PHD research

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					    Research Process and Methods
1. Introduction
2. Definition of Research
3. Research Process
4. Research Methods
5. Research Publishing
6. Other Types of Researches
7. Concluding Remarks
                                   1
            1. Introduction

 As of July 2008,
  the program of
  Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology
  at Assumption University
  is the first and the only such program
  in the world.



                                           2
3
 CIDE Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology
  established with emphasis on research.
 The Ph.D. Research
  must be original and significant.
 It is not acceptable to be
  - original but not significant
  - not original but significant

                                           4
         Introduction (Cont.)

 At least one research paper must be
  published in a refereed publication of
  - ACM
    (Association for Computing Machinery)
  - IEEE (Institute of Electrical and
    Electronic Engineers)
  - Other learned societies
    at the same level as ACM and IEEE

                                        5
         Introduction (Cont.)

 As of July 2008,
  the field of eLearning
  is still rather virgin
  in the sense that
  not many Ph.D.-level researches
  have been carried out.



                                    6
         Introduction (Cont.)

 A Ph.D. candidate in eLearning
  Methodology may do research in
  - Hardware for eLearning
  - Software for eLearning
  - Network for eLearning
  - Security for eLearning



                                   7
         Introduction (Cont.)

- Management of eLearning
- Human Resource in eLearning
- Marketing of eLearning
- Finance of eLearning




                                8
           Introduction (Cont.)

- Best Practices in eLearning
- eLearning Degree Programs
- Corporate eLearning
- Support of eLearning
- eLearning Technology




                                  9
           Introduction (Cont.)

- Course Delivery
- Interactive Group Learning
- Collaborative Learning
- Accessible eLearning
- Courseware Design and Production




                                     10
           Introduction (Cont.)

- Conformance and Standards
- Usability and Evaluation Framework
- Multilingual Contents
- Shared Resources
- Learning Management Systems




                                       11
           Introduction (Cont.)

- Knowledge On-Demand
- Quality Assurance
- Interoperability eLearning
- Principles and Practices
- Theories of Learning and eLearning




                                       12
           Introduction (Cont.)

- Psychological Theories of eLearning
- Experiences and Lessons Learned
- eLearning Design Approaches
- Any other related topics




                                        13
        2. Definition of Research

From “en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research”,
 Research is human activity
  based on intellectual applications
  in the investigation of matter.
 Research may be classified as:
  - Basic Research
  - Applied Research



                                         14
           2.1 Basic Research

 Basic Research also be called
  - Fundamental Research
  - Pure Research
 Basic Research is research in which the
  primary objectives are:
  - The advancement of knowledge
  - The theoretical understanding
    of the relation among variables


                                            15
     Definition of Research (Cont.)

 Basic Research is:
  - Exploratory
  - Driven by researcher’s:
    * Curiosity
    * Interest
    * Intuition
 Basic Research is conducted without any
  practical end in mind.


                                            16
    Definition of Research (Cont.)

 Basic Research may have unexpected
  practical applications.
 Basic Research may become the foundation
  for Applied Research.




                                             17
          2.2 Applied Research

 Applied Research has the primary aim of:
  - Discovering
  - Interpreting
  - Development
  of methods and systems
  for advancement of human knowledge
  on wide variety of scientific matters
  of the world and the universe.


                                             18
         3. Research Process

3.1 Scientific Research Process


3.2 Historical Research Process




                                  19
3.1 Scientific Research Process

  Scientific Research process
   may vary depending on:
   - The subject matter
   - The researcher




                                  20
Scientific Research Process (Cont.)

 Most formal research, either basic or applied,
 may follow the steps below:
 1) Formation of the topic
 2) Hypothesis
 3) Conceptual definitions
 4) Operational definitions




                                                  21
Scientific Research Process (Cont.)

 5) Gathering of data
 6) Analysis of data
 7) Test, revising of hypothesis (if necessary)
 8) Conclusion
    or repeat all the steps if necessary




                                                  22
Scientific Research Process (Cont.)

  It should be noted that:
   - A hypothesis is established
     to make prediction
   - A hypothesis is tested
     by observing the outcome
     of experiment or survey




                                      23
Scientific Research Process (Cont.)

 - If the outcome is not consistent
   with the hypothesis,
   the hypothesis is rejected.
 - If the outcome is consistent
   with the hypothesis,
   the hypothesis is accepted
   (the hypothesis is not proven
   but is supported by the experiment or survey).


