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					SAS/IML – Interactive Matrix Language
          March 23, 2005
           Presented by the
ITC Research Computing Support Group

      Kathy Gerber, Ed Hall, Katherine Holcomb,
            Tim F. Jost Tolson
  Finding Global Optima with the Genetic Algorithm/ Direct
 Search Toolbox, Wednesday, April 6, 3:30 PM
  Statistical Shape Analysis, Wednesday, April 20, 3:30 PM
  Objected Oriented Programming with Fortran 95, Wednesday,
 April 27, 3:30 PM
SAS Interactive Matrix Language

   Overview of SAS/IML
   Language nuts and bolts – sample programs
   IML Workshop 2.1
            Features of SAS/IML
   Is a programming language.
   Has has a complete set of control statements.
   Operates on matrices.
   Has a powerful vocabulary of operators.
   Can use operators that apply to entire matrices.
   Can be interactive.
   Is dynamic.
   Processes data.
   Can produce graphics.
            When to Use SAS/IML
   If SAS is currently your major tool for data analysis and
    quantitative research, then SAS/IML software as a programming
    language extends the capability of the existing environment.

   When an environment combining existing statistical/
    mathematical procedures and versatile programming capability is

   If a calculation is unavailable in SAS/STAT or Base SAS, write
    the core algorithm in an IML module.

   When additional flexibility and integration are required for tasks
    such as data acquisition, generation and transformation,
    obtaining and reusing results, and regular expression parsing.

   Matrix operations are not optimized.
   Base SAS, SAS/IML and SAS Macro languages
    differ syntactically.
   Limitations on data structures.
              With SAS/IML…
   You can access SAS data sets or external files
    with an extensive set of data processing
    commands for data input and output
   You can also edit existing SAS data sets or
    create new ones
   You can leverage familiar statistical procedures
    from within your code
        Numerical Functions and Algorithms
          Implemented with SAS/IML
   Many Base SAS functions are accessible from SAS/IML
   Subroutines for outlier detection and robust regression
   Kalman Filters
   Time Series Analysis
   Wavelet Analysis
   Genetic Algorithms – Experimental
   Sparse Matrices – Experimental
   Monte Carlo Simulation – see
        A Few Programs That Use SAS/IML
   Sample programs installed with your installation:
    Located in directory C:\Program Files\SAS\SAS 9.1\iml\sample

   Samples included in SAS Online Documentation for SAS/IML:

   A collection of SAS macro programs using SAS/IML software to generate, randomize
    and inspect orthogonal arrays for computer experiments and integration.

   SAS for Monte Carlo Studies: A Guide for Quantitative Researchers: By Xitao Fan,
    Akos Felsovalyi, Stephen A. Sivo, and Sean C. Keenan:

   Example for this talk:
      SAS Program:
      Data Set:

                                  Starting SAS program:
        SAS/IML Workshop 2.1
  SAS/IML Workshop is a graphical user interface
  and extension of SAS/IML software.
 Enables you to explore data interactively using
  standard statistical graphics and tables.
 Provides an integrated development
  environment for writing, debugging, and
  executing IML programs.
       Using IML Workshop, you can:
   Analyze data using interactive statistical graphics. IML Workshop
    provides bar charts, box plots, contour plots, histograms, line plots,
    mosaic plots, and two- and three-dimensional scatter plots.

   Execute SAS procedure steps from within your IMLPlus programs. This
    enables you to extend IML's capabilities with the power of SAS' analytic

   Develop interactive data analysis programs using dialog boxes.

   Call your own computational routines written in C, Fortran, or Java.
System Requirements and Download
    SAS/IML Workshop requires a PC running the Microsoft® Windows
     operating system - Windows 98/ME/NT4/2000/XP .
    First install SAS Release 8.2 or Release 9.1
    Sun Microsystems's Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version 1.4.1 or later
     must be installed. You can download the latest JRE from Sun's Java Web site:
    If you are using Windows 98, Microsoft DCOM98 version 1.3 must be
     installed. You can download DCOM98 1.3 from Microsoft's Web site:
    Pentium-compatible processor with a clock speed of 233 MHz or higher.
    Memory - A minimum of 64MB RAM is required; 128MB RAM or more is
    Hard disk requirements – 62MB required to install.
    Request download from
              Differences in IMLPlus
   The mechanism for mixing IML with DATA steps and other
    PROC steps is different in IMLPlus. Refer to the help topic
    Accessing SAS Functionality.

   IMLPlus programs do not require the statements proc iml or

   The following low-level graphics routines are not supported:
    display, gpie, gpiexy, gpoint, gpoly, gport, gportpop, gportstk,
    gscript, gset, gshow, gstart, gstop, gstrlen, gtext, gvtext, gwindow,
    gxaxis, gyaxis, and window. In their place IMLPlus provides
    high-level statistical graphics.
                    Starting IML Workshop:
   PROC/IML can be an ideal tool within an
    existing SAS context or for small to midsize
    independent numerical programming projects
   IML Workshop 2.1 is particularly handy for
    quick point-and-click interactive dynamic
    visualization of numerical data
   NOT “silver bullets” but useful tools

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