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					              CANNABIS


Renee Breen   Michaela Hodgson
               Overview
•   History
•   Science
•   Types
•   Effects
•   Therapeutic Use
•   Use in Sports
•   Legality
•   Conclusion
•   References
                         History
• Thousands of years ago
         – Used to make rope and clothing
         – Medicinally
• One of the oldest drugs in recorded history –
  dating back to 2700 B.C.
• Intoxicating, euphoric effects discovered in India
  in 1400 B.C.
• Isolation of THC in 1964 – Goani and Mechoulam
• Marijuana tax act (1937)
• Today – most widely used illicit drug
     • For its effects and addictive nature
     • For its medicinal uses
     • Brings us full circle from thousands of years ago
     Scientific Background
• C. sativa
    - > 400 chemicals
    - dry, crushed leaves & flowering tops

•   Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
•   CB1 receptor -> CNS & PNS
•   CB2 receptor -> Immune system
•   Anandamide and Sn-2 Arachidonylglycerol
    (2-AG)
       How it Works
                       Smoked Cannabis


                            Lungs


Blood Stream


               Brain


                       Stored in Fat


                                 Blood Stream


                                          Released in Urine
           Types of Cannabis
• Three different
  preparations :
•   Marijuana – average 5.2% THC
    - dry, crushed leaves and flowering
    tops
•   Hashish – 20 – 50% THC
     – resin of C. sativa plant in dried
       cakes
•   Hash Oil – approximately 80%
    THC
     – Dissolving hash in a solvent
       (acetone, alcohol, and butane)
     – vicious black liquid
                    Effects
• Short term:
 - euphoria, relaxation,
 intensification of ordinary sensory
 experiences
 - increased appetite
 - infectious laughter and
 talkativeness
 - impairment of short term
 memory, attention, motor skills,
 reaction time
 - increase heart rate
 - confusion, anxiety, fear
 - symptoms of schizophrenia (large
 doses)
                    Effects
• Long term:
  – chronic bronchitis
  – increased risk of lung
    cancer
  – Bloom et al. compared
    lung quality of smokers vs.
    non smokers
  – reduce in testosterone/
    sperm production (animal
    studies)
  – low birth weight
       Therapeutic Use
• Many historic uses of Cannabis
• Marinol
• Predominately use to treat:
  – Anorexia
  – Cancer patients
  – AIDS
• Oral tablets vs. smoked
• New method: Inhaler
                Use in Sport
•Work capacity diminished
•Banned by IOC (safety purposes)
•Relax and be loose before competition / after
intense workout
•Chait et al.
•No evidence PES
•Japan 1998 – Ross Rebagliati
                    Legality
• Marijuana is illegal in the
  United states and in Canada
     • Severity of punishment varies
       from province to province and
       state to state
     • Varies also on the country
• Banned by the International
  Olympic Committee and the
  WADA (only at the time of
  competition)
• Controversy over legality of
  medicinal use
               Conclusion
•Illegal in sport
•Legal status in recreational use varies from
country to country
•CB1 and CB2 receptors
•Diverse use in medicinal world – stimulating
appetite and reducing pain
•Not a performance enhancing supplement
•Long term use may cause bronchitis and/or
lung cancer
                       References
•   Bahrke, M.S., & Yesalis, C.E. (2002) Performance-Enhancing Substances in
    Sport and Exercise. Windsor, ON: Human Kinetics Publishers.
•   Tashkin, DR., Baldwin, GC., et al. Respiratory and Immunologic Consequences
    of marijuana smoking. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 42 (2002): 71-81.
•   Hall, W., Solowij, N. Adverse affects of Cannabis. The Lancet. 325 (1998): 1611-
    1616
•   Mechoulam, R. (2005) Cannaboids as Therapeutics. Basel, Switzerland:
    Birkhauser Verlag
•   Hollister, L.E., Health Aspects of Cannabis. American Society for
    Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 38 (1986): 1-20.
•   Hungund, B.L., Nowack, K.L., Vinod, K.Y. Pharmalogical Manipulation Of CB1
    Receptor Function Alters Development Of Tolerance To Alcohol. Oxford
    Journals. 41 (2005): 24-32