                                                    24
3.2 Historical Research Process

  The historical method is the techniques
   and guidelines for historians
   to use historical sources and other evidences
   to research and then to write history.
  For Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology,
   a historical research is usually not acceptable.




                                                  25
Historical Research Process (Cont.)

 Most historical research process
 may follow the steps below:
 1) Identification of origin date
 2) Evidence of localization
 3) Recognition of authorship
 4) Analysis of data
 5) Identification of integrity
 6) Attribution of credibility

                                      26
           4. Research Methods

From “en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research”,
 The goal of the research process
   is to produce new knowledge,
   which takes three main forms:
   1) Exploratory research: which structures
      and identifies new problems
   2) Constructive research:
     which develops solutions to a problem
   3) Empirical research:
     which tests the feasibility of a solution
      using empirical evidence
                                                 27
        Research Methods (Cont.)

 Research can also fall into two distinct types:
  - Primary research
  - Secondary research




                                                    28
       Research Methods (Cont.)

 Primary research is also called field research
  involves the collection of data
  that does not already exist.
 There are numerous forms including:
   - questionnaires
   - telephone interviews
 Primary research
  is widely used in market research
  and competitive intelligence.


                                                   29
       Research Methods (Cont.)

 It may be very expensive
  because many people need to be confronted.
 By the time the research is complete it may be
  out of date.
 People may have to be employed
  or avoid their primary duties
  for the duration of the research.
 People may not reply if emails
  or letters are used.

                                                   30
        Research Methods (Cont.)

 Secondary research
  is also known as desk research.
 It involves the summary, collation
  and/or synthesis of existing research
  rather than primary research,
  where data is collected from, for example,
  research subjects or experiments.



                                               31
       Research Methods (Cont.)

 Secondary research
  is widely used in:
  - market research
  - medical research
 The principle methodology
  in medical secondary research
  is the systematic review.



                                  32
        Research Methods (Cont.)

 Systematic review
  is commonly using
  meta-analytic statistical techniques,
  although other methods of synthesis,
  like realist reviews and meta-narrative reviews,
  have been developed in recent years.




                                                     33
       Research Methods (Cont.)

 Research methods used by scholars include:
  1) Action research
  2) Cartography
  3) Case study
  4) Classification
  5) Citation Analysis




                                               34
Research methods (Cont.)


  6) Consumer ethnocentrism
  7) Content or Textual Analysis
  8) Delphi method
  9) Ethnography
 10) Experience and intuition
 11) Experiments
 12) Interviews



                                   35
Research methods (Cont.)


 13) Mathematical models
 14) Participant observation
 15) Q methodology
 16) Questionnaires
 17) Simulation
 18) Statistical analysis
 19) Statistical surveys


                               36
        Research methods (Cont.)

 Action research
  is a reflective process of progressive problem
  solving led by individuals
  to improve the way they address issues
  and solve problems.




                                                   37
        Research methods (Cont.)

 Cartography or mapmaking
  is the study and practice
  of making representations
  of the Earth on a flat surface.




                                    38
       Research methods (Cont.)

 In Case Study,
  rather than using large samples
  and following a rigid protocol
  to examine a limited number of variables,
  the method involves an in-depth,
  longitudinal examination of a single instance
  or event a case.



                                                  39
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Classification or Categorization
  is the process in which ideas and objects
   are recognized, differentiated and understood.
 Categorization implies that objects
   are grouped into categories,
   usually for some specific purpose.




                                                40
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Ideally, a category illuminates
  a relationship between
  the subjects and objects of knowledge
 Categorization is fundamental in:
  - language
  - prediction
  - inference
  - decision making
  - all kinds of environmental interaction



                                             41
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Citation analysis is the examination
  of the frequency and pattern of citations
  in articles and books.
 Citation is used in scholarly works
  to establish links to other works
  or other researchers.
  It is the most common method
  of bibliometrics


                                              42
        Research methods (Cont.)

 Consumer ethnocentrism
  is derived from the more general psychological
  concept of ethnocentrism.
 Basically, ethnocentric individuals tend to view
  their group as superior to others.
  As such, they view other groups
  from the perspective of their own,
  and reject those which are different
  while accepting those which are similar.



                                                 43
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Content analysis
  is sometimes called textual analysis.
 Content analysis is a standard methodology
  in the social sciences
  for studying the content of communication.




                                               44
        Research methods (Cont.)

 Earl Babbie defined as
  “the study of recorded human
  communications, such as books, websites,
  paintings and laws."
 It is also a scholarly methodology
   in the humanities
   by which texts are studied as to authorship,
   authenticity, or meaning.
   This latter subject include philology,
   hermeneutics, and semiotics.
                                                  45
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Delphi is based on the principle
  that forecasts from a structured group
  of experts are more accurate
  than those from unstructured groups
  or individuals.




