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									Laudon & Laudon MIS, 7th Edition. Pg. 12.1

  HTM304: Management Information
                                                          LEARNING OBJECTIVES
            Systems
                                                     • EXPLAIN ORGANIZATIONAL
                                                       KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
 MANAGING KNOWLEDGE: KNOWLEDGE                       • DESCRIBE USEFUL APPLICATIONS FOR
 WORK AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE                      DISTRIBUTING, CREATING, SHARING
                                                       KNOWLEDGE
                                                     • EVALUATE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL
                   April 15, 2003                      INTELLIGENCE IN
                                                          KNOWLEDGE
                     Oliver Yao
                                                          MANAGEMENT
                                                                        *




                                                      KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN
        LEARNING OBJECTIVES
                                                         THE ORGANIZATION
  • DEMONSTRATE HOW ORGANIZATIONS                    • Systematically & actively managing and
    USE EXPERT SYSTEMS, CASE-BASED
                        CASE-                          leveraging stores of knowledge in an
    REASONING TO CAPTURE KNOWLEDGE                     organization
  • DEMONSTRATE HOW NEURAL                           • Organizational learning mechanisms are
    NETWORKS & OTHER TECHNIQUES                        processes to create, gather, store,
    IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE BASE                             maintain, disseminate knowledge
                          *                          • Substantial use of info technology
                                                       enhances ability to sense, respond to
                                                       environment




  KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE                            KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT &
         ORGANIZATION                                    INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
                                                                SHARE                     DISTRIBUTE
    •   Office Automation Systems (OAS)             NETWORKS
                                                                KNOWLEDGE                KNOWLEDGE
                                                                                                       PROCESSORS
    •   Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)
                                                                        GROUP         OFFICE
    •   Group Collaboration Systems (GCS)                           COLLABORATION
                                                                       SYSTEMS
                                                                                    AUTOMATION
                                                                                     SYSTEMS

    •   Artificial Intelligence Applications (AI)
                              *                                        ARTIFICIAL   KNOWLEDGE
                                                                     INTELLIGENCE     WORK
                                                    DATABASES           SYSTEMS      SYSTEMS            SOFTWARE

                                                                CAPTURE,
                                                                CODIFY                      CREATE
                                                                KNOWLEDGE                KNOWLEDGE
Laudon & Laudon MIS, 7th Edition. Pg. 12.2
 OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
                                                         OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
    MANAGING DOCUMENTS:                                           SCHEDULING:

 •   CREATION                                           FOR INDIVIDUALS & GROUPS:
 •   STORAGE                                            • ELECTRONIC CALENDARS
 •   RETRIEVAL                                          • GROUPWARE
 •   DISSEMINATION                                      • INTRANETS
 •   TECHNOLOGY: Word processing, desktop                                  *
     publishing, document imaging, Web
     publishing, work flow managers
                         *




 OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS                              OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
            COMMUNICATING:                                      MANAGING DATA:

 INITIATING, RECEIVING, MANAGING:                       EMPLOYEES, CUSTOMERS, VENDORS:
 • VOICE                                                • DESKTOP DATABASES
 • DIGITAL                                              • SPREADSHEETS
 • DOCUMENTS                                              USER-
                                                        • USER-FRIENDLY INTERFACES TO
 • TECHNOLOGY: E-mail, voice mail, digital                MAINFRAME DATABASES
   answering systems, GroupWare, intranets                                *
                     *




OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS                                     CREATE KNOWLEDGE
          MANAGING DATA:                                     KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS:

 • DOCUMENT IMAGING SYSTEMS: Systems
   convert documents, images into digital form (e.g.:     INFORMATION SYSTEMS THAT
   optical character recognition; microfiche)             AID KNOWLEDGE WORKERS TO
 • JUKEBOX: Storage & retrieving device for CD-
                                              CD-         CREATE, INTEGRATE NEW
   ROMs & other optical disks
                                                          KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANIZATION
 • INDEX SERVER: Imaging system to store / retrieve
   document                                                             *
                          *
Laudon & Laudon MIS, 7th Edition. Pg. 12.3

                                                              CREATE KNOWLEDGE
      KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS                                      KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS:

       INFORMATION WORK: Work consists primarily of      • CAD/CAM: Computer Aided
         creating, processing information
                                                           Design/Computer Aided
       DATA WORKERS: People who process &
                                                              Manufacturing: Provides
         disseminate organization’s paperwork
                                                              precise control over industrial
       KNOWLEDGE WORKERS: People
         who design products or services or create new
                                                              design, manufacturing
         knowledge for organization                      • VIRTUAL REALITY: Interactive
                                 *                            software creates photorealistic
                                                           simulations of real world objects
                                                              (Virtual Reality Modeling
                                                                          VRML)
                                                              Language: VRML)
                                                                                *




