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Technical Writing Course - PowerPoint


									    Technical Writing Course
                  Prepared By

              Dr. Ali Maqousi

                  Room: 7304

        TW–   Document Types
• What are the standard document types?

              TW–   Document Types
Standard Document Types:

•   Memoranda
•   Agenda
•   Literature reviews
•   Reports
•   Letters
•   Proposals
•   Documentation
•   Instructions and procedures
•   thesis
•   Oral Presentations
•   Resumes

               TW–   Document Types

-   Proposals are used to identify a specific problem and states how it
    will be solved.

-   Organizations need proposals to continue their existence. In order to
    get fund or support you need to write a successful proposals.

-   Successful proposal demonstrates that the writer understands the
    scope of the problem (its background, theory, and application) and
    also that he has developed a valid and well-focused approach to
    reach proposed objectives.

-   Proposals may be written or oral, for government agencies or the
    private sector.

                      TW–       Document Types

A general structure of a proposal

-   Front matter
            Title page
            Table of Content
            List of figures and tables

-   Body
            Technical approach
            Management requirements
            Work plan

-   End matter

        TW–   Document Types
       Structure of a Proposal

- Body-   Introduction
    - Identify the problem, develop the context.
    - State the key technical issues.
    - State explicitly the objectives.

          TW–   Document Types
           Structure of a Proposal

- Body- Technical approach

     - Present a theoretical background (theory,
     analytical models, and previous work).
     - Present method and design to reach stated
     - State how data will be gathered and analyzed.

          TW–   Document Types
         Structure of a Proposal

- Body- Management requirements
Present the following information:
     - Time table.
     - Required facilities and resources.
     - Materials and equipments.
     - Personnel.

               TW–   Document Types

A report is a stand-alone document that transmits the results of a
   factual (truthful) inquiry to other parties.

Report’s audiences have a professional interest in the results, expert
  opinions, laboratory tests, policy issues, trips, and administrative
  details--anything of importance to the professional organization.

Reports typically follow a standard format:

        - Front matter.
        - Body.
        - End matter.

                TW–   Document Types

Reports may be internal or external, informal or formal.

-    Informal reports are circulated within a local environment.
-    The form of internal reports generally is a memoranda.
-    Informal reports often short and concern administrative and policy
     issues or perform the function of keeping others informed about your

Formal reports are generally tightly structured and extensively reviewed
   before they are released.

              TW–   Document Types

Examples of Reports:

•    Laboratory reports
•    Research reports
•    Research articles
•    Design and feasibility reports
•    Progress reports
•    Consulting reports
•    Trip reports

               TW–    Document Types
                       Laboratory Reports

A Laboratory Reports may be presented in a form of a brief

Laboratory report structure:

     - Header
     - Objective(s)
     - Result(s)
     - Experimental

Attached is an example of laboratory report.
See attached file

                    TW–     Document Types
                                        Research Reports

Research reports present the results of formal investigations into the properties,
   behavior, structures, and principles of material and conceptual entities.
Any physical phenomena or concept may be investigated in a research framework.

Formal research includes:

•    Problem Definition (the precise reduction of the inquiry to a narrow question with a
     quantifiable answer).

•    Research Approach (the structuring of the research according to a methodology associated
     with a specialized field of inquiry).

•    Research Report (the presentation of the research and its results in a strictly formatted
     document that follows a conventional structure).

             TW–   Document Types
                      Research Reports

Example of a Research Report format

• Front matter (Title, Abstract, TOC, LOF, & LOT).

• Body (Document’s Body may include the following sections:
         Introduction, Background, Theory, Design, Materials,
         Procedure, Work Plan, Results, Discussion, Conclusion ).

• End Matter (References, Appendixes, Indexes).
See example of a Research Report

                    TW–    Document Types
                                     Research Articles

•    In the following example of a research article, take note of these elements:

•    Front matter
           - Title
           - Abstract

•    Body
            - Introduction
            - Background
            - Theory
            - Experimental section
            - Results
            - Discussion
            - Conclusion

•  End matter
         - References and notes
Example of a research article is attached

             TW–   Document Types
                      Progress Report

• Project monitoring and accountability are the main objectives
  of progress reports.

• Progress report includes:

       - some summary of project’s goal,
       - states the progress made toward that goal during
                 reporting period,
       - discusses significant costs and scheduling issues,
       - lists future objectives to be carried out.