                                           46
       Research methods (Cont.)

 The technique can be adapted
   for use in face-to-face meetings,
   and is then called mini-Delphi
   or Estimate-Talk-Estimate (ETE).
 Delphi has been widely used
  for business forecasting
  and has certain advantages
  over another structured forecasting approach,
  and prediction markets.

                                              47
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Ethnography presents the results
  of a holistic research method
  founded on the idea that a system’s properties
  cannot necessarily be accurately understood
  independently of each other.




                                               48
        Research methods (Cont.)

 The genre has both formal and historical
   connections to travel writing and colonial
   office reports.
 Several academic traditions, in particular
  the constructivist and relativist paradigms,
  employ ethnographic research
  as a crucial research method.
 Many cultural anthropologists consider
  ethnography the essence of the discipline
                                                 49
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Experience as a general concept
  comprises knowledge of or skill in
  or observation of some thing
  or some event gained through involvement
  in or exposure to that thing or event.
 The history of the word experience
  aligns it closely
  with the concept of experiment.


                                             50
       Research methods (Cont.)

 In scientific inquiry,
  an experiment is a method of investigating
  particular types of research questions
  or solving particular types of problems.
 The experiment is a cornerstone
  in the empirical approach
  to acquiring deeper knowledge
  about the world
  and is used in both natural sciences
  as well as in social sciences.


                                               51
       Research methods (Cont.)

An experiment is defined, in science,
 as a method of investigating
 less known fields,
 solving practical problems,
 proving theoretical assumptions




                                         52
       Research methods (Cont.)

 An interview is a conversation
  between two or more people
  (the interviewer and the interviewee)
  where questions are asked
  by the interviewer to obtain information
  from the interviewee.




                                             53
         Research methods (Cont.)
 A mathematical model
  uses mathematical language
  to describe a system.
 Mathematical models are used particularly
  in the natural sciences and engineering
  disciplines, such as:
  - physics
  - biology
  - meteorology
  - electrical engineering but also in the social sciences
 (such as economics, sociology and political science);
 physicists, engineers, computer scientists, and
 economists use mathematical models most extensively.

                                                             54
       Research methods (Cont.)

Mathematical models
  are also in the social sciences, such as:
  - economics
  - sociology
  - political science
 Physicists, Engineers, Computer Scientists,
  and Economists use mathematical models
  most extensively.




                                                55
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Eykhoff defined a mathematical model
   as a representation of the essential aspects
   of an existing system
   (or a system to be constructed)
   which presents knowledge of that system
   in usable form.
 Mathematical models can take many forms,
  including but not limited to dynamical systems,
  statistical models, differential equations,
  or game theoretic models.
                                                56
       Research methods (Cont.)

 These and other types of models can overlap,
  with a given model
  involving a variety of abstract structures.




                                                 57
         Research methods (Cont.)

 Participant observation is a set of research strategies
  which aim to gain a close and intimate familiarity
  with a given group of individuals, such as:
  - religious
  - occupational
  - subcultural group
  - particular community
  - practices
  through an intensive involvement with people
  in their natural environment,
  often though not always
  over an extended period of time.
                                                            58
        Research methods (Cont.)

The method originated
 in field work of social anthropologists,
 especially Bronisław Malinowski
 and his students in Britain,
 the students of Franz Boas in the US,
 and in the urban research
 of the Chicago School of sociology.



                                            59
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Q Methodology is a research method
  used in psychology and other social sciences
  to study people’s “subjectivity”
  -- that is, their viewpoint.
 Q was developed by psychologist
  William Stephenson.
  It has been used both in clinical settings
  for assessing patients, as well as
  in research settings
  to examine how people think about a topic.
                                                 60
       Research methods (Cont.)

The name “Q”
  comes from the form of factor analysis
  that is used to analyze the data.
 Normal factor analysis, called “R method”
   involves finding correlations
   between variables (say, height and age)
   across a sample of subjects.



                                              61
        Research methods (Cont.)

 A questionnaire is a research instrument
  consisting of a series of questions
  and other prompts for the purpose of
  gathering information from respondents.
 Although they are often designed
  for statistical analysis of the responses,
  this is not always the case.
  The questionnaire was invented
   by Sir Francis Galton.
 Questionnaires are used by sociologists,
   and positivists prefer closed questions.
                                               62
        Research methods (Cont.)

