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The Functional Region

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									The Functional Region

                  Alvin Simms
                  Dept. of Geography
     The Functional Region

• The functional region, is a region defined
  exclusively from human activity!
 Interactions and Functional Regions

 Identify how people , business and public services interact within
  rural or urban areas.

 How does this interaction affect travel patterns?

 Analysis of interactions provide insight to distribution of
  economic activities and social services!

 This type of analysis can reveal inequalities in the distribution of
  services, industries or resources.
Interaction and Distance Relationships Help
    Define Functional Region Boundaries
      What Are Functional Regions?

 Analysis of interactions represents a functional approach to
  regional planning!

 Functional regions and interactions amongst communities ignore
  administrative boundaries

 A functional region is a complex structure of communities and
  linkages …

 where there may exist a dominant community (centre) through
  which a majority of interactions flow.

 Also interested in lower order centres!
    Paradigms of the Dominant Centre

The Walter Christaller Model.

•   According to this model, a dominance relationship is established
    between several orders of the hierarchy.

•   This relationship implies that a centre of a lower order must rely on a
    centre of higher order for goods and services not being supplied.
      Paradigms of the Dominant Centre:
            The Alan Pred Model.
• Adaptation of Christaller’s model by Pred provided more flexibility.

• The hierarchical structure becomes less rigid, but more complex.

• In this instance centres of the same order are not necessarily of the
  same hierarchical level.

• This indicates that some centres offer more diversified goods and
  services than other centres, even if they are of the same size.
   Paradigms of the Dominant Centre:
          The Alan Pred Model

Interdependency implies that central places can exchange
similar goods and services.

Complementarity enables several centres of a similar order
to specialize in specific activities and supply themselves in
goods and services they do not have from other centres.
    The Classic Centre-Periphery Interaction Model
    Is it appropriate for Newfoundland & Labrador?

          Demands for goods/services yields payments
          and interactions between centre and periphery
                          Flow of people, materials          Labour
                          and products created by
                          demand for services
    Abundant                                           Periphery
    Capital    Centre                                                 Scarce
                         Capital flows to periphery                   Capital

Scarce            Shortage of labour in centre creates stimulus
Labour            for labour flows/migration from periphery

                 Supply of labour from periphery will create labour
                 shortage in periphery and raise wages and incomes
                        Adequate               Adequate
                        Labour                 Capital
        Functional Regions
 Dominant centres tend to reflect the centralization of economies
  and public services

 Within a region dominant centres can shift due to changing
  economic circumstances.

 Communities that make up the functional region, other than the
  dominant centre, become residential rather than employment

 The geographical extent of functional regions are both temporally
  and spatially dynamic!
   A methodology for identifying functional regions
                                              Set Factor (s)
  Investigated Network or                     Labour
  Interactions Between                        Health
  Communities                                 Public/Private Services
                                              Economic Linkages

   Evaluate links and interaction
    according to factor classes

                                        [1] Decision support information!
   Extract patterns and identify
  functional regions and centres        [2] Implications for policy and

Analyze characteristics and viability
       of functional regions
  Interregional flows stimulated by growth of a town
 Source: Adapted from Barkley, Henry and Bao (1996)

Flow Type      Positive effect on periphery       Negative effect on periphery

Spending       Town growth provides               Spending in rural markets declines due
on goods       expanding market for rural         to increased competition from town
& services     producers                          producers

               Rural labour commutes to
               town for employment.
                                                  Rural residents migrate to town for
People         Urban families relocate to         better access to employment and
               rural residences because of        urban lifestyle
               lower housing costs and
               perceived higher quality of life

                                                  Firms in the innovative or growing
               Firms in mature stage of
                                                  stage of product life cycle locate in
Firms and/or   product life cycle locate in
                                                  town to benefit from agglomeration
employment     rural areas to take advantage
                                                  economies, markets and specialized
               of low wages and land costs
 Interregional flows stimulated by growth of a town
Source: Adapted from Barkley, Henry and Bao (1996)

Flow Type      Positive effect on periphery           Negative effect on periphery

               Funds of town residents are            Rural funds are invested in towns
Investment     invested in rural areas to take        to take advantage of relatively
funds          advantage of relatively low labour     rapidly growing goods and
               and land costs                         services markets

               Town centres are the generators and
               diffusers of information and
               Innovation for surrounding rural
                                                      Rural to town migration is
  Knowledge    areas.
                                                      selective of the better educated
      and                                             and more highly skilled rural
  technology   Social attitudes in rural areas are
               transformed by the "demonstration
               effects" of expanding markets in the
         Dynamics of changing functional regional boundaries:
         The role of integrating and mediating forces

Integrating and    Tendencies to spatial
                                                   Tendencies to spatial dispersal
mediating forces      agglomeration

                                                   Improvements in communication
Changing           Benefits arising from spatial   infrastructures reduces friction of
patterns of        economic clustering and         distance
economic           strong economic
activities         infrastructures.                Drive for economic diversification
                                                   in all areas.

Dynamics of        Strong spatial clustering of    Spread of knowledge , culture
innovation and     innovation dynamics within      and business networks across
learning           cities                          province

                   Attraction of urban locations
A new              for younger time-               Expanding "grey" spending
demographic        poor/money rich                 power attracted to rural areas by
profile            households to dominant          high quality environments
Dynamics of changing functional regional
boundaries: The role of integrating and mediating
 Integrating and         Tendencies to spatial
                                                              Tendencies to spatial dispersal
 Mediating Forces        agglomeration

                                                              Urban values increasingly
 Social change and       Attraction of urban lifestyles and   widespread.
 differentiating         socio-spatial concentration of
 lifestyles              similar lifestyle groups             Attraction of nature and rurality
                                                              and avoidance of urban tensions

 New bases for
                         Ability in urban areas to foster     Search for locales which foster
 culture, identity and
                         multiple identities                  the expression of identify

                                                              Promotes the discovery of nature
 Environmental           Encourages use of resources
                                                              and the importance of preserving
 sustainability          within existing agglomerations
                                                              rural cultural inheritance

                         Strategic planning with a spatial
 Government and                                               Transformation of capacity easier
                         focus easier in large
 policy making                                                under smaller jurisdictions.
              Functional Regions Study

 Generally functional regions are defined by a single interaction, such as
  labour flows!

 Current research examining multiple interactions (e.g. health, other
  government services, private services, etc.)

 Analysis will identify overlaps or gaps between different functional

 Analysis will identify the role and function of communities within the
  regions as will as their relationship with dominant centres.

 Analysis of socio-economic and demographic characteristics will help
  determine both the viability of the functional region and the communities
  that make up the region.

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