"Marketing Research; Product Conceptualisation"
The impact of scents on product perceptions 2 illustrations in notebook and underwear categories Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Maître de Conférences en Sciences de Gestion IUT GEA Toulon - Université du Sud Toulon Var Barcelone, le 21 octobre 2008 Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Sequences of communication 1. Research context 2. Problematic and research questions 3. Conceptual framework of the research 4. Experimental design 5. Results and analysis 6. Conclusion Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 1. All perfumed ? A phenomena … … debatable • Applications : the choice to perfume a product only because « It smells good » … • Theories : no scientific evidence to prove the impact of scents on attitude and consumers behaviour Does it make sense to use scents in a marketing context ? Role of scents in positioning product ? Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Positioning product • Product definition – A set of tangible attributes – A promise delivered to consumer • Product is not what it is but what it does for consumer – Consumer perception approach – Perception as the way the consumer combine and organise technical attributes in a pertinent and meaningfull way for him/her Product benefit Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Product Process perception Product : set Sensory receptors of structured data •Tangibles attributes •Selective attention •Intagibles Attention / attributes Selection •Perceptual defense •Thought schemas Product : Interpretation / Organisation reorganisation •Abilities and of data in motivation to process •Fonctional benefit •Hedonist Signification / benefit Conceptualisatio •Expectations Laure Jacquemier-Paquin n Perception singularities & Marketing implications • Features caracteristics of perception : – selective – Subjective and personal – simpliflying & distorting • Marketing implications in positioning : – Various representations – The task of the marketer is then to identify signals which catch the attention and which converge together towards a single representation of the product, precisely that the marketer intended to develop Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 2. Problematic and research questions • Is the olfactory data playing a significant role in perception process, or to a lesser degree ? • If yes, how scents would contribute to this process of attribution of significance to the product ? • Can they encourage the consumer to perceive product precisely the way marketer anticipated to be ? • Can they assist marketer in positioning product ? Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 2. Problematic and research questions Persuasive role of scent in the perception process of the product Bases of this postulate : Richness of associations of the odor Salience of scent Ability to catch the attention Odor like inductive element, even coordinator of the message? Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 2. Problematic and research questions Objectives of research : 1. Changing perception of the product induced by the perception of the odor 2. Two mechanisms of persuasion according to the orientation given by the smell and its apprehension mode (emotional or cognitive) Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 3. Conceptual framework of research Possibilities of associations of scent with one specific feature of the product, tangible (fonctional) or intangible (symbolic) Product X Utility utility Product beliefs benefit attitude Scent (2) Smell 1 (tangible charact.) Hedonist / Smell 2 Product Symbolic (intangible image attitude beliefs charact. ) benefit Psychological profil of consumer : Involvement, Familiarity, Need of cognition, affective intensity, optimal level of stimulation Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 4. Methodology research Selection of materials Choice of tested 4 categories selected : Notebook, products inderwear, paper towel, bag dustbin Desk research Larger variety of the subjective impressions for the books and Qualitative study (17 scented underclothing semi-directives interviews) Selection on the basis of what the Choice of tested scents odors must bring to the product. Underware (SG) Notebook Focus group with experts Functional Washing Wood (Quinte & Sens) liquid symbolic Cuddly Tea Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 4. Methodology research Study and measurement of perceptions of the scented product Product-odor couples Variation of perceptions according to the conditions of Exploratory qualitative study smell (32 interviews) Formulation of assumptions Construction of measuring Pretests scales scales Test of assumptions Random assignment with a Quantitative causal situation of odor study Variance analyzis between (264 U ; 255 NB) group Quantitative study Study of dimensions of the odors odor Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 5. Results and analysis Test of assumptions 2 scents situations Pleasant to Resistance comfort/main Solidity / 1 non-scented carry (p=,000) book tenance /function Attitude (p=,002) (p=,001) (p=,014) NOTEBOOK (nb) 1- Wood 2- Tea Pleasant to Development Pleasure with Image Attitude UNDERWEAR write chest the writing femininity (p=,000) 1- Washing (p=,005) (ns) (ns) 2- « Cuddly » Level of Excitation (Emotional Intensity) (scent X OSL p=,024) • Absence of constancy or balance in the results No systematic positive effect on perceptions Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 5. Results and analysis Lessons learned In support of a credible belief (Pleasant to carry, Resistance book, Pleasure of writing) but not creation of any beliefs of its own (Image) In reinforcement of a belief difficult to evaluate (Comfort, Pleasure of writing) but not useful in the contrary case (Image, Attracted Book) The odor, as a key of interpretation, must be easy to evaluate in which case (cuddly), unfavourable evaluation of the components which it is intended to support (Image, Attitude) Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 5. Results and Analysis What make the choice of a scent more effective than another one? Product-odor couple Clear and convincing configuration Complexity degree •Accessibles •Important believes •Uncredible belief •Pertinentes •Hard to estimate •Easy to treat •Easy to treat Smell Liquid Wood •Accessible Product Tea •Pertinente Cuddl •Complex y Product •All signals lead to the •Interference in signals same position •Defective •Clear argumentation argumentation Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 6. Conceptual gain • Consider scents in the register of the representations – Semiotic function of scent – Prevalence of symbolic and semantic qualities on hedonist nature of the odor • Articulation of two modes of action of the odor in regard to sensitive profile Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 6. Methodology gain • Possibility of control and measurement of the olfactive phenomena – Complementarity of the modes of reading of the odor : naive and experts – Complementarity of collect methods : qualitative and quantitative, comparative and monadic – Indirect measurement of the role of the odor : multi- sensory approach Laure Jacquemier-Paquin 6. Operational gain • Effective and measured role in promoting expected benefit • Tool of assistance on the three levels of positioning : aimed, built and perceived Marketer Consumer To state a clear benefit, convincing To perceive reliable indices Odor = Argument To maximize the Odor = Reference mark persuasive force of the To simplify the treatment message Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Conclusion – Prudence ! • Limits to any research • Scent could not influence attitude formation : attempt of manipulation ? • It’s not possible to change the reality of product thanks to the odor. We will be able only to – consolidate the representation that the consumer made of it – support credibility, the importance and the clearness of a real promise through the odor. Laure Jacquemier-Paquin Thank you for your attention Laure Jacquemier-Paquin