          TW–   Document Types
              Progress Report

• Progress report are used :
     - to maintain contact with sponsors ,
     - to inform funding organizations, government or
              commercial, of research workers’ work progress,
     - to report on work to managers ,
     - they are useful tools for management in keeping track of
              work progress in groups .

              TW–   Document Types
                Progress Report
• Format of Progress Reports

     - The general format of progress reports varies widely
     from an informal business letter giving an update on
     work accomplished to the highly detailed formal
     structure required by funding agencies at specified

                 TW–   Document Types
                        Progress Report
•    Format of Progress Reports

     The sequence of information is often as follows:

     -     Front matter. (Project title, funding source, contract number, funding
     period, report date, research organization, and funded staff )

     -     Body. (Project summary, overview, report of progress, problems (cost
     or schedule issues), future work )

     -    End matter. (References, attachments )

See an example of a progress report.

             TW–   Document Types
                      Trip Report
• Trip reports are a common part of organizational communication.

• They generally follow the format of a memorandum, addressed to
  one or more members of a group of associates.

• They should include:
      - the reason for the trip,
      - what was found,
      - one or more conclusions .

             TW–   Document Types
                       Trip Report
Trip-report’s elements are:

     -   Memo Heading
     -   Purpose statement.
     -   Topics.
     -   Recommendations.
     -   Distribution list.

See an example of a trip report

           TW–   Document Types
               Literature Review
- Literature review summarizes existing printed or
  electronic information on a specific subject.

- Literature review may be a self-contained document or it
  may be a section of a larger report.

- The audience’s purpose and their level of expertise
  determine the amount, scope and density of information
  to be included in the literature review.

            TW–   Document Types
               Literature Review
- Literature reviews inform colleagues and managers of
  current information on a subject .

- Literature reviews provide only crucial information for
  current projects (prevent needless duplication) .

- Literature reviews also can inform both managers and
  team members about the costs, trade-offs, and efficacy
  of existing solutions to a particular technical problem.

                TW–   Document Types
                     Literature Review
     Use the following suggestions to create a Literature review:

          - Begin with an Introduction (gives reader the context and
            scope of a specific topic).
          - Make the review as concise as possible and eliminate
            unessential material.
          - End a literature review with a conclusion that summarizes
            the information that is most important to the reader.

                TW–   Document Types
                     Literature Review
     Use the following suggestions to create a Literature review:

          - Cite all references in an appropriate format, and include all
            sources in a bibliography at the end of a document.
          - Organize a literature review either chronologically or by
            dividing the topic into subtopics and then presenting the
            subtopics in order of importance, starting with most important

            TW–   Document Types


              TW–   Document Types
                    Literature Review
     Summaries and abstracts are short restatements of
     another document.

         A summary restates major findings, conclusions,
     and support data found in a document.

          An abstract is generally a short version of a journal

             TW–   Document Types
               Literature Review
     An Abstract is either descriptive or informative.

In a descriptive abstract emphasis is placed on the
   problem and method. (example conference paper
   proposals and progress reports)

In informative abstract care is given to provide
   information on the results and conclusions of the project.

                 TW–   Document Types
                        Literature Review
     Abstracts’ audiences:

     -     They are read by parties who are trying to decide whether or not to
     read the main document.
     -     Sometimes they are read by people who want to get the big picture
     before reading the main document.

     Summaries’ audiences:

     -     They are directed to readers--generally managerial--who will not read
     -     An executive summary that may be read in place of longer document.

                TW–   Document Types
                        Literature Review
     Planning Summaries:

     In order to plan for an abstract or a summary you need to

     -    Use Basic Summarizing Strategies
     -    Choose an Organization
     -    Use the Usual Form

                TW–   Document Types
                       Literature Review
Planning Summaries:

     Use Basic Summarizing Strategies:
     perform two activities:

     -    Read to find the main terms and concepts (divisions, key
     statements, overall purpose, main ideas, and key terms).

     -   Decide how much detail to include (consider audience’s

                TW–   Document Types
                      Literature Review
Planning Summaries:

     Choose an Organization:
     There are two strategies for organizing a summary:

     -   Proportional reduction

     -   Main point followed by support

                TW–   Document Types
                       Literature Review
Planning Summaries:

     Use the Usual Form:
     The usual form of summaries has the following characteristics:
     -     Length for an abstract 75 - 150 words, for summary 10% - 25%
     of original document.
     -     Verbs in the active voice and present tense.
     -     No terms, abbreviations, or symbols unfamiliar to the reader.
     -     Main points first (the first sentence usually gives the purpose of
     the report or the main findings; support follows).


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