 Simulation is the imitation of some real thing,
  state of affairs, or process.
 The act of simulating something generally
  entails representing certain key characteristics
  or behaviours of a selected physical
  or abstract system.




                                                63
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Statistics is a mathematical science
  pertaining to the collection, analysis,
  interpretation or explanation,
  and presentation of data.
 It is applicable to a wide variety
  of academic disciplines,
  from the natural and social sciences
  to the humanities, government and business.


                                                64
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Statistical surveys
  are used to collect quantitative information
  about items in a population.
 Surveys of human populations
  and institutions are common
  in political polling and government, health,
  and social science and marketing research.



                                                 65
       Research methods (Cont.)

 A survey may focus on opinions
  or factual information
  depending on its purpose, and many surveys
  involve administering questions to individuals.




                                                66
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Questions are administered
   by a researcher,
   the survey is called a structured interview
   or a researcher-administered survey.
 Questions are administered by the respondent,
  the survey is referred to as a questionnaire
  or a self-administered survey.



                                              67
       Research methods (Cont.)

 Research is often conducted
  using the hourglass model.
 The hourglass model
  starts with a broad spectrum for research,
  focusing in on the required information
  through the methodology of the project
  (like the neck of the hourglass),
  then expands the research
  in the form of discussion and results.



                                               68
         5. Research Publishing

 Academic publishing
  describes a system that is necessary
  in order for academic scholars
  to peer review the work
  and make it available for a wider audience.
 The “system”, which is probably disorganized
  enough not to merit the title,
  varies widely by field,
  and is also always changing, if often slowly.

                                                69
      Research Publishing (Cont.)

 Most academic work is published in journal
  article or book form. In publishing, STM
  publishing is an abbreviation for academic
  publications in science, technology, and
  medicine.




                                               70
      Research Publishing (Cont.)

 Most established academic fields
  have their own journals and other outlets
  for publication.
 Though many academic journals
  are somewhat interdisciplinary,
  and publish work from several distinct fields
  or subfields. The kinds of publications that
  are accepted as contributions of knowledge
  or research vary greatly between fields

                                                  71
      Research Publishing (Cont.)

 Academic publishing
  is undergoing major changes,
  emerging from the transition from the print
  to the electronic format.
 For Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology,
   electronic format is not acceptable.




                                                72
      Research Publishing (Cont.)

 Presently, a major trend, particularly with
  respect to scholarly journals, is open access.
 There are two main forms of open access:
  - Open access publishing: in which the articles
    or the whole journal is freely available
    from the time of publication
  - Self-archiving: where the author
    makes a copy of their own work freely
    available on the web.

                                                   73
      Research Publishing (Cont.)

 For Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology,
   publication in refereed Proceedings
   of Conferences organized by ACM
   and IEEE is accepted.




                                         74
     Research Publishing (Cont.)

Samples of ACM Proceedings are:
• A-MOST: Workshop on Advances
            in Model-Based Testing
• ACM Policy: ACM Policy
• ACM-SE: ACM Southeast Regional
           Conference




                                     75
Samples of ACM Proceedings(Cont.)

 • ACM/CSC-ER: ACM Annual
               Conference/Annual Meeting
 • AFRIGRAPH: Computer graphics, virtual
              reality, visualisation
              and interaction in Africa




                                           76
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 •   AGENTS: International Conference
              on Autonomous Agents
 •   AICPS: ACM International Conference
            Proceeding Series
 •   ANCS: Symposium On Architecture
           For Networking And Communications
           Systems



                                           77
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 •   ANNA: Analysis of Neural Net Applications
           Conference
 •   ANSS: Annual Simulation Symposium




                                                 78
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 •   AOSD: Aspect-oriented software development
 •   APGV: Applied Perception in Graphics and
     Visualization
 •   APL: International Conference on APL
 •   ASE: Automated Software Engineering
 •   ASPDAC: with EDA Technofair Design
     Automation Conference Asia and South Pacific



                                                    79
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 •   ASPLOS: Architectural Support
              for Programming Languages
              and Operating Systems
 •   ASSETS: ACM SIGACCESS Conference
             on Assistive Technologies
 •   C&C: Creativity and Cognition
 •   CASES: International Conference on Compilers,
            Architecture and Synthesis
            for Embedded Systems
                                                 80
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 •   CAW: Computer Architecture Workshop
 •   CC: Critical Computing
 •   CCS: Conference on Computer
          and Communications Security
 •   CCSC: Consortium for Computing Sciences
             in Colleges
 •   CCU: Contemporary Computing in Ukraine