        CREATE KNOWLEDGE                                       SHARE KNOWLEDGE
             KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS:                             GROUP COLLABORATION SYSTEMS:

  • INVESTMENT WORKSTATIONS:                             • GROUPWARE: Allows interactive
       High-
       High-end PCs used in finance                        collaboration, approval of documents
       to analyze trading situations,
       facilitate portfolio management                   • INTRANETS: Good for relatively stable
                                                           information in central repository
                          *
                                                         • TEAMWARE: Group collaborative software
                                                           to customize team efforts
                                                                              *




                                                         AI
      CAPABILITIES OF GROUPWARE                                     ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
                                                                    (AI) SYSTEMS:
  •   PUBLISHING, REPLICATION
  •   DISCUSSION TRACKING
                                                             COMPUTER-
                                                         AI: COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS
  •   DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT
                                                          WITH ABILITIES TO LEARN
  •   WORK-
      WORK-FLOW MANAGEMENT                                LANGUAGE, ACCOMPLISH TASKS,
  •   SECURITY                                            USE PERCEPTUAL APPARATUS,
  •   PORTABILITY                                         EMULATE HUMAN EXPERTISE &
  •   APPLICATION                                         DECISION MAKING
         DEVELOPMENT                                                      *
                    *
Laudon & Laudon MIS, 7th Edition. Pg. 12.4

 AI                       L
                A IF A M I Y                                  AI          BUSINESS INTERESTS
                                                                          IN AI

                         ARTIFICIAL
                                                              • PRESERVE EXPERTISE
                       INTELLIGENCE                           • CREATE KNOWLEDGE BASE
  NATURAL              PERCEPTIVE      EXPERT   INTELLIGENT
                                                              • MECHANISM NOT SUBJECT TO
            ROBOTICS
 LANGUAGE               SYSTEMS       SYSTEMS    MACHINES       FEELINGS, FATIGUE, WORRY, CRISIS
                                                              • ELIMINATE ROUTINE / UNSATISFYING
                                                                JOBS
                                                              • ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE BASE
                                                                                *




 AI                EXPERT SYSTEMS
                                                              AI                EXPERT SYSTEMS

                                                              • KNOWLEDGE BASE: Model of Human
      KNOWLEDGE - INTENSIVE                                     Knowledge
     CAPTURES HUMAN EXPERTISE                                 • RULE - BASED EXPERT SYSTEM : AI
       IN LIMITED DOMAINS OF                                    system based on IF - THEN statements
             KNOWLEDGE                                          (Bifurcation); Rule Base: Collection of IF -
                                                                THEN knowledge
                 *                                                              FRAMES:
                                                              • KNOWLEDGE FRAMES: Knowledge
                                                                organizes in chunks based on shared
                                                                relationships
                                                                                     *




 AI                    EXPERT SYSTEMS                         AI            EXPERT SYSTEMS
                                                                                 EXAMPLES:
  • AI SHELL: Programming environment of                      • BLUE CROSS BLUE SHIELD:
    expert system                                               Automated medical underwriting
  • INFERENCE ENGINE: Search through rule                       system
    base
                                                              • COUNTRYWIDE FUNDING CORP.:
     – FORWARD CHAINING: Uses input;
                                                                Loan underwriting expert system
       searches rules for answer
     – BACKWARD CHAINING: Begins with                         • UNITED NATIONS: Employee salary
       hypothesis, seeks information until                      calculations
       hypothesis accepted or rejected                                          *
                           *
Laudon & Laudon MIS, 7th Edition. Pg. 12.5

 AI           EXPERT SYSTEMS
                  LIMITATIONS:
                                             AI      CASE - BASED
                                                     REASON (CBR)

  • Often reduced to problems of             AI USES DATABASE OF CASES:
    classification                           • USER DESCRIBES PROBLEM
  • Can be large, lengthy, expensive         • SYSTEM SEARCHES DATABASE
  • Maintaining knowledge base critical        FOR SIMILAR CASES
  • Many managers unwilling to trust         • SYSTEM ASKS MORE QUESTIONS
    such systems                             • FINDS CLOSEST FIT
                      *                      • MODIFIED AS REQUIRED
                                                             *




 AI             OTHER APPROACHES


  • NEURAL NETWORKS: Software attempts
    to emulate brain processes
  • FUZZY LOGIC: Tolerates ambiguity using
    nonspecific MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS
  • GENETIC ALGORITHMS: Use models of
    organisms to promote evolution of
    solution
  • HYBRID AI SYSTEMS: Combinations
                        *

								
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