 early inspectors in Manchester
                   Police Commissioners rarely
    found attentive and sober inspectors

   Town Improvement Clauses Act 1847
             authority to appoint a Medical Officer of
    Health and an Inspector of Nuisance

   1870's IoN and MOoH- throughout the
    country
       INSPECTOR OF NUISANCE
          Inspectors point out of nuisances and
           maintain a journal report to Health
           Committee
          Day to day implementation of sanitary policy
          1880's councils
                                      IoN a good man endowed with
           common sense
          Lack of status and requisite skills
                                      attracted men who had failed in
           other walks of life                          PROFESSIONALIZATION

P. BRIMBLECOMBE Origins of smoke inspection in Britain (circa 1900) Applied
Environmental Science & Public Health 1, 55-62 (2003)
P. BRIMBLECOMBE Emergence of the sanitary inspector, The Journal of the
Royal Society for the Promotion of Health,182-195 (2003)
       PROFESSIONALIZATION
           key characteristic of the development
                       of Public Health in the late 19th C
 Prof. Corfield 1885 lecture on Frontinus
 Blyth 1890 appropriate examination and
  assistantship
 MacMahon 1899 status of a sanitary officer ought
    to be that of a professional
 Smoke inspectors
 Specialization
      LO-NOx BURNER
   Key effect of temperature
    on the formation of NOx.
   Surface combustion/radiant
    tile burners produce levels
    60-70% less NOx.
   John Joyce John Joyce of
    Bowin Technology,
    Australia, pioneered use
    high temperature steel
    mesh
LOW NOX FURNACE
                  Controlling
                   temperature: mixing of
     FUEL          fuel and air is suppressed
                   at the initial stage of
                   combustion, and
                   combustion progresses
            AIR
                   gently.



                    SURF THOSE
                    SOUND WAVES!
    SCRUBBING
 Fine stream of water absorbs
  waste gases
 Expensive as you need an
  alkaline solution to absorb SO2

2NaOH + SO2  Na2SO3 + H2O
NEW ZEALAND SUGAR COMPANY
CHELSEA WORKS IN AUCKLAND
        SEAWATER AS A SCRUBBING FLUID
     Mid 20th C used the alkalinity of seawater as
      a cheap alternative
     2NaHCO3 + SO2  Na2SO3 + H2O + CO2


               CHIMNEY HEIGHT




   But lowers plume buoyancy
    SCRUBBING WITH LIMESTONE
                                                             s=solid
CaCO3(s) + SO2(g) → CaSO3(s) + CO2(g)                        g = gas
                                                             l=liquid

Can oxidize calcium sulphite to gypsum

CaSO3(s) + ½O2(g) + 2H2O(l) → CaSO4·2H2O(s)


      Problem is that very large quantities involved…


                   http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch08/final/c08s13.pdf
    WELLMAN-LORD PROCESS
Regenerative                         aq=aqueous
                                     g = gas
In scrubber                          l=liquid
Na2SO3(aq) + SO2(g) → 2NaHSO3(aq )


In Heater
2NaHSO3(aq ) → Na2SO3(aq) + SO2(g)
  SO2 - is converted to elemental sulphur,
   sulphuric acid or liquid SO2.
    FUELS
 Methanol – logic of a new fuel for
  automobiles
 Low volatility fuels
 Zero Pollution Vehicles
 Hybrid power cars




                       Leonardo di Caprio,
                       Billy Crystal,
                       Harrison Ford and Susan Sarandon
ALTERNATE     g/mile   H/C    CO    NOx
            gasoline 3.1      42    6.2
FUELS
            CNG        0.5    8.6   2.1

            LPG        0.45   1.0   1.1




            Data gathered in the
                  late 1980s…
GASES – LPG, NPG

 Low molecular weight compounds
 Sealed in a pressurised tank
 Wide adoption and especially for
  fleets of buses
        CATALYTIC CONVERTERS
   Three-way catalytic converter: platinum or rhodium on
    a ceramic or metallic base. Oxidises carbon monoxide
    to carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide
    and water and/or reduces oxides of nitrogen to
    nitrogen and oxygen gas.
   Conflicting chemical reactions require a lambda probe
    to measure the residual oxygen in exhaust and adjust
    engine fuel-air ratio
   Works at a fairly high
    temperature, so cold
    starts or stop start
    driving are a problem.
    FUEL VOLATILITY AND
    REFORMULATION
 Summertime commercial gasoline volatility
  reduced because VOC drives smog chemistry
 Reformulated gasoline (RFG) is gasoline
  blended to burn cleaner and reduce smog-
  precursors, particularly carbon monoxide
 RFG uses
   oxygenates MTBE
   and ethanol.
 Only mandated in
   severe ozone areas
    ASIA – MOTORCYCLES as in
    SOURCES Lecture
 Traditionally 2-stroke engines lots of organic
  matter and particles – with organic material
 Electric power
 Air power
            LEAN BURN
 Engines mix more air with the fuel when full
  power is not needed, resulting in better fuel
  economy.
 Engines fail strict NOx emission standards
 Lean mixtures won’t ignite easily: use stratified-
  charge approach and
  air-fuel ratio varies
  through cylinder
Mitsubishi Vertical Vortex lean-burn engine can
   achieve complete combustion with an air-fuel
   ratio as 25:1 whereas conventional engines
   require 14.7:1 and give 3% better fuel
   economy at 40km/h
    http://www.derestricted.net/cyborgr/info/
     DEVELOPING ROLES IN LOCAL
     GOVERNMENT
   1883- Sanitary Inspectors
      Association of Public Sanitary Inspectors
   1910- Sanitary Officers
      1921 Sanitary Officer formally recognised on passage
      of the Public Health (Officers) Act
 1950s- Public Health Inspector
 1970s- Environmental Health Officer
EXAMINATION SUCCESS
   1899-1909
Male 62% Female 70%
                        M

         M
M             M             only 3 fails!
                  M/F        F
    F
     WOMEN AND UNIFORMS

 Victorian ladies, novels, reform 1860s
 Women gain equal number of certificates
  ~1900
 Role beyond factories: could not climb ladders
 Marriage and family
 Women prevented from belonging SIA
 Health visitor role probably led to a reduction
  of status in early 20th C
    POST WWI

 Burning Bings- advocacy
 Taylor, John (1914-1992)
     Smoke Menace (1937)
 Gas and electricity

				
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