                                               81
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • CF: Conference On Computing Frontiers
 • CFP: Computers, Freedom and Privacy
 • CGO: Code Generation and Optimization
 • CHI: Conference on Human Factors
        in Computing Systems
 • CHIMIT: Computer Human Interaction
             for the Management
             of Information Technology

                                           82
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • CIKM: Conference on Information
          and Knowledge Management
 • CIVR: Conference On Image And Video Retrieval
 • CLADE: International Workshop on Challenges
           of Large Applications
           in Distributed Environments
 • CODES+ISSS: International Conference
                 on Hardware Software Codesign
 • COLT: Annual Workshop
          on Computational Learning Theory
                                               83
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • COMM: Applications, Technologies,
           Architectures, and Protocols
           for Computer Communication
 • COMPUTE: Annual Bangalore Compute
                Conference
 • CPR: Special Interest Group
        on Computer Personnel Research
        Annual Conference
 • CQL: Symposium on Computers and the Quality of Life
 • CSC: ACM Annual Computer Science Conference

                                                         84
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • CSCW: Computer Supported Cooperative Work
 • CUU: ACM Conference on Universal Usability
 • CVE: Collaborative Virtual Environments
 • CoNEXT: International Conference
            On Emerging Networking Experiments
            And Technologies
 • DAC: Annual ACM IEEE Design Automation
        Conference

                                             85
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • DARE: Designing Augmented Reality
         Environments
 • DATE: Design, Automation, and Test in Europe
 • DEBS: Distributed event-based systems
 • DIAL M: Workshop on Discrete Algothrithms
           and Methods for MOBILE Computing
           and Communications
 • DIM: Workshop On Digital Identity Management

                                              86
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • DIS: Symposium on Designing Interactive
        Systems
 • DLS: Dynamic Languages Symposium
 • DMKD: Data Mining And Knowledge Discovery
 • DOLAP: Data Warehousing and OLAP
 • DPDS: International Symposium on Databases
          for Parallel and Distributed Systems


                                             87
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • DPPI: Designing Pleasurable Products
        And Interfaces
 • DRM: ACM Workshop On Digital Rights
         Management
 • DS-RT: Distributed Simulation
          and Real-Time Application
 • DUX: Designing For User Experiences



                                          88
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • DaMoN: Data Management On New Hardware
 • DocEng: Document Engineering
 • Dynamo: Workshop on Dynamic and Adaptive
             Compilation and Optimization
 • EATIS: Euro American Conference
          On Telematics And Information Systems
 • EC: Electronic Commerce


                                                  89
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • ECA: Ethics in the Computer Age
 • ECLIPSE: OOPSLA workshop on eclipse
             technology eXchange
 • EDTC: European Design and Test Conference
 • EMSOFT: International Conference
             On Embedded Software
 • ERLANG: Annual ERLANG Workshop


                                               90
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • ETRA: Eye Tracking Research & Application
 • EW: ACM SIGOPS European Workshop
 • EmNets: Workshop on Embedded Networked
   Sensors
 • EuroDAC: European Design Automation
              Conference
 • EuroSys: European Conference
            on Computer Systems

                                               91
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • ExpCS: Workshop On Experimental
            Computer Science
 • FMSE: Workshop on Formal Methods
           in Security Engineering
 • FMSP: Formal Methods in Software Practice
 • FOIS: Formal Ontology in Information Systems
 • FPCA: Functional Programming Languages
          and Computer Architecture

                                                  92
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • FPGA: International Symposium
          on Field Programmable Gate Arrays
 • Future Play: Future Play
 • GECCO: Genetic And Evolutionary Computation
            Conference
 • GIR: Workshop On Geographic Information
        Retrieval
 • GIS: Geographic Information Systems

                                             93
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • GLVLSI: Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI
 • GPCE: Generative Programming
         And Component Engineering
 • GRAPHITE: Computer graphics
              and interactive techniques
              in Australasia and South East Asia
 • GROUP: Conference on Supporting Group Work



                                               94
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 •   HMI: History of Medical Informatics
 •   HOPL: History of Programming Languages
 •   HPDC: High Performance Distributed Computing
 •   HPW: History of Personal Workstations
 •   HRI: ACM SIGCHI/SIGART
          Human-Robot Interaction




                                                95
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • HSNC: History of Scientific and Numeric
         Computation
 • HT: Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia
 • HWWS: SIGGRAPH/EUROGRAPHICS
           Conference On Graphics Hardware
 • Hypercube: Hypercube Concurrent Computers
              and Applications



