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					              Research Challenges on
 Human-Robot Interaction and Robotic Human Science

                               JORGE SOLIS-ALFARO, Ph.D.
                             Assistant Professor, Waseda University
   The research on human-robot interaction (HRI) and robotic human science (RHS) have been an emerging topic of
interest for both basic research and customer application. The studies specially focus on behavioral and cognitive
aspects of the interaction and the social contexts surrounding it. One of the most challenging problems is giving the
robots an understanding of how to interact with human beings at the same logical level so that they may function not as
passive tools, but rather as active agents that can drive the human interaction, instead of merely reproducing a sequence
of movements. Hence, these robots must have higher level cognitive functions that include knowing how to reason,
when to perceive and what to look for, how to integrate perception and action under changing conditions, etc. These
functions will enable robots to perform more complex tasks which require tight human interaction; consequently, the
robots can perform high level interactions (i.e. teaching motor skills to unskilled people, etc.). In this talk, an overview
of the current research on humanoid robots, medical robotics and systems and education robotics will be introduced.

1.   Humanoid Robots: Nowadays several researchers have been developing anthropomorphic robots as a research
     approach related to RHS to roughly replicate some of the human motor skills such as walking, dancing, etc.
     However, such robots are still far away from understanding and processing emotional states as the human does. In
     order to overcome this limitation, the research on music still seems particularly promising; since it is a universal
     communication medium. Furthermore, the research on music can also provide expressive tools that traditionally
     have been hidden in musicians' skills. For that reason, at Waseda University, the research on the Waseda Flutist
     Robot and Saxophonist Robot have been carried out as an approach to understand the human motor control from an
     engineering point of view as well as introducing novel ways of musical teaching.

2.   Medical Robotics and Systems: Certainly, in order to conduct effective learning experiments, the robotic system
     must actively interact with humans at the same logical/perceptual level through all the stages of the learning
     process. This means that robots should analyze the exchanged information between human and robot to evaluate
     learner’s performance and furthermore, to provide some kind of feedback (aural, haptic, visual, etc.) which may
     promote the creation of the internal models by the active training of learner on the task so that subjects can
     reconstruct accurately the motor skill by reinforcing the kinaesthetic memory. On the other hand, there is the
     possibility of studying which parameters of the learning process may lead or break down the acquisition of the
     motor skill by modifying the conditions of the experiments. These parameters may include: which feedback
     modality is provided (one modality or multimodal), complexity of the skill, learning procedure, number of
     repetitions of the task, etc.

3.   Education Robotics: Developed countries, as leading nations in scientific research and production of innovative
     technological products, hold very large shares in high technology industries. However, the continuous falling of the
     birthrate in developed countries is resulting in a reduction in the number of students where most of them are going
     away from scientific fields. This situation may tremendously affect the industry by losing competitive power in the
     future due to the shortage of talented engineers. For this purpose, we have focused our research in developing more
     advanced educational mechatronic tools to motivate their creativity at different educational levels. For this purpose,
     we have proposed the development of a two-wheeled inverted pendulum type mobile robot designed to provide
     educational issues related to electronics, mechanics, control theory and programming.
                                  Short BIOGRAPHY
                                                        Research Institute for Science and Engineering,
       2009 ~           Assistant Professor
                                                        Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
                                                        Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering ,
       2006 ~ 2008      Research Associate
                                                        Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
                                                        Humanoids Robotics Institute, Waseda University,
       2003 ~           Visiting Researcher.
                                                        Tokyo, Japan
       2004~2006        Post-Doctoral Research Fellow   Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
       2003~2004        Research Assistant              PERCRO Laboratory Pisa, Italy
                                                        Perceptual Robotics Laboratory (PERCRO). Pisa,
       2004             Ph.D. in Robotics
       2003             Visiting Researcher             Waseda University
                                                        Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (now AIST).
       2000             Visiting Researcher
                                                        Tsukuba Science City, Japan
                        RS/6000 Hardware
       1998~2000                                        IBM of Mexico, Mexico
                        Support Engineer.
                        System Electronics              The Monterrey Institute of Technology. Toluca,
                        Engineering Degree              Mexico
                                                        Laboratoire d'e Analyse et Architecture
       1998             Visiting Researcher
                                                        d'Systemes, Toulouse, France

                                     Research Interests
Humanoid Robots, Human/Robot Interaction, R-Education and Skill Transfer Systems, Medical Robots and Systems,
Rehabilitation Robots, Mechatronic Systems for Education Purposes, Human Motor Control and Learning, Computer
Vision, Haptic Interface Control and Force rendering, Tele-operation Systems, Gesture Recognition Systems, etc.

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