                                                96
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • I3D: Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics
 • ICAIL: International Conference
           on Artificial Intelligence and Law
 • ICCAD: International Conference
            on Computer Aided Design
 • ICE: International Conference on Information
        and Computation Economies
 • ICER: International Computing Education
          Research Workshop
                                                  97
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • ICFP: International Conference
          on Functional Programming
 • ICIS: International Conference
         on Information Systems
 • ICMI: International Conference
          on Multimodal Interfaces
 • ICS: International Conference on Supercomputing
 • ICSE: International Conference
          on Software Engineering
                                                 98
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • ICSOC: International Conference
            On Service Oriented Computing
 • IDC: Interactive Design And Children
 • IEA/AEI: International conference on Industrial
              and engineering applications
              of artificial intelligence
              and expert systems
 • IHIS: Interoperability Of Heterogeneous
         Information Systems
 • IMC: Internet Measurement Conference
                                                     99
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • IOPADS: Workshop on I/O in Parallel
              and Distributed Systems
 • IPSN: Information Processing In Sensor Networks
 • IQIS: Information Quality
         in Informational Systems
 • IRAL: International Workshop
          on Information Retrieval
           with Asia Languages
 • IRP2PN: Information Retrieval
             In Peer-To-Peer Networks
                                                 10
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • IRTAW: International Workshop
            on Real-time Ada Issues
 • ISCA: International Symposium
         on Computer Architecture
 • ISESE: International Symposium
          on Empirical Software Engineering
 • ISLPED: International Symposium
             on Low Power Electronics and Design
 • ISMAR: Symposium on Mixed
            and Augmented Reality
                                                   10
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • ISMIS: International Symposium
           on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems
 • ISMM: International Symposium
           on Memory Management
 • ISPD: International Symposium
        on Physical Design
 • ISPW: International Software Process Workshop
 • ISSAC: International Conference on Symbolic
           and Algebraic Computation
                                                   10
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • ISSS: International Symposium
          on Systems Synthesis
 • ISSTA: International Symposium
            on Software Testing and Analysis
 • ISW: International Symposium on Wikis
 • ITiCSE: Annual Joint Conference
             Integrating Technology
             into Computer Science Education
 • IUI: International Conference
        on Intelligent User Interfaces
                                               1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • IVME: Interpreters, Virtual Machines
          And Emulators
 • IWCMC: International Conference
            On Communications
            And Mobile Computing
 • IWSSD: International Workshop
           on Software Specifications & Design
 • InfoSecCD: Information security
              curriculum development
 • JAVA: Java Grande Conference
                                                 1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • JCDL/DL: International Conference
              on Digital Libraries
 • KCAP: International Conference
          On Knowledge Capture
 • KDD: Conference on Knowledge Discovery
         in Data
 • LCTES: Language, Compiler and Tool Support
           for Embedded Systems
 • LFP: Conference on LISP and Functional
        Programming
                                                1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • MDM: International Conference
         On Mobile Data Management
 • MEDEA: Memory Performance:
            Dealing With Applications,
            Systems And Architecture
 • MICRO: International Symposium
            on Microarchitecture
 • MM: International Multimedia Conference
 • MMDB: ACM International Workshop
           On Multimedia Databases
                                             1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • MSP: Memory System Performance
 • MSWiM: International Workshop
           on Modeling Analysis
           and Simulation of Wireless
           and Mobile Systems
 • MVL: Multiple-Valued Logic
 • Middleware: Middleware Conference



                                        1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • MobiArch: Mobility In The Evolving Internet
             Architecture
 • MobiCom: International Conference
             on Mobile Computing
             and Networking
 • MobiDE: International Workshop
           on Data Engineering
           for Wireless and Mobile Access


                                                 1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • MobiHoc: International Symposium
             on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking
            & Computing
 • MobiSys: International Conference
            On Mobile Systems, Applications
            And Services




                                              1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • Mobility: International Conference
             On Mobile Technology, Applications,
             And Systems
 • NOSSDAV: International Workshop on Network
                and Operating System Support
                for Digital Audio and Video
 • NPAR: Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering
 • NPIVM: New Paradigms in Information Visualization
            and Manipulation
 • NSPW: New Security Paradigms Workshop

                                                       1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • NetGames: Network and System Support
              for Games
 • OODS: International Workshop
         on Object-Oriented Database Systems
 • OOPSLA: Conference on Object Oriented
             Programming Systems Languages
             and Applications



                                               1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • PADS: Workshop on Parallel and Distributed
         Simulation
 • PASCO: International Symposium
           on Parallel Symbolic Computation
 • PASTE: Workshop on Program Analysis
           for Software Tools and Engineering
 • PDC: Participatory Design
 • PEPM: ACM/SIGPLAN Workshop Partial
          Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program
          Manipulation
                                                   1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • PLDI: Conference on Programming Language
         Design and Implementation
 • PLOS: Programming Languages
         and Operating Systems
 • PODC: Annual ACM Symposium
         on Principles of Distributed Computing
 • PODS: Symposium on Principles
         of Database Systems
 • POMC: ACM Workshop On Principles
          Of Mobile Computing
                                                  1
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • POPL: Annual Symposium on Principles
          of Programming Languages
 • PPDP: International Conference on Principles
         and Practice of Declarative Programming
 • PPEALS: Symposium on Principles and Practice
             of Parallel Programming
 • PPoPP: Principles and Practice
          of Parallel Programming
 • PRS: Parallel Rendering Symposium
                                                   11
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • PVG: Parallel and large-data visualization
        and graphics
 • RBAC: ACM Workshop
         on Role Based Access Control
 • RECOMB: Annual Conference on Research
              in Computational Molecular Biology
 • RKRAS: Research In Knowledge Representation
           For Autonomous Systems
 • RULE: Workshop On Rule-Based Programming
                                                   11
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 •   SCG: Annual Symposium on Computational
     Geometry
 •   SCM: Software Configuration Management
     Workshop
 •   SCN: Simulation of Computer Networks
 •   SCSC: Summer Computer Simulation
     Conference
 •   SESPSDE: Software Engineering Symposium
     on Practical Software Development
     Environments
                                               11
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • SETA: Symposium on Environments
         and Tools for Ada
 • SICOSIM: Sigcosim Symposium
 • SIGAda: Annual International Conference
           on Ada
 • SIGCSE: Technical Symposium
           on Computer Science Education
 • SIGDOC: ACM Special Interest Group
            for Design of Communication
                                             11
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • SIGFORTH: SIGFORTH
 • SIGGRAPH: International Conference
                 on Computer Graphics
                 and Interactive Techniques
 • SIGIR: Annual ACM Conference
          on Research and Development
          in Information Retrieval
 • SIGMETRICS: Joint International Conference
                   on Measurement and Modeling
                   of Computer Systems
                                                 11
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • SVR: SIGGRAPH Video Review
 • SWS: Workshop On Secure Web Services
 • SYMSAC: Symposium on Symbolic
              and Algebraic Manipulation
 • SenSys: Conference On Embedded Networked
          Sensor Systems
 • TAPIA: Richard Tapia Celebration Of Diversity
           In Computing

                                                   11
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • TARK: Theoretical Aspects Of Rationality
          And Knowledge
 • TAU: Timing Issues In The Specification
         And Synthesis Of Digital Systems
 • TDES: Trends and Direction in Expert Systems
 • TEI: Tangible and embedded interaction
 • TLDI: Types In Languages Design
         And Implementation

                                                  12
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • UIMC: Conference On Ubiquitous Information
          Management And Communication
 • UIST: Symposium on User Interface Software
         and Technology
 • VAST: Virtual reality, archeology,
          and cultural heritage
 • VEE: ACM/Usenix International Conference
         On Virtual Execution Environments
 • VIS: IEEE Visualization
                                                12
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • VRML: Virtual Reality Modeling Language
            Symposium
 • VRST: Virtual Reality Software and Technology
 • VTDC: Virtualization Technology
           in Distributed Computing
 • VolVis: Symposium on Volume Visualization
 • WACC: International Conference
            on Work activities Coordination
            and Collaboration
                                                   12
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • WADAS: Washington Ada Symposium
 • WCAE: Workshop On Computer Architecture
          Education
 • WI: Web Intelligence
 • WIDM: Workshop On Web Information
          And Data Management
 • WISEC: Conference On Wireless Network
           Security

                                             12
Samples of ACM Proceedings (Cont.)

 • WiSe: Workshop on Wireless Security
 • WoWMoM: International Workshop
              on Wireless Mobile Multimedia
 • XIME-P: Workshop on XQuery Implementation,
            Experience and Perspectives
 • XMLSEC: Workshop On XML Security




                                                12
Samples of IEEE Proceedings

  IEEE publishes more than 500 proceedings per
   year. Sample are given below:
   - Automated Production of Cross Media Content
      for Multi-Channel Distribution (AXMEDIS).
   - Annual Symposium on Switching
      and Automata
   - International Conference on 3-D Digital
     Imaging and Modeling.

                                               12
Samples of IEEE Proceedings (Cont.)

 - Balancing the Score Card: Effective Supply
   Chain Management for all Stakeholders.
 - Baltic Electronics Conference
 - Bandwidth on Demand
 - Behavioral Modeling and Simulation (BMAS),
   IEEE International Workshop on
 - Best of Manufacturing Logistics, IEEE
   Colloquium on

                                                12
     6. Other Types of Researches

There are many types researches such as:
1) Advertising Research
2) Internet research
3) Consumer Marketing research
4) Operations research
5) Action research
6) Social research

                                           12
Other Types of Researches (Cont.)
 1) Advertising research is a specialized form
    of marketing research conducted
    to improve the efficiency of advertising.




                                                 12
Advertising research (Cont.)
  According to “MarketConscious.com”,
   It may focus on a specific ad or campaign,
   or may be directed at a more general
   understanding of how advertising works
   or how consumers use the information in
   advertising.
  It can entail a variety of research approaches,
   including psychological, sociological, economic,
   and other perspectives

                                                 12
Other Types of Researches (Cont.)

 2) Internet research is the practice
    of using the Internet,
    especially the World Wide Web, for research.
    To the extent that the Internet is widely and
    readily accessible to hundreds of millions of
    people in many parts of the world, it can
    provide practically instant information on
    most topics, and is having a profound impact
    on the way in which ideas are formed and
    knowledge is created.
                                                    13
Other Types of Researches (Cont.)

 3) Consumer market research
   is a form of applied sociology
   that concentrates on understanding
   the behaviours, whims and preferences,
   of consumers in a market-based economy.
   It also aims to understand the effects and
   comparative success of marketing campaigns.



                                                 13
Consumer market research (Cont.)

  The field of consumer marketing research
   as a statistical science
   was pioneered by Arthur Nielsen
   with the founding of the ACNielsen Company
   in 1923 and later the A.C. Nielsen Center
   for Marketing Research.




                                            13
Other Types of Researches (Cont.)

 4) Operations Research (OR)
   is an interdisciplinary branch of applied
   mathematics and formal science that uses
   methods like mathematical modeling, statistics,
   and algorithms to arrive at optimal
   or near optimal solutions to complex problems.




                                                 13
Operations Research (Cont.)

  Operation Research is used
   in North America, South Africa and
   Australia, and Operational Research
   in Europe.
  It is typically concerned with optimizing
   the maxima (profit, assembly line
   performance, crop yield, bandwidth, etc)
   or minima (loss, risk, etc)
   of some objective function.

                                               13
Operations Research (Cont.)

 Operations research
  helps management achieve its goals
  using the scientific process.




                                       13
Other Types of Researches (Cont.)

 5) Action Research or Participatory action
   research has emerged in recent years
   as a significant methodology for intervention,
   development and change within communities
   and groups.




                                                    13
Action Research (Cont.)

  It is now promoted and implemented
   by many international development agencies
   and university programs CCAR, as well as
   countless local community organizations
   around the world.




                                                13
Other Types of Researches (Cont.)

 6) Social Research refers to research conducted
   by social scientists (primarily within sociology
   and social psychology),
   but also within other disciplines such as:
   - social policy
   - human geography
   - political science
   - social anthropology
   - education

                                                      13
Social Research (Cont.)

  Sociologists and other social scientists
  study diverse things: from census data
  on hundreds of thousands of human beings,
  through the in-depth analysis of the life
  of a single important person
  to monitoring what is happening
  on a street today
  or what was happening a few hundred years
  ago.

                                              13
       7. Concluding Remarks

• The program of Ph.D. in eLearning
  Methodology
  at the College of Internet Distance
  Education
  of Assumption University
  requires research which must be
  original and significant.
                                        14
    Concluding Remarks (Cont.)

• This paper presented
  - Definition of Research
  - Research Process
  - Research Methods
  - Research Publishing
  - Other Types of Researches

                                 14
     Concluding Remarks (Cont.)

• More information
  about the research for
  “Ph.D. in eLearning Methodology”
  will be given by subsequent speakers
  later today.




                                         14
     Concluding Remarks (Cont.)

• Please accept my best wish for all of you,
  Ph.D. students, to be able to complete
  your Ph.D. researches
  and get them published
  in refereed publications
  and pass the Ph.D. dissertation defense
  as soon as you wish.